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PubllHhi'.l   by 

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HruHoN,  N.  Y. 

ItHH-  new  YORK! 


480230    . 

COPYRIGHT,   1909 



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Anatole  France,  the  distinguished  French  writer  re- 
marks, as  if  it  were  the  merest  truism  "that  all  historical 
works  which  are  not  lies,  are  insupportably  dull" 

In  view  of  this  sweeping  assertion  it  requires  no  little 
fortitude  to  confess,  that  this  History  is  absolutely  truthful, 
to  the  best  of  the  author's  knowledge  and  belief. 

In  the  adjustment  of  conflicting  facts  some  seeming 
errors  possibly  may  be  found,  but  none  that  have  not 
been  carefully  examined,  and  have  in 

"******  nothing  extenuate 
Nor   set    down    aught    in    malice." 

Grateful  acknowledgments  are  made  to  Mr.  Stephen 
B.  Miller's  "Historical  Sketches  of  Hudson."  Had  that 
work  been  still  in  print  this  would  not  have  been  written. 
The  fear  that  its  valuable  material  would  be  lost,  together 
with  the  numerous  inquiries  in  relation  to  the  early  history 
and  settlement  of  Hudson,  led  to  the  preparation  of  this 

Thanks  are  also  due  to  Mr.  Peyton  F.  Miller's  "A  Group 
of  Great  Lawyers,"  and  to  all  who  have  so  willingly 
assisted  by  the  loan  of  books  and  documents,  or  by  the 
expression  of  a  kindly  interest. 

A.  R.  B. 

Hudson,  September  15,  1908. 




Claim  of  City  of  Hudson  to  Name. — Henry  Hudson's 
Origin. — Grandfather's  Quaint  Epitaph. — Arms. — Hud- 
son's Early  Training. — Contracts  Signed  Henry  Hudson, 
Englishman. — Wife  and  Sons,  John,  and  David,  Ances- 
tors of  Family  in  America. — Two  Voyages  for  Muscovy 
Company. — Voyage  of  1609  in  Employ  of  Dutch  on  "Half 
Moon." — First  Sight  of  North  America. — Visits  From 
Indians. — Arrives  at  Chesapeake  Bay. — Anchors  Within 
Sandy  Hook. — Indian  Attack. — Burial  of  John  Cole- 
man.— Enters  New  York  Bay  and  Discovers  "River  of 
the  Mountains. — Anchors  off  Site  of  City  of  Hudson. —  ' 
Visits  Mohicans. — Relics  of  Indian  Village  Unearthed. — 
Hudson  Ascends  River  to  Site  of  Albany. — Descending 
Anchors  Again  off  This  City. — Entertains  Mohicans. — 
Sketch  of  Mohicans. — Hudson's  Soliloquy. — Passes  Out 

to   Sea. — Arrives   at   Dartmouth,    England. — Re-calle^.-4« / 

Service  of  London  Company. — Last  Voyage  I&IO. —  (^ 
Enters  Hudson's  Bay. — Spends  Months  in  Effort  to  Find 
Passage  to  the  East. — Enters  Winter  Quarters. — Crew 
Led  by  Juet  Mutiny. — Little  Food. — Visit  from  Savage. — 
Hudson  and  Son  John  Seized  and  Thrown  in  Shallop 
With  Six  Sick  Men  of  Crew  and  Set  Adrift. — Staafe 
Would  Not  Stay  in  Ship. — Shallop  Sighted  Once  Then 
Seen  no  More. — Ship  Reached  Capes. — Attacked  by 
Savages. — Prickett  Escapes  and  Brings  Hudson's  Jour- 
nal Safely  Back  to  England,  With  Remnant  of  Crew. — 
Grief  in  England  Over  Hudson's  Fate. — Two  Ships 
Sent  Out  to  Look  for  Him. — No  Clue  to  His  Fate  Ever 
Found. — Widow  Applies  for  Aid.  —  Discovery  of  North- 
west Passage  by  Amundson. — Comparison  of  Hudson's 
Time  With  the  Present xix 



The  Dutch  Occupation. 

Return  of  Half  Moon  to  Amsterdam. — Formation  of  "West  ^ 
India  Company. — Bring  Sixty  Families  in  First  Ship. — 
Take  Possession  for  the  Netherlands, — Purchase  of 
Manhattan  Island. — Colonists  Come  Slowly. — Holland 
Free  and  Happy. — Our  First  Settler  Arrives. — Purchases 
Tract  of  Land  From  Mohicans. — Death  of  Patentee. — 
Col.  John  Van  Alen. — Death  of  Justus  Van  Hoesan  and 
Wife. — First  Cemetery. — Canoe  Ferry  to  Loonenburg. — 
The  Klauver-rachen. — Dutch  Historians'  Account  of  Rich 
Farm  Lands. — Abundance  of  Fruit,  Game  and  Fish. — 
Colonist  Well  to  Do. — Came  in  Families,  With  House 
Furnishings  and  Domestics. — Killaen  Van  Rensselaer 
Patent  and  Domine  Megapolensis. — Fort  Orange. — 
Commandant  Crull. — Church  in  the  Fort. — Schools  and 
Churches    1 


The  Dutch   Occupation. 

First  Census. — Slavery  Under  Dutch  and  English  Rule. — 
Emancipation  in  This  State. — Bounty  for  Killing  Wild 
Animals. — Post  Riders. — Inns  Opened  on  Post  Road. — 
Mail  Coaches. — Hamlet  Gathers. — County  Formed. — 
County  Seat  at  Claverack. — Removed  to  Hudson. — 
Revolutionary  War. — Claverack  Battalion  Raised. — 
Dutch  Patriots  Furnish  Officers  and  Men. — Capture  of 
Capt.  McKinstry. — Indians  in  Revolution. — Mohicans 
Loyal  to  Patriots. — Commended  by  Washington. — Con- 
sideration of  Relations  Between  England  and  Holland. — 
Led   to    Her   Surrender   of   American    Colonies 9 

Rule  of  the  Proprietors. 

Nantucket  Whaling  Industries  Ruined  by  British. — Jen- 
kins Brothers  Select  "Claverack  Landing." — Buy  Land. — 
Build  Houses. — Organize. — Minutes  of  Meetings. — 
Name  Hudson  Adopted. — Col.  Van  Alen  Presents  Land 
for  Cemetery. — Death. — Monument  Erected  by  City 16 



Division  of  Lots. — Dutch  Obtained  Good  Prices. — Enter- 
prise Draws  Settlers  of  Good  Class. — Friends  Erect 
Meeting-house. — Description  of  Same. — Customs  and 
Dress. — Rhyme  of  S.  B.  Miller. — First  School. — Ship 
Building. — Large  Tonnage. — Launching. — Industries  Con- 
nected With  Ship  Building.— Rope  Walk. — Sail  Making. — 
Tanneries. — Brewery. — Wind  Grist  Mill  on  Prospect 
Hill   24 


Pen  Pictures  of  Proprietors. 

Preparations  for  Incorporation.  —  Minutes.  —  Petition 
Drafted. — Presented  to  Assembly. — Nothing  Known  of 
Government  or  Finances. — Dutch  and  English  Dwelt  in 
Harmony. — Social  Life. — High  Character  of  Founders. — 
Thomas  Jenkins'  Home. — Death. — Burial. — Seth  Jenkins, 
First  Mayor  of  City.— Seth  Jenkins,  Jr.,  Built  115  War- 
ren Street. — Marriage. — Robert  Jenkins,  Third  Mayor. — 
Built  Chapter  House. — Presented  by  Mrs.  Hartley  to 
D.  A.  R. — Cotton  Gelston.— Squire  Worth. — Capt.  John 
Hathaway. — David  Lawrence. — Alexander  Coffin. — Ezek- 
iel  Gilbert,  First   Lawyer  in  City 31 



Boundaries  of  City. — Charter  Arrives. — First  Town  Meet- 
ing.— City  Officials. — Seth  Jenkins  Appointed  Mayor  by 
Governor.  — Seal  for  City  Purchased. — Gaol  Erected. — 
Whipping-post  and  Stocks. — Gilbert's  Residence. — 
City  Ordinances. — Chimney  Viewers. — Fire  Wardens. — 
Fire  Engines  Purchased. — First  Fire. — Account  of 
Same. — Fires  Frequent    39 


Whale  and  Seal  Fisheries. 

Large    Cargo    of    Sperm    Oil. — Oil    and    Candle    Works. — 
Visit    of    Talleyrand. — Seal    Fishery. — Hudson    Port    of 



Entry. — Commerce  Large. — Various  Industries. — Traffic 
With  South. — Causes  of  Decay  of  Commerce. — Revival 
of  Whale  Fisheries, — Captains  Judah  and  Laban  Pad- 
dock.— Captain  Paddock's  "Narrative"  Condensed 46 


Water  Supply. — Inspector  Appointed. — Town  Pump. — 
Streets  Graded. — Sewers  Laid. — Columbia  Turnpike 
Co.— Roads  Built.— Night  Watch  Instituted.— Effigies 
on  Signs  Distasteful. — First  Street  Lamps  Placed. — 
Various  Ordinances. — Erection  of  City  Hall. — Mayor's 
Court  and  Seal. — Change  of  Currency. — Contest  for 
Capital    54 


Parade  Hill.— Weight  of  Bread  Fixed.— Post  Office  Estab- 
lished.— Post  Riders  Superseded. — First  Mail  Coaches. — 
First  Newspaper. — Advertisements 62 


Early  Journalism. 

Mortality  Among  Infant  Newspapers. — Balance. — Bee. — 
Wasp. — Democratic  Club. — Federal  Club. — Croswell's 
Trial  for  Libel. — Hamilton's  Last  Case. — Bishop  Doane's 
Letter. — County  Records. — Strange  Sentence. — "Bee" 
Case. — Grandfather  of  President  Roosevelt  Interested 
in  Case. — President's  Note. — Removal  of  County  Seat. — 
City  Hall  Re-modeled 70 


Scows  Replace  Canoes. — Horse  Boat. — Steam  Ferry 
Boat. — Sloops. — Sloop  Owners. — Fare  on  Same. — 
Tourist's  Account  of  Trip  to  New  York. — Fulton's 
Clermont. — Curious  Advertisements. — First  Steamboats 
Owned   Here    77 


Robert   Fulton. 

Birth. — Early  Life. — Paints  Portraits. — Buys  Home  for  His 
Mother. — Goes    to    London. — Meets    West. — Studies    Art 



and  Engineering. — Visits  Paris. — Invents  "Plunger." — 
Visits  Holland. — Experience  With  English. — Blows  up 
Vessel  and  Returns  to  Paris. — Meets  Chancellor  Living- 
ston.— Experiments  on  Seine. — Engine  Ordered. — 
Builds  Clermont. — Fulton's  Report  of  Trip  up  Hudson. — 
New  York  Press  Account. — Fulton's  Death. — Mrs.  Ful- 
ton's Re-marriage. — Death. — Burial  in  Claverack. — 
Old  Ludlow  House. — Relics  of  Fulton 82 


Glimpses  of  City  From  Press. — List  of  Tax-payers. — 
First  Charter  Election. — First  Bank. — Its  Failure. — 
Jemmy  Eraser's  Fall. — Second  Bank  Chartered. — Its 
Failure. — Hudson  River  Bank  Organized. — Farmers' 
Bank. —  Savings  Institution,  and  First  National  Char- 
tered.— Masons  Instituted. — St.  John's  Hall  Built. — 
Burned  and  Rebuilt.— War  of  1812,  and  Lieut.  Beek- 
man. — Lodges  Instituted. — First  Odd  Fellows'  Lodge. — 
Reception   of  Hon.  John   Jay 89 


Military   Companies. 

First  Celebration  of  Fourth  of  July. — Party  Politics. — 
Death  of  Washington. — Gen.  Scott  Encamped  Here. — 
Visit  of  West  Point  Cadets. — Gen.  Lafayette. — Death  of 
Lieut.  Allen. — Obsequies. — Monument. — Major  Gen. 
Worth. — His  Honors. — Birthplace  Admirably   Restored..    100 


First  Public  Library.— Debating  Societies. — Franklin  Li- 
brary Association.—  Lectures.  -  Early  Physicians. — Dr. 
Younglove.  —  Capture  by  British.  -  Dr.  Mann. — 
Drowned.  —  Dr.  Samuel  White. — Formation  of  Medical 
Society.  Dr.  S.  Pomcroy  White. — Last  Meeting  of  Pro- 
prietors. Noble  Record. — Last  Survivor,  Capt.  Coftln. — 
Post  Office.— Postmasters. — ^Date  of  A\oney  Order. — 
Free  Delivery. — Site  for  New  Post  Office  Purchased....   Ill 




First  Meeting-house  Erected  for  Friends. — Presbyterian 
Second. — Description  of  Church. — Purchased  Present 
Site. — Reformed  Church  Organized. — Built. — Episcopal 
Church  Built  on  Second  St. — Present  Property  Ac- 
quired.—  Inception  of  All  Saints. — Baptist  Church 
Organized. — Methodist  and  Universalist  Follow. — Three 
Lutheran  Churches. — St.  Mary's  Church  and  Academy.^ 
Italian  Society  Build. — Two  Hebrew  Bodies. — Two 
Afro-American. — Clergy  of  City. — Y.  M.  C.  A.  Organ- 
ized      118 



Hudson  Academy. — First  Teachers. — Young  Ladies' 
School. — Amasa  J.  Parker's  Description. — Hudson  Select 
Academy  Called  "Shad." — First  House  on  Prospect 
Hill. — Prospect  Avenue  Improved. — Private  Schools. — 
Lancaster  School,  "Why  So-called. — How  Supported. — 
First  Teacher. — African  School. — Public  Schools. — High 
School. — Corps  of  Teachers. — Number  Enrolled. — Night 
School. — Hudson  Responsive  to  Educational  Progress  in 
This  Country   126 


The  Hudson  Bar. 

Brilliant  Galaxy  of  Talent. — The  Two  Spencers. — Martin 
Van  Buren. — Elisha  Williams. — Ambrose  L.  Jordan. — 
Verbal   Encounter  Between  Them 135 


The  Hudson   Bar — Continued. 

Hudson     Bar. — Anti-Rent     War. — John     W.     Edmonds. — 

Early   Life. — Presides   at   Trial    of   Anti-rent   Leaders. —  ^ 

Particulars  of  Anti-rent  "War. — Grievances  of  Tenants. —  ( 

Incendiary  Meetings. — Arrest  of  Big  Thunder  and  Little  1 

Thunder. — Great    Excitement. — Threats    of    a    Rescue. —  [ 

Citizens    Arm. — Troops    Sent    by    Governor. — Trial    Re-  \ 





suited  in  a  Disagreement. — A  Second  Ended  in  Verdict  of 
Conviction. — Judge  Edmonds  Presiding. — Tilt  Between 
Counsel    143 


The  Hudson   Bar — Continued. 

Sketch  of  Theodore  Miller. — Joseph  D.  Monell. — Edward 
P.  Cowles. — Josiah  Sutherland. — Henry  Hogeboom. — 
Samuel  Edwards. — Aaron  V.  S.  Cochrane 150 


Civil  War. 

Court  House. — Criminal  Cases. — Remodeled  City  Hall. — 
Court  House  Succeeded. — City  Purchased  Present  Site 
With  Park. — Its  Cost. — Larger  Accommodation  Re- 
quired.— New  Building  Erected. — Burned. — Fourth  Court 
House  Nearly  Completed. — First  Trial  for  Murder. — 
Successive  Trials. — Civil  War. — 128  Regiment  Col. 
Cowles. — "Camp  Kelly." — Fine  Appearance  as  it  Left 
for  the  Front. — Death  of  Col.  Cowles. — Funeral. — Major 
Gifford's  Death. — Heavy  Losses  in  City  and  County. — 
Col.  C.  L.  Best. — Honorable  Career. — Lieut.  Comman- 
der J.  V.  N.  Philip. — A.  &  H.  Association. — Fairs. — 
Cowles  Guard  Organized. — Its  Career. — Company  F. 
Drum  Corp. — Fraternal  Societies. — The  Elks. — New 
Club    House    1 56 


City  Hall  Built. — Opening  Ceremonies. — Bachelors'  Ball. — 
A  Social  Leader. — City  Officers  Installed. — Franklin 
Library. — Lectures  Continued. — Library  Removed. — 
Installed  in  Chapter  House. — Endowed  by  Mrs.  Mar- 
cellus  Hartley. — Hendrick  Hudson  Chapter  D.  A.  R. 
Organized. — Active  in  Many  Ways. — Fine  Chapter 
House  Gift  of  Mrs.  Hartley. — Early  Citizens. — Oliver 
Wiswali. — Judge  Barnard. — Henry  P.  Skinner. — Lorenzo 
G.  Guernsey    1 67 


The  Press. — First  Daily. — Merged  in  Daily  Morning  Re- 
publican.— Gazette     Revived. — Evening    Register     E.^itab- 



lished. — Woolen  Mills. — Fulling  Mill  on  Underhill's 
Pond. — Iron  Companies. — Knitting  Mills. — Later  Indus- 
tries.— Business  Conservative. — Shops  Improved. — Hud- 
son &  Berkshire  Railroad. — Fire  Department  Re-organ- 
ized      176 


Water    Supply — Civic    Improvement. 

Water  Supply. — Vote  Decided  for  River. — Works  Fin- 
ished.— Quality  of  Water  Becomes  Dangerous. — Grav- 
ity System  Introduced. — Dissolution  of  Aqueduct  Co. — 
Also  Columbia  Turnpike  Co.,  Both  Venerable. — 
Lamps  in  Street  Replaced  by  Gas  and  Electric  Light. — 
Trolley  Lines  on  Warren  St.  and  to  Albany. — Public 
Square  Improved. — Pretty  Park. — Promenade  Hill 
Also. — Scenes  Witnessed  From  the  Latter. — Henry  Hud- 
son's Visit. — Passing  of  Clermont. — Wreck  of  the 
"Swallow  "—Statue  of  St.  Winifred  Placed.— Civic  Im- 
provements       1 83 


Medical  Profession. — Charitable  Institutions. — Dr.  R.  L. 
Frary. — Dr.  A.  P.  and  Dr.  C.  P.  Cook. — Historians' 
Limits. — Dr.  E.  Simpson. — Dr.  J.  C.  Benham. — Dr.  J.  P. 
Wheeler.— Dr.  W.  Pitcher.— Dr.  H.  L.  Smith.— Dr.  C.  E. 
Fritts. — The  Hudson  Orphan  Asylum. — Home  for  the 
Aged. — Hospital. — Volunteer  Firemen's  Home. — State 
Training  School   for  Girls   194 


Distinguished  Men. 

Hon.  John  S.  Gould.— Dr.  F.  B.  Power.- William  A. 
Nash. — Valentine   P.   Snyder. — Henry  A.   Smith 203 


Henry  Ary. — Arthur  Parton. — Ernest  Parton. — Sara  Free- 
born.—Sanford  R.  Gifford   209 

Glimpses  of  Authors. 

Charles  Dickens. — Henry  James. — G.  W.  Curtiss. — Bayard 
Taylor  and  Others  214 



The  Hudson  Social  Reading  Club. — Its  Object  and  O.ffi- 
cers. — Sketch  of  S.  B.  Miller,  Secretary. — Re-organized 
as  "The  Fortnightly"  on  Similar  Lines. — Society  in  For- 
mer Years. — Its  Simplicity. — Card  Clubs. — -Deltoton. — 
Cow.:itry   Club. — Hudson    Club. — Musical    Taste 216 


The  Ashmead-Bartletts. — Ion  Perdicaris. — Cyrus  Cur- 
tiss. — Hudson's  Attraction  for  Retired  Men. — Richard 
I.  Wells. — Doctor  Oliver  Bronson. — Frederick  Fitch  Fol- 
ger. — Joel  T.  Simpson. — New  Era  Possibly  About  to 
Dawn. — Manufacturing  Facilities. — "Ring  Out  the  Old, 
Ring  in  the   New." 219 


Biographical  Sketch    of   Henry   Hudson. 

In  writing  a  history  of  the  city  of  Hudson  at  this 
time  it  seems  eminently  fitting  to  include  a  biographical 
sketch  of  our  celebrated  namesake,  Henry  Hudson. 

Although  countless  cities  bearing  his  name  are  strewn 
over  the  land  'Thick  as  autumnal  leaves  in  Vallombrosa/ 
not  one,  with  the  exception  of  Hudson,  Ohio,  which  was 
founded  by  his  descendants,  possesses  our  peculiar  right 
to  it. 

A  careful  perusal  of  Hudson's  journal  of  the  voyage 
of  1609,  as  preserved  in  that  quaint  old  volume  entitled 
"Purchas  his  Pilgrims,"  proves  that  he  landed  on  this 
site,   both   on   ascending   and   descending   the   river. 

On  his  first  visit  he  remained  a  whole  day,  and  on  his 
return  was  detained  four  days  by  contrary  winds,  while 
his  good  ship  "Half  Moon"  swung  at  anchor  off  the  shore. 

"These,"  Hudson  writes,  "I  spent  both  pleasantly  and 
profitably  surveying  the  country,  finding  good  ground 
for  corn  and  garden  herbs,  and  goodly  oaks  and  nut 
trees,  and  trees  of  sweet  wood  in  great  abundance." 

He  also  describes  his  visit  to  the  Mohicans  here  at 
great  length.  Then  too  the  location  of  our  city  on  the 
bank  of  Hudson's  "River  of  the  Mountains"  that  vies  in 
beauty  with  the  castled  Rhine,  and  to  which  Hudson  him- 
self referred  as  his  most  notable  discovery.  All  these 
considerations  add  a  personal  interest  to  the  narrative  of 
the  great  explorer. 

Of  Henry  Hudson's  origin  and  early  histor>',  but  little 


is  known.  He  was  born  in  England,  and  was  a  grandson 
of  Henry  Hudson  who  was  an  alderman  of  the  city  of 
London,  and  who  with  Sebastian  Cabot  established  the 
Muscovy  Company,  which  traded  with  Russia  through  the 
port  of  Archangel.  Ivan  the  Terrible,  the  first  of  the 
Czars  of  Russia,  who  is  referred  to  by  Elizabethan  writers 
as  Ivan  Vasilivitch,  Duke  of  Muscovy,  fostered  this  traffic 
and  gave  the  name  to  the  company. 

The  arms  of  the  Hudson  family  were  "  argent  semee  of 
fleurs-de-lis  gules,  a  cross  engrailed  sable."  His  tomb 
in  the  old  parish  church  of  St.  Dunstan's  in  the  East, 
bears  this  inscription: 

Here   lieth   Henry   Hudson's   corps 

Within  this  Tomb  of  Stone: 

His  soul   (through  faith  in  Christ's  death) 

To  God  in  Heaven  is  gone. 

While    that   he   lived    an    Alderman 

And  skinner  was  his  state; 

To  Vertue  bare  he  all  his  love 

To  Vice  bare  he  his  hate. 

He   had  to   wife   one   Barbara 

Which   made  this  Tomb  you  see 

By  whom  he  had  of  issue  store 

Eight  sonnes  and  daughters  three. 

Obiit  22.  Decemb.  An.  Dom.  1555. 

There  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  Henry  Hudson 
was  influenced  by  the  traditions  of  his  house,  to  look  in 
the  direction  pointed  out  by  Cabot,  and  after  him  by 
Davis,  and  Frobisher,  for  a  short  route  through  the  polar 
seas,  to  the  semi-fabulous  empire  of  Cathay. 

Hudson  had  a  wealthy  kinsman  named  Sir  Christopher 
Hudson,  who  owned  a  fleet  of  armed  ships,  but  it  seems 
certain  that  it  was  in  the  service  of  the  Muscovy  Company, 
that    he    received    that    training    and    experience    which 


served  to  develop  his  inherent  qualities  of  coolness  and 
courage,   into   the   skillful   and   intrepid  navigator. 

His  most  cherished  and  intimate  friend  in  London,  was 
Captain  John  Smith,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  colony 
of  Virginia  in  1607.  Mention  is  made  of  Henry  Hudson's 
wife  and  family,  in  his  contract  with  the  Dutch  East 
India  Company,  wherein  it  was  agreed  that  he  should 
be  paid  three  hundred  and  twenty  dollars  for  his  ser- 
vices and  for  the  support  of  his  wife  and  children. 
Further,  that  his  widow  was  to  receive  eighty  dollars 
additional,  should  the  explorer  be  lost  during  the  voyage. 

As  the  few  remaining  documents,  and  these  contracts 
even  with  his  Dutch  employers,  are  all  signed  "Henry 
Hudson,  Englishman,"  there  remains  no  possible  reason 
for  writing  his  name  "Hendrik."  As  a  matter  of  fact, 
Hudson's  negotiations  with  the  Dutch  Company,  were 
conducted  with  the  aid  of  an  interpreter,  his  ignorance 
of  the  language  being  as  unfortunate  as  it  was  complete. 
Undoubtedly  a  large  share  of  his  later  troubles  with  his 
Dutch  sailors,  arose  from  his  inability  to  understand  their 

Hudson's  elder  son,  John  Hudson,  accompanied  him 
on  all  his  later  voyages,  and  finally  perished  with  him. 
His  second  son  named  David  was  the  ancestor  of  the 
Hudson  family,  who  came  to  this  country  in  the  year 
1800,  and  founded  the  town  of  Hudson  in  Ohio.  This 
David  Hudson,  being  the  fifth  of  that  name  in  direct 
descent  from  Henry  Hudson.  It  is  a  pleasant  thought 
that  his  descendants  have  been  residents  of  our  country 
for  more  than  a  century,  and  are  neither  English  or  Dutch, 
but  citizens  of  the  American   Republic. 

In  1607,  the  London  Muscovy  Company  with  a  re- 
newed desire  to  extend  its  search  for  a  shorter  passage 
to  the  East,  offered  Henr>'  Hudson  the  command  of  their 
ship,  his  ability  and  bravery  having  been  successfully 
tested  and  he  himself  always  eager  for  new  adventures. 


"The  wealth  of  the  Indies"  had  passed  into  a  proverb, 
and  all  the  nations  of  Europe  were  restless  and  dissatis- 
fied because  of  the  delays  and  difficulties — says  an  early 
authority — in  the  way  of  obtaining  it;  the  commerce  of 
that  region  being  slowly  and  laboriously  brought  to  them, 
partly  overland  and  then  floated  through  the  Mediterra- 
nean Sea.  Hudson  gladly  accepted  the  commission  and  on 
the  19th  of  April,  1607,  repaired  with  his  crew  of  eleven 
men  including  his  son  John,  to  the  church  of  Saint 
Ethelburga  in  Bishopsgate  Street,  and  there  received  the 
sacrament,  as  was  the  custom  of  the  time.  In  the  good 
ship  Hopewell  on  May  first,  he  dropped  down  the  Thames 
and  headed  north,  as  he  says  in  his  journal  "for  to  dis- 
cover by  the  North  Pole  a  passage  to  China  and  Japan." 

Suffice  it  to  say,  that  this  voyage  and  also  a  second, 
undertaken  for  the  same  purpose  in  the  following  year 
were  unsuccessful,  and  the  London  Company  becoming 
disheartened,  Hudson  passed  over  to  Holland,  and 
offered  his  services  to  the  Dutch  East  India  Company. 
His  fame  as  a  bold  and  skillful  navigator  had  preceded 
him,  and  he  was  speedily  engaged  for  the  same  object 
"to  discover  if  possible  a  shorter  route  to  the  East,  and 
thus  increase  their  facilities  for  trade."  The  quaint 
little  "Half  Moon,"  a  vessel  of  only  about  80  tons  bur- 
den was  soon  equipped,  and  manned  with  a  crew  of 
twenty  English  and  Dutch  sailors,  of  whom  Robert  Juet 
was  Masters  Mate 

On  the  25th  of  March,  1609,  Hudson  set  sail  from 
Amsterdam  and  in  a  little  over  a  month  doubled  the  North 
Cape,  and  a  short  time  afterward  reached  the  coast  of 
Nova  Zembla.  Here  he  encountered  powerful  head 
winds,  huge  icebergs  and  dense  fog,  as  in  his  former 
voyages,  and  finding  it  impossible  to  proceed  farther 
north  he  determined  to  sail  westerly,  and  perhaps  add  to 
the  vast  discoveries  of  which  he  had  heard  from  his  friend 
Captain   John   Smith.     Hudson   had   also   obtained   some 


maps  from  him,  on  one  of  which  was  marked  a  strait 
south  of  Virginia  offering  a  passage  to  the  Pacific  Ocean 
or  "Great  South  Sea,"  as  it  was  called,  and  he  hoped 
by  this  means  to  reach  the  East  Indies. 

So  retracing  his  course  he  soon  doubled  the  North 
Cape  again  and  by  the  last  of  May  arrived  at  one 
of  the  Faroe  Islands.  From  thence  he  sailed  for  New- 
foundland, but  being  driven  about  by  fierce  tempests  in 
one  of  which  his  fore-mast  was  swept  away,  it  was  not 
until  early  in  July  that  he  succeeded  in  reaching  it  "and 
saw  a  great  fleet  of  French  fishing  boats  off  the  banks." 
"Being  becalmed  he  sent  his  crew  to  try  their  luck  and 
they  were  very  successful,  taking  in  one  day  130  cod- 

The  wind  springing  up  they  set  sail,  cleared  the  banks, 
passed  the  shore  of  Nova  Scotia  and  on  the  morning  of 
July  12th  had  their  first  glimpse  of  North  America.  The 
fog  now  became  so  thick  they  were  afraid  to  approach 
the  land,  but  on  the  18th  the  weather  cleared  and  they 
ran  into  "a  goodly  harbor."  This  was  Penobscot  Bay,  on 
the  coast  of  Maine. 

Hudson  here  for  the  first  time  came  in  contact  with 
the  natives  of  the  country,  two  boats  coming  off  to  him 
containing  six  Indians  "who  seemed  very  glad  at  their 
coming."  He  gave  them  some  trifling  presents  and  "they 
ate  and  drank  with  him."  One  of  them  could  speak  a 
little  French,  and  Hudson  learned  "that  there  were  gold 
and  silver  and  copper  mines  near  by,  and  that  the  French 
people  were  in  the  habit  of  trading  with  them." 

Hudson  remained  here  several  days,  mending  sails  and 
re-setting  a  new  fore-mast,  while  some  of  the  crew  filled 
the  water-casks  and  others  amused  themselves  catching 
lobsters.  The  Indians  meanwhile  came  on  board  in  great 
numbers  "seeming  not  at  all  afraid  of  Hudson's  men 
while  the  crew  viewed   them  with  suspicion." 

On  the  day  before  leaving,  one  of  those  acts  of  cruelty 


was  perpetrated  by  Hudson's  men,  which  serve  to  explain 
if  not  to  justify  the  "Indian  atrocities"  of  later  times.  Two. 
French  shallops  filled  with  Indians  came  to  the  ship  bring- 
ing beaver  skins  and  fine  furs  which  they  wished  to  trade 
for  articles  of  dress  or  knives,  hatchets  and  trinkets.  The 
men  "noting  where  the  shallops  were  laid  manned  a  boat 
with  six  of  the  crew  armed  with  muskets,  took  one  of 
them  and  brought  it  on  board."  This  was  base  enough 
but  not  satisfied  with  this,  "they  landed  a  boat  load  of 
armed  men,  drove  the  Indians  from  their  houses  and  took 
the  spoil  of  them."  The  Indians  had  shown  them  only 
the  greatest  kindness  and  good  will,  and  such  conduct 
can  only  be  accounted  for  on  the  ground  that  Hudson  could 
not  control  his  crew,  although  he  was  reputed  to  be  a 
strict  disciplinarian. 

It  is  recorded  that  "they  had  many  quarrels  with  the 
natives,  and  were  a  wild  ungovernable  set  of  men."  In 
the  light  of  the  tragic  events  of  the  following  winter,  when 
Hudson  himself  fell  a  victim  to  their  treacherous  malig- 
nancy, we  can  readily  believe  that  a  spirit  of  insubordina- 
tion incited  by  the  unscrupulous  first  mate  Robert  Juet, 
had  even  then  undermined  his  authority. 

Hudson  finally  set  sail  on  July  26th,  steering  south- 
ward along  the  coast  and  sighting  Cape  Cod.  Here  the 
men  on  landing  found  "goodly  grapes  and  rose-trees  which 
they  brought  to  the  ship,"  also,  "Indians  who  were  great 
smokers  and  had  an  abundance  of  green  tobacco,  and 
pipes,  the  bowls  of  which  were  made  of  earth  and  the 
stems  of  red  copper." 

Proceeding,  Hudson  passed  Nantucket  and  Martha's 
Vineyard,  and  on  August  18th  arrived  at  the  entrance  of 
Chesapeake  Bay.  Here  he  was  near  the  mouth  of  "Kings 
River,"  as  the  James  was  then  called,  on  which  the  first 
English  settlement  had  been  made  two  years  before,  and 
named  Jamestown.  Hudson  would  have  been  delighted 
to  pass  up  this  river  and  visit  his  countrymen,  and  es- 


pecially  his  friend  Captain  John  Smith  in  the  wilds  of 
America,  but  the  wmd  was  blowing  a  gale,  so  he  passed 
on.  After  sailing  south  until  he  reached  the  thirty-fifth 
degree  of  latitude  he  changed  his  course  to  the  north, 
having  become  convinced  that  there  was  no  passage  into 
the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  being  desirous  of  making  some 
discovery  which  might  prove  profitable  to  his  employers. 

On  the  28th  of  August,  after  passing  the  shores  of 
Maryland,  Hudson  discovered  a  great  bay  now  known  as 
Delaware  Bay.  "He  examined  here  the  currents  and  took 
soundings  but  did  not  land."  For  nearly  a  week  he  now 
sailed  northward  "passing  along  a  low  marshy  coast, 
skirted  with  broken  islands,  and  on  the  2nd  of  Septem- 
ber he  spied  the  highlands  of  Neversink."  The  sight 
pleased  him  greatly  for  he  says,  "it  is  a  good  land  to 
fall  in  with,  and  a  very  pleasant  land  to  see."  On  the 
morning  of  the  3rd  the  weather  was  dark  and  misty,  but 
"Hudson  having  passed  Long  Branch  sent  his  boat  up  to 
sound,  and  receiving  a  favorable  report,  in  the  afternoon, 
brought  the  'Half  Moon'  within  Sandy  Hook."  The  next 
morning  seeing  that  "there  was  good  anchorage  and  a 
safe  harbor"  he  passed  farther  up,  and  anchored  within 
Sandy  Hook  Bay.  Having  observed  great  quantities  of 
"salmon,  mullet  and  rays  in  the  water"  he  now  sent  his 
men  ashore  with  a  net.  It  is  said  they  first  landed  on 
Coney  Island,  and  found  "plum  trees  loaded  with  fruit 
and  embowered  in  grape-vines,  while  snipe  and  other 
birds  were  floating  on  the  water."  The  fishing  proved 
excellent,  for  they  took  "ten  mullets  a  foot  and  a  half 
long  apiece,  and  a  ray  as  great  as  four  men  could  haul 
into  the  ship."  While  lying  at  anchor  Indians  from  the 
Jersey  shore  came  on  board  and  "seemed  greatly  delighted 
to  see  their  new  visitors."  "They  were  dressed  in  deer 
skins  well  cured,  and  had  copper  ornaments  and  pipes. 
They  had  an  abundance  of  food,  their  land  yielding  i 
fine  harvest  of  maize,  or   Indian   com,   from  which   they 


made  very  good  bread."  "But  they  brought  with  them 
green  tobacco  which  they  wished  to  exchange  for  beads, 
knives  and  trinkets." 

During  the  night  a  gale  sprang  up  and  the  ship  was 
driven  ashore  but  fortunately  without  injury,  being  floated 
off  at  high  tide  the  next  morning.  Hudson  then  sent  a 
boat  to  sound  the  bay  and  soon  the  shores  were  lined  with 
natives,  men,  women  and  children  being  drawn  thither 
by  curiosity.  The  men  immediately  landed  and  were 
treated  with  great  kindness.  Some  of  these  Indians  were 
more  richly  dressed  than  any  they  had  seen,  "wearing 
mantles  made  of  fine  fur  or  feathers  and  ornaments  of 
copper  around  their  necks." 

Hudson  now  sent  out  five  men  who  passed  through  the 
Narrows  making  soundings  as  they  went,  and  discovered 
the  hills  between  Staten  Island  and  Bergen  Neck,  "which 
were  covered  with  grass,  trees  and  flowers,  the  fragrance 
of  which  was  delightful."  On  their  return  to  the  ship  at 
dusk  they  were  attacked  by  two  canoes  full  of  Indians. 
It  was  raining  hard  and  they  could  only  trust  to  their 
oars  to  make  their  escape.  Unfortunately  one  of  the 
men,  John  Coleman,  who  had  been  with  Hudson  on  his 
first  hard  voyages,  was  killed  by  an  arrow,  and  two  others 
were  slightly  wounded.  It  was  now  very  dark  and  they 
lost  their  way,  wandering  to  and  fro  all  night,  but  the 
next  morning  they  returned  to  the  ship  bringing  the  body 
of  Coleman.  Hudson  ordered  it  to  be  taken  ashore  and 
buried  at  Sandy  Hook,  and  in  memory  of  the  poor  fellow 
who  had  met  so  sad  a  fate  he  called  the  place,  Coleman's 

Hudson  now  prepared  for  an  attack  but  nothing  fur- 
ther came  of  it,  the  Indians  indeed  seeming  to  be  entirely 
ignorant  of  any  trouble,  and  after  a  week  spent  in  explora- 
tion south  of  the  Narrows,  he  passed  through  them  into 
the  Bay  of  New  York,  and  "finding  it  an  excellent  harbor 
for  all  winds,"  cast  anchor. 



We  left  the  brave  Explorer  resting  quietly  upon  the 
■waters  of  New  York  Bay  unconscious  that  he  would  win 
undying  fame  on  the  morrow  by  the  discovery  of  the  most 
beautiful  river  of  the  New  World.  His  ship  was  lying 
off  the  entrance  to  that  river  and  he  was  filled  with  won- 
der and  delight  as  he  watched  its  majestic  waters  rolling 
down  to  the  sea.  He  thought  too  of  the  probability  that 
this  great  body  of  water  coming  from  the  far  north,  might 
prove  the  long  sought  passage,  to  the  gems  and  spices  of 
the  East  Indies. 

About  noon  on  the  12th  of  September,  with  a  heart 
full  of  hope  he  weighed  anchor  and  moved  into  the  stream 
he  named,  "The  Great  River  of  the  Mountains." 

The  wind  was  not  fair,  so  after  making  only  two  leagues 
he  anchored  for  the  night.  The  next  day  the  wind  still 
being  ahead,  he  managed  by  the  help  of  the  flood  tide  to 
ascend  a  little  over  three  leagues  farther,  which  brought 
him  to  Yonkers,  and  again  he  cast  anchor.  The  day  fol- 
lowing, on  September  14th,  a  fine  breeze  sprang  up  from 
the  southeast  and  Hudson  passed  up  through  Tappan  and 
Haverstraw  bays.  "The  river"  the  journal  says  "being 
a  mile  wide" — and  "in  a  region  where  the  land  was  very 
high  and  mountainous."  He  was  evidently  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  Highlands  and  his  anchorage  was  probably  off  West 

The  ship  continued  on  up  the  river  until  they  "came 
at  night  in  sight  of  other  mountains  which  lie  from  the 
river  side."  This  was  doubtless  Katskill  Landing.  Here 
they  found  "great  stores  of  very  fine  fish,  and  very  lov- 
ing people  who  brought  on  board  Indian  corn  and  pump- 

The  next  day,  September  IGth,  the  wind  being  fair 
they  sailed  two  leagues  farther  and  anchored  in  the  west- 
ern  channel    directly   opposite   the   site   of   Hudson    City. 

Let  us  pause  for  a  moment  to  contemplate  the  scene 
that  then  for  the  first  time  met  the  gaze  of  civilized  man. 


The  bold  bluffs  that  guard  the  broad  South  Bay,  then 
twice  as  broad  as  now  and  unmarred  by  the  unsightly 
railway,  were  wooded  from  shore  to  summit  with  the 
"forest  primeval,"  and  the  air  was  filled  with  music  and 
fragrance  from  myriads  of  birds  and  flowers. 

The  purpling  Katskills  welcomed  the  first  beams  of  day 
with  answering  glow,  and  held  with  lingering  clasp  his 
last  departing  ray. 

The  noble  river  ebbed  and  flowed,  laughing  and  dimp- 
ling to  the  sun,  or  paling  with  tender  constancy  to  the 

'While  o'er  it  all  with  shining  eyes 

The  silent  stars  looked  down.' 

That  the  doughty  mariner  was  not  insensible  to  beauty 
is  evidenced  by  many  entries  in  his  journals,  and  we  can- 
not suppose  he  viewed  this  scene  of  surpassing  loveliness 
without  a  responsive  thrill. — 

The  "Half  Moon"  lay  off  the  shore  one  whole  day,  and 
Hudson  describes  at  length  a  visit  to  the  hospitable  in- 
habitants, as  follows:  "I  sailed  to  the  shore  in  one  of 
their  canoes  with  an  old  man  who  was  Chief  of  a  tribe 
consisting  of  forty  men  and  seventeen  women.  These  I 
saw  there  in  a  house  well  constructed  of  oak  bark,  and 
circular  in  shape,  so  that  it  had  the  appearance  of  being 
built  with  an  arched  roof.  It  contained  a  great  quantity 
of  Indian  com  and  beans  of  the  last  year's  growth,  and 
there  lay  near  the  house  for  purpose  of  drying  enough  to 
load  a  ship." 

"On  our  coming  into  the  house  two  mats  were  spread 
out  to  sit  upon,  and  some  food  was  immediately  served 
in  well  made  red  wooden  bowls.  Two  men  were  also 
dispatched  at  once  with  bows  and  arrows  in  quest  of  game, 
who  soon  returned  with  a  pair  of  pigeons  which  they  had 
shot.  They  likewise  killed  a  fat  dog,  and  skinned  it  in 
great  haste  with  shells  which  they  had  got  out  of  the 


"They  supposed  that  I  should  remain  with  them  for 
the  night,  but  I  returned  after  a  short  time  on  board 
the  ship. 

'The  land  is  the  finest  for  cultivation  that  I  ever  in  my 
life  set  foot  upon,  and  it  also  abounds  in  trees  of  every 

"These  are  a  very  good  people  for  when  they  saw  that 
I  would  not  remain  with  them,  they  supposed  that  I  was 
afraid  of  their  bows,  and  taking  their  arrows,  they  broke 
them  in  pieces  and  threw  them  in  the  fire." 

Thus  ends  the  record  of  the  first  entrance  of  the  white 
man  upon  the  site  of  the  City  of  Hudson.  It  would  have 
been  interesting  to  look  in  upon  that  first  function  of  one 
of  our  very  "first  families."  Doubtless  conversation  was 
limited  to  the  very  smallest  of  small  talk,  but  they  had 
eloquent  gestures,  and  that  of  breaking  their  arrows  spoke 
louder  than  words. 

The  fact  that  this  banquet  was  held  on  the  site  of 
the  present  City  of  Hudson,  was  substantiated  by  finding 
the  unmistakable  remains  of  an  Indian  village  on  this 
spot,  when  excavating  for  building  purposes  at  the  foot 
of  Warren  street. 

The  weather  was  warm  and  Hudson  determined  to  take 
advantage  of  the  cool  hours  of  the  morning,  therefore  at 
dawn  on  September  18th  he  weighed  anchor  and  ran  up 
six  leagues  farther,  but  "finding  shoals  and  small  islands 
in  the  middle  of  the  river,"  he  stopped,  this  time  at  the 
present  village  of  Castleton.  After  running  aground  re- 
peatedly notwithstanding  continual  soundings,  he  finally 
reached  the  site  of  Albany,  and  sending  a  boat  with  the 
mate  and  four  men  to  explore  the  upper  waters  of  the 
river,  he  awaited  their  return.  It  is  said  they  went  as 
far  as  Waterford.  While  here  Hudson  was  visited  by 
"an  old  savage,  a  governor  of  the  country,  who  carried 
him  to  his  house  and  made  him  good  cheer."  Great 
crowds  of  Indians  came  on  board  the  ship,  and  were  here 


given  their  first  taste  of  "fire  water."  Hudson  is  said 
to  have  grown  suspicious  of  them  and  fearing  treachery 
plied  their  chiefs  with  wine  and  brandy,  thinking  that  in 
their  inebriation  the  truth  would  be  divulged,  but  he  dis- 
covered nothing.  It  is  fair  to  presume  that  Hudson  was 
wrongly  influenced  to  this  action  by  the  strong  prejudices 
of  his  crew,  but  it  is  unfortunate  that  his  fame  should 
have  incurred  this  stigma,  for  with  this  single  exception, 
he  was  notably  fair  and  kindly  in  his  treatment  of  the 

The  report  of  the  mate  being  unfavorable  to  a  farther 
ascent  of  the  river,  Hudson  on  September  23rd,  prepared 
for  his  return,  his  journal  says,  "greatly  disappointed  at 
not  finding  the  hoped  for  passage  to  the  East,  but  cheered 
by  the  reflection,  that  he  had  passed  up  a  great  river 
nearly  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles,  and  discovered  a  beau- 
tiful and  fertile  region  for  the  future  enterprise  of  his 

Returning  down  the  river  he  again  anchored  off  this 
City,  and  was  detained  four  days,  as  previously  men- 
tioned, by  contrary  winds.  Hudson  "had  a  visit  from  his 
old  friend  the  Chief  bringing  another  Chief  with  him, 
also  his  wife  and  three  Indian  women.  He  treated  them 
all  very  kindly,  giving  them  presents  and  inviting  them  to 
dine  with  him,  which  they  did,  'the  women  being  as 
modest  as  one  could  wish  to  see.'  " 

The  origin  of  the  American  Indian  is  lost  in  the  dim 
mysteries  of  the  past,  their  traditions  differing  in  many 
particulars  and  all  equally  untrustworthy.  Those  inhabit- 
ing this  region,  with  whom  the  Discoverer  exchanged 
such  cordial  hospitalites,  were  the  Mohicans,  the  last  of 
whose  tribe,  is  endeared  to  later  generations,  by  the 
genius  of  Fenimore   Cooper. 

They  were  originally  a  powerful  tribe  of  mighty  war- 
riors,  having   their   Council   seat   at   Schodack,   called   in 


their  tongue,  "Esquitak"  "the  fire-place  of  the  nation" 
and  were  in  possession  of  a  wide  domain.  This  was 
wrested  from  them  by  the  Mohawks  who  joined  with  other 
fierce  Iroquois  nations,  and  drove  them  to  the  eastern  side 
of  the  river.  Here  Hudson  found  them  much  weakened 
in  numbers  but  still  at  enmity  with  these  powerful  foes. 
Obtaining  an  alliance  with  the  Wappingers,  the  Minsis 
and  other  river  tribes  the  war  continued,  until  the  final 
struggle  took  place  in  1628,  tradition  has  it  on  what  is 
now  known  as  Rogers  Island,  situated  between  Hudson  and 
Catskill.  After  a  day  of  desperate  fighting,  and  when  the 
Mohicans  were  almost  victorious,  they  were  decoyed  into 
a  trap  by  the  feigned  retreat  of  the  Mohawks,  and  most 
of  them  were  killed  or  captured.  The  overthrow  of  the 
Mohicans  was  complete. 

In  the  year  1736,  the  pathetic  remnant  of  the  once 
powerful  braves  drifted  into  the  mission  founded  by  the 
Rev.  John  S.  Sergeant  at  Stockbridge,  Mass.  Later  on  a 
few  of  them  were  found  fighting  with  the  patriots  in  the 
American  Revolution.  Their  old  enemies  the  Mohawks 
were  on  the  opposite  side. 

On  September  27th,  Hudson  continued  his  journey,  an- 
choring off  what  is  now  Red  Hook  and  also  at  the  site 
of  Newburgh,  of  which  he  writes,  "this  is  a  very  pleasant 
place  to  build  a  town  on." 

He  at  length  arrived  at  Manhattan  Island.  Here  he 
was  attacked  by  unfriendly  Indians  and  it  was  not  until 
nine  of  their  number  had  been  killed  that  he  was  suffered 
to  proceed. 

Hudson's  next  anchorage  was  at  the  present  location  of 
Hoboken.  where  he  was  detained  by  a  storm,  but  the 
morning  of  October  4th,  dawned  clear,  with  a  fair  wind, 
and  the  "Half  Moon"  with  all  sails  set  passed  out  to  sea, 
carr)'ing  away  her  brave  Commander,  who  was  destined 


never  again   to   behold  the  stately   river  that  bears   his 

Hudson's  Soliloquy. 

"Fifty  leagues  we  drew  a  furrow  on  that  waterway  un- 

Past  the  bowered  outer  islands  under  cliffs  of  living 

Skirting  sunlit  fields  that  billowed  to  the  shores  of  inland 

Under  shadowed  rocky  ranges  with  their  crests  of  noble 

Till  the  channel  shoaled  and  narrowed  in  a  reach  of  high- 
land plain 

And  the  brackish  water  sweetened  and  we  knew  our 
quest  was  vain. 

Twas  the  River  of  the  Mountains,  where  the  silver  sal- 
mon play. 

And  o'er  yet  untraversed  waters  lies  the  passage  to 


"So;   aboard   again  my  trusties!   for  the  spirit  will   not 

rest ; 
We  must  find  the  golden  passage,  be   it  East  or  be  it 

With  a  seaman's  craft  and  courage,  with  a  single  heart 

and  soul, 
We  shall  search  that  ocean  fairway  from  the  Tropics  to 

the  Pole. 
Yet,   when    softly   lap   the   surges,    in    my   cabin    I    may 

Of   the   mighty   mountain    river,    of   that    broadly-rolling 


Where  I  heard  the  hum  of  nations  in  the  whisper  of  the 


While,  as  breath  of  future  cities,  rose  the  white  Septem- 
ber clouds. 

What  is  all  the  dazzling  treasure  that  the  jeweled  East 
may  give 

To  our  new-discovered  countries  where  the  sons  of  men 
shall  live! 

But  the  off-shore  breezes  freshen  and  the  tide-rush  will 
not  stay; 

So  unmoor  and  set  the  tiller  for  the  sea-road  to 

After  an  absence  of  a  little  more  than  seven  months 
from  Amsterdam,  Henry  Hudson  arrived  safely  on  the 
7th  of  November  at  Dartmouth,  England,  his  English 
sailors  having  mutinied  and  compelled  him  to  land  at  an 
English  port. 

It  is  said  by  the  Dutch  historians  that  England  was 
jealous  of  their  maritime  enterprises,  and  would  not  per- 
mit Hudson  to  return  to  their  shores.  However  that  may 
be,  it  is  certain  that  Hudson  never  saw  Holland  again. 

The  news  of  Hudson's  successful  voyage  and  the  story 
of  his  discoveries  created  the  wildest  excitement  in  Eng- 
land, not  only  greatly  enhancing  his  fame,  but  also  arous- 
ing once  more  the  flagging  zeal  of  the  London  Company, 
and  they  at  once  recalled  him  to  their  service.  Accord- 
ingly the  ship  Discovery,  of  55  tons,  was  manned  with 
a  crew  of  23  men,  including  John  Hudson  and  Robert 
Juet,  who  was  again  made  first  mate,  Hudson  seeming 
not  yet  to  understand  his  treacherous  character. 

On  the  17th  of  April,  1610,  Hudson  sailed  away  on 
his  fourth  voyage,  still  in  quest  of  the  same  elusive 
"Northwestern  passage  to  the  East,"  and  by  the  11th  of 
May  reached  Iceland.  Coasting  along  the  Southern  shore 
they  witnessed   an   eruption   of  Mount   Hecla.      "The   in- 



habitants  of  the  island  were  wretchedly  poor  and  miser- 
able, but  they  received  them  very  kindly." 

While  here,  struggling  with  head  winds  and  icebergs, 
Hudson  became  aware  of  dissatisfaction  among  his  crew, 
"and  would  have  put  back  forty  leagues  to  send  Robert 
Juet  home  on  a  fishing  boat,  but  being  otherwise  per- 
suaded he  kept  on  to  Greenland,"  where  the  ice  closed 
in  upon  them  and  they  had  much  difficulty  in  extricating 
the  ships.  Being  at  length  successful  they  continued  their 
course  northwest  for  the  American  continent. 

After  innumerable  encounters  with  "floating  ice 
mountains,"  one  of  which  toppled  over  as  they  passed, 
narrowly  missing  the  ship,  Hudson  at  length  reached 
Davis'  straits,  crossing  which,  he  entered  a  bay  near  the 
great  straits  that  are  called  by  his  name.  Here  a  terrific 
storm  overtook  him  and  the  ice  again  closed  in  about 
them.  The  journal  says  "some  of  the  men  fell  sick,  I 
would  not  say  it  was  of  fear  although  I  saw  small  sign  of 
other  grief."  Even  Hudson's  heart  failed  him,  as  he 
gazed  upon  the  desolate  scene  and  could  find  no  way  of 
escape.  "But  his  crew  saw  no  sign  of  fear  in  him,  for 
he  carried  a  cheerful  countenance  while  they  were  dis- 
mayed and  broken   spirited," 

Hudson  now  brought  out  his  chart  and  showed  them 
that  they  had  gone  one  hundred  leagues  farther  than  any 
other  Englishmen  had  been  before,  and  gave  them  their 
choice,  whether  they  would  proceed  or  turn  back. 

"But  they  could  come  to  no  decision,  the  miajority  not 
caring  where  they  went  provided  they  were  clear  of  the 
ice."  Hudson  reasoned  with  them  and  tried  to  allay 
their  fears,  arouse  their  hopes,  and  inspire  them  with 
courage,  until  at  length  "they  all  set  resolutely  to  work 
to  bring  the  ship  from  the  ice  and  free'  themselves." 

"No  scene"  the  historian  says  "in  the  life  of  Henry 
Hudson  showed  greater  firmness  and  presence  of  mind 
than  this;  with  his  ship  hemmed  in  by  the  ice  and  a  des- 


perate  crew  on  board,  he  rises  bravely  to  the  occasion, 
and  cahns  and  bends  them  to  his  will." 

Having  now  entered  Hudson  Straits  he  spent  the  whole 
month  of  July  in  passing  through  them,  giving  quaint 
Puritanic  names  to  the  Capes  and  Islands,  such  as  "De- 
sire Provoked,"  "Isles  of  God's  Mercies,"  "Hold  with 
Hope,"   and   to   the  mainland,   "Magna   Britannia." 

With  renewed  zeal,  now  that  he  saw  as  he  supposed 
the  long  sought  passage  to  the  East  lying  clear  before 
him,  Hudson  "sent  a  number  of  his  men  on  shore  to  climb 
the  hills  and  see  the  great  ocean  beyond."  "The  ground 
was  covered  with  grass  and  they  saw  herds  of  deer  feed- 
ing, and  numerous  fowls  flying  over  their  heads."  A 
violent  thunder  storm  drove  them  back  to  the  ship,  but 
they  reported  the  supplies  of  game  they  found,  and 
tried  to  pursuade  Hudson  to  remain  if  only  for  a  day 
or  two  until  they  could  provision  the  ship,  "but  he  would 
listen  to  no  such  request,  being  desirous  of  pressing  on." 

It  was  now  the  lOth  of  September  and  the  whole  of 
that  and  the  following  month  were  passed  in  exploration 
of  the  great  inland  sea  that  is  so  well  known  to  us  as 
"Hudson's  Bay."  They  sailed  to  the  southern  extremity, 
as  the  sea  was  more  open  in  that  direction,  meeting  fierce 
tempests  and  serious  mishaps,  but  all  these  were  trivial 
to  Hudson  compared  with  his  disappointment  when  he 
found  he  could  proceed  no  farther.  He  retraced  his 
course  but  being  convinced  that  the  end  of  navigation 
was  at  hand,  it  being  now  the  10th  of  November,  he  ran 
the  ship  into  a  small  bay  where  they  were  soon  com- 
pletely shut  in   for  the  winter. 

They  were  now  confronted,  not  only  with  the  rigors 
of  the  extreme  northern  climate,  but  also  with  a  scant 
supply  of  provisions,  the  ship  having  been  victualled  for 
only  six  months,  and  Hudson  proceeded  with  a  sad  heart 
to  put  the  men  on  an  allowance;  he  also  offered  a  re- 
ward for  every  "Beast,  Fish  and  Fowl"  they  should  kill. 


After  being  here  about  a  fortnight  one  of  the  crew, 
a  gunner  named  John  Williams,  died. 

The  cold  increasing  in  severity,  Hudson  ordered  the 
carpenter  one  Philip  Staafe  to  go  ashore  and  build  a  house 
for  the  crew,  this  he  refused  to  do  saying  "that  he  could 
not  work  at  it  in  such  frost  and  snow,  and  moreover  it 
was  no  work  of  his,  he  being  a  ship  carpenter  and  not  a 
house  carpenter."  However  after  having  time  for  reflec- 
tion he  not  only  built  the  house,  which  proved  of  little 
advantage,  but  he  was  ever  after  one  of  the  commander's 
warmest  friends.  Ever  since  losing  the  opportunity  of 
obtaining  provisions  when  they  were  so  plentiful,  mur- 
merings  and  complaints  had  been  rife  among  the  crew 
and  now  a  portion  of  them  led  by  the  first  mate  became 
so  insolent  that  Hudson  was  compelled  to  act. 

A  court  of  inquiry  was  called  to  try  Robert  Juet,  and 
he  was  proven  guilty  of  having  incited  the  crew  to 
mutiny  ever  since  leaving  Iceland.  The  boatswain  hav- 
ing been  found  to  be  equally  guilty  both  were  removed, 
and  Robert  Bylot  and  William  Wilson  were  appointed  in 
their  place. 

The  winter  closed  in  drearily  enough,  though  in  the 
matter  of  provisions  they  fared  better  during  the  first 
three  months  than  they  feared,  having  an  abundance  of 
white  partridges,  but  when  they  left  they  could  only 
occasionally  find  wild  geese  and  ducks,  which  soon  after 
disappeared  entirely,  and  starvation  stared  them  in  the 

"They  wandered  over  the  hills  and  valleys  hunting  for 
food,  devouring  even  the  moss  off  the  ground  and  buds 
or  bark  off  the  trees." 

"About  the  time  the  ice  began  to  break  up  they  were 
visited  by  a  savage,  the  only  one  they  saw  during  the 
winter  and  were  greatly  cheered  by  his  coming."  Hud- 
son treated  him  with  great  kindness  making  him  many 
presents,  and  when  he  left  he  made  signs  that  he  would 


come  again,  which  he  did  bringing  his  sled  loaded  with  deer 
and  beaver-skins,  but  no  food.  He  made  signs  of  many 
people  both  to  the  North  and  South,  and  promised  after 
so  many  sleeps  he  would  come  again,  but  he  came  no 
more,  and  all  hope  of  obtaining  provisions  through  him 
were  at  an  end. 

"Fortunately  when  the  ice  was  breaking  up  they  caught 
five  hundred  fish  in  a  net,"  and  thought  their  sorrows 
were  at  an  end  so  far  as  food  was  concerned,  but  they 
were  doomed  to  disappointment,  for  "on  no  day  there- 
after did  they  take   one-quarter   of  that  number." 

Many  of  the  crew  were  disabled  from  frozen  feet,  and 
all  were  enfeebled  by  hardships  and  exposure,  but  their 
sufferings  only  increased  their  irritability,  until  "they 
sought  occasions  of  quarrel  with  their  commander  on  the 
most  flimsey  pretexts.  In  this  pitiable  condition  they 
were  detained  in  their  cold  winter  quarters  until  the 
middle  of  June.  The  ice  having  now  broken  up  Hudson 
prepared  to  sail,  but  before  hoisting  the  anchor,  he  "with 
an  aching  heart  divided  the  small  remnant  of  provisions 
among  them,  a  pound  of  bread  and  three  and  a  half  pounds 
of  cheese  to  each  man."  "And  knowing  the  uncertainty 
of  what  might  befall  them,  he  gave  to  each  a  bill  of 
return,  which  might  be  showed  at  home,  if  it  please  God 
that  they  came  home  and  he  wept  when  he  gave  it  to 

They  were  detained  at  their  anchorage  about  a  week 
and  signs  of  open  mutiny  grew  apace.  Their  plan  was 
to  place  Hudson  and  all  the  sick  men  in  a  shallup  and 
set  them  adrift.  Habbakuk  Prickett  and  others,  (among 
whom  was  the  carpenter),  who  were  friendly  to  Hudson, 
used  every  argument  they  could  devise  to  induce 
them  to  desist,  but  it  was  all  in  vain."  Prickett  then 
pleaded  for  a  delay  of  three  days,  two  days,  twelve 
hours  even,  but  with  no  effect  except  to  exasperate  the 
men,    "who    became    very    violent    and    ordered    him    to 


his  berth  and  would  have  thrown  him   in   with   Hudson 
save  that  although  lame  he  was  needed  to  sail  the  ship." 

They  also  desired  the  carpenter  to  remain  but  he 
declared  "he  would  not  desert  his  commander  or  stay 
with  such  villians."  The  Rev.  Samuel  Purchas  says  of  him, 
"Philip  Staafe,  an  Ipswich  man,  their  best  purveyor  on 
shore  with  his  piece,  and  both  a  skillful  carpenter  and 
a  lusty  mariner  on  board,  when  he  could  by  no  pursuasions, 
seasoned  with  tears,  divert  them  from  their  devilish  de- 
signs, notwithstanding  they  entreated  him  to  stay  with 
them,  yet  chose  rather  to  commit  himself  to  God's  mercy 
in  the  forlorn  shallup  than  with  such  villians  to  accept  of 
likelier  hopes." 

Their  plan  was  now  arranged  to  be  executed  at  day- 
break on  the  morrow,  and  when  Hudson  came  up  from 
his  cabin,  some  of  the  mutineers  ran  and  closed  down 
the  hatchways  while  two  others  seized  him,  and  a  third 
bound  his  arms  behind  him.  "He  asked  them  what  they 
meant"  and  was  told  "he  should  know  when  he  was  in 
the  shallup."  Severe  encounters  took  place  between  the 
doomed  men  and  their  captors  "but  the  boat  was  now 
quickly  drawn  alongside  and  the  sick  and  the  lame,  to 
the  number  of  six  men,  were  brought  up  from  their  berths 
and  put  into  it." 

Hudson  called  Prickett  to  come  to  the  hatchway  to 
speak  with  him,  and  Prickett  crawled  up  on  deck,  and  on 
his  bended  knees  "besought  them  for  the  love  of  God 
to  remember  themselves  and  do  as  they  would  be  done 

Their  only  reply  was  to  order  him  back  to  his  berth 
"where  Hudson  continued  to  talk  with  him  at  the  horn 
that  gave  light  into  his  cabin." 

Henry  Hudson  thus  bound  and  helpless  was  thrown 
into  the  shallup  and  his  son  John  Hudson  was  thrown 
in  beside  him.  The  anchor  was  now  weighed,  the  sails 
hoisted,  and  they  stood  eastward  dragging  the  shallup  at 


the  stern.  When  they  had  nearly  cleared  the  ice  the  rope 
was  cut,  and  the  boat  was  set  adrift.  They  then  com- 
menced ransacking  the  ship,  chests  were  broken  open 
and  every  place  was  pillaged.  While  they  were  busy  at 
this  work,  some  one  cried  out  that  the  shallup  was  in 
sight,  and  Prickett  entreated  them  to  take  their  poor 
comrades  on  board  again,  or  at  least  to  take  them  in 
tow  to  the  entrance  to  the  bay,  where  Hudson  and  his 
companions  might  perhaps  have  been  enabled  to  reach 
Europe  But  in  truth,  this  was  just  what  the  mutineers 
did  not  want,  and  so  they  hoisted  sail  and  stood  away 
"as  from   an  enemy." 

It  would  have  been  merciful  to  kill  them  at  once,  but 
their  cruelty  preferred  leaving  them  to  a  lingering  horrible 
death,  in  which  Hudson's  young  son  was  to  share,  though 
his  tender  years  might  have  pleaded  in  his  behalf. 

The  mutineers  now  kept  on  their  way  but  like  the 
proverbial  way  of  the  transgressor,  it  was  a  hard  one. 
For  a  month  they  were  tossed  about  by  severe  tempests, 
"a  fortnight  they  were  embayed  in  ice,  that  stretched 
for  miles  around;  provisions  too  began  to  fail  though 
they  managed  to  catch  a  few  fish  and  shoot  a  few  fowl." 

But  while  they  feared  the  perils  that  surrounded  them, 
they  were  far  more  afraid  of  returning  to  England.  Green, 
their  new  Captain,  "swore  that  the  ship  should  keep  the 
sea  until  he  had  the  King's  hand  and  seal  to  his  pardon." 
At  length  they  reached  the  Capes,  and  the  boat  was  at 
once  sent  ashore  to  obtain  supplies. 

They  were  met  by  seven  canoes  filled  with  Indians  who 
seemed  overjoyed  at  seeing  them.  The  next  day  they 
landed  a^'ain,  all  except  Prickett.  who  being  lame  was  left 
to  guard  the  boat.  The  savages  now  attacked  them  and 
they  had  great  ditliculiy  in  making  their  escape.  Green 
died  instantly  from  his  wounds  and  his  body  was  thrown 


into  the  sea.     Three  others  soon  followed,   all  suffering 
terribly  before  the  end  came. 

Habbakuk  Prickett  had  been  twice  wounded  by  the 
arrows  of  the  savages,  but  fortunately  not  mortally,  as 
we  are  indebted  to  him  for  the  preservation  of  Hudson's 
journal,  which  he  continued  until  the  close  of  this  dis- 
astrous voyage. 

They  now  determined  to  shape  their  course  for  New 
Foundland  but  being  too  much  exhausted  to  sail  the  ship, 
they  were  the  sport  of  every  wind  that  blew,  and  took 
the  direction  of  Ireland. 

Their  diet  now  consisted  of  the  few  remaining  candles, 
and  a  little  vinegar,  and  being  unable  to  stand  they  laid 
about  the  deck  in  stolid  misery.  Robert  Juet  now  died 
in  great  agony  of  starvation  and  the  others  lost  all  hope 
of  ever  reaching  the  coast  of  Ireland. 

With  the  death  of  Juet,  the  last  of  the  mutineers  and 
the  leader  of  them  all,  perished. 

"At  last  it  pleased  God  to  bring  them  in  sight  of  land, 
and  they  strived  to  reach  it,  but  this  they  could  not  do; 
but  now  by  God's  mercy  a  still  more  joyful  cry  was  heard 
'a  sail!  a  sail!'" 

A  fishing  bark  had  marked  their  distress  and  kindly 
supplying  their  wants  took  them  safely  into  a  harbor 
in  Ireland. 

From  thence  they  were  enabled  to  reach  Plymouth 
and  ere  long  were  in  London. 

Great  was  the  astonishment  of  the  London  Company 
when  these  men  appeared  before  them.  They  had  not 
been  heard  from  in  nearly  eighteen  months,  and  all  hope 
of  ever  seeing  them  again  had  been  given  up. 

Great  too  was  their  sorrow  and  the  sorrow  of  all  Eng- 
land, when  their  sufferings  and  the  sad  fate  of  their 
gallant  commander  became  known. 


"Hudson  had  ever  reflected  honor  upon  his  country  and 
his  countrymen  loved  him  and  grieved  for  him." 

The  London  Company  at  once  decided  to  send  out  two 
ships,  the  "Discovery"  in  which  Hudson  had  sailed,  and 
the  "Resolution," — to  search  for  Hudson  and  relieve  him 
if  possible,  if  not  to  endeavor  to  ascertain  his  fate. 

Habbakuk  Prickett  was  taken  with  them  as  a  guide, 
and  hopes  were  entertained  that  they  might  also  dis- 
cover the  north-west  passage. 

The  ships  returned  the  following  year  having  failei  in 
both  objects.  No  tidings  of  Hudson  were  ever  received 
and  there  is  no  clue  to  the  manner  of  his  death.  Whether 
the  little  shallup  reached  Cape  Digges,  (which  seems  high- 
ly improbable),  and  they  were  murdered  by  the  savages; 
whether  they  died  of  starvation,  or  were  swallowed  up  by 
the  waves,  will  never  be  known. 

It  is  probable  that  Hudson's  Bay  became  at  once  his 
grave  and  his  enduring  monument. 

The  name  of  Henry  Hudson  is  graven  not  on  perish- 
able marble  of  man's  device,  and  not  alone  on  the 
escutcheons  of  numerous  cities,  but  on  a  great  bay,  a 
noble  strait,  and  a  magnificent  river,  that  shall  outlast 
them  all. 

It  was  on  June  23rd,  1611,  that  Hudson  and  his  son 
were  set  adrift  to  die;  in  April  of  the  year  1614,  his  widow 
applied  to  the  London  Company  for  employment  for  a 
younger  son,  "as  she  had  been  left  very  poor." 

The  Company  considered  that  the  boy  had  a  just  claim 
on  them,  as  his  father  had  perished  in  the  service  of  the 
Commonwealth.  They  accordingly  placed  the  lad  for 
nautical  instruction  in  the  Samaritan,  and*  gave  him  five 
pounds  for  his  outfit. 

The  north-west  passage  remained  unachieved  until  its 
discovery  became  of  little  material  moment.     By  a  curious 


coincidence  Captain  Roald  Amundson  sailed  through  it 
in  his  diminutive  sloop  Gjoa  less  than  three  years  before 
the  three  hundredth  anniversary  of  Hudson's  first  voyage 
in  its  search  All  honor  to  the  brave  Norwegian  who 
succeeded,  where  Franklin  and  Hudson  failed,  and  per- 
ished in  the  attempt. 

Three  centuries  have  rolled  away  since  Henry  Hudson's 
career  closed  in  tragic  mystery. 

Imagine  his  amazement  and  delight  could  he  re-visit 
this  mundane  sphere  during  the  celebration  of  his  dis- 
coveries, and  view  the  magnificent  pageant  to  be  given 
in  his  honor. 

How  marvelous  to  him  the  huge  war  ships,  embody- 
ing the  inventive  genius  of  all  the  ages  in  construction 
and  armament,  contrasted  with  his  own  little  'Half  Moon!" 
How  wonderful  the  stately  steamboat,  that  grand  fruition 
of  Robert  Fulton's  ingenius  planting  in  the  tiny  Cler- 
mont! How  astounding  the  20th  Century  railway  train 
speeding  by  on  the  bank  of  his  "Great  River  of  the  Moun- 
tains,"— and  to  crown  all  a  fleet  of  air-ships  sailing  in  the 
blue  empyrean !  His  astonishment  would  indeed  reach  its 
height  at  beholding  all  these  miracles,  but  when  he  heard 
his  name  on  every  tongue  from  lisping  infancy  to  quaver- 
ing age,  his  heart  would  glow  with  gladness,  and  in  the 
loving  praise  of  a  grateful  people  he  would  feel  repaid 
for  all  his  sufferings. 


Chapter  I. 

The  Dutch  Occupation. 

When,  late  in  the  year  1609,  the  stanch  little  "Half 
Moon"  came  sailing  into  the  harbor  of  Amsterdam,  con- 
signed to  her  owners.  The  Dutch  East  India  Company, 
the  event  created  no  little  excitement  even  in  that  phleg- 
matic community. 

Henry  Hudson,  her  intrepid  commander  being  detained 
in  England  was  unable  to  accompany  the  ship,  and  never 
re-visited  Holland;  but,  faithful  in  the  performance  of  his 
duty  to  his  employers,  he  sent  them  his  journal,  and  chart 
of  his  discoveries,  pointing  them  with  pride  to  "The 
Great  River  of  the  Mountains"  as  he  called  the  Hudson. 
This  river  the  Dutch  speedily  re-named  the  "River 
Mauritius"  in  honor  of  their  young  Stadt-holder,  Prince 
Maurice  of  Nassau. 

They  also  called  it  the  North  River,  to  distinguish  it 
from  the  Delaware,  or  South  River. 

The  East  India  Company  proceeded  in  the  following 
year  to  reap  the  fruits  of  Hudson's  arduous  enterprise; 
and  thereafter  continued  a  brisk  and  profitable  traffic  with 
the  Indians,  but  made  no  attempt  to  colonize.  It  was 
not  until  the  year  1623,  that  "The  West  India  Company" 
was  formed  with  special  reference  to  this  essential  duty, 


and  brought  over  sixty  families  in  their  first  ship,  who 
settled  on  the  banks  of  the  Hudson  river,  and  on  Manhat- 
tan and  Long  Island.  It  is  related  that  there  were  four 
young  couples  who  were  married  on  the  voyage,  and  who 
set  up  their  simple  homes  in  New  Jersey. 

The  West  India  Company  proceeded  to  take  possession 
for  the  Netherlands,  by  right  of  discovery,  of  a  territory 
about  the  size  of  four  of  our  Middle  States.  At  Bowling 
Green,  where  now  stands  the  new  Custom  House  in  New 
York  City,  they  threw  up  a  fortification,  planted  the  Dutch 
flag,  with  its  seven  stripes  of  red,  white  and  blue,  one  for 
each  province,  and  named  the  place  New  Amsterdam. 
This  transaction  was  completed  soon  after  by  Director 
General  Peter  Minuet,  in  the  purchase  of  Manhattan  Is- 
land from  the  Indians,  for  the  sum  of  sixty  guilders  or 
24  dollars  in  our  money.  Other  ships  followed,  bring- 
ing more  Colonists  but  they  came  slowly.  They  were  not 
fleeing  from  persecution,  for  Holland  was  at  this  time 
the  open  asylum  for  the  oppressed  of  all  nations,  and  they 
were  a  happy  and  contented  people.  Those  who  came 
were  doubtless  attracted  by  the  palpable  evidences  of 
wealth,  displayed  by  the  rich  cargoes  of  returning  ships, 
an  idea  of  which  may  be  obtained  from  the  manifest  of 
the  "Arms  of  Amsterdam,  in  1624."  "7246  beaver-skins, 
843  otter  and  151  minks  and  lynxes,  and  other  pelts,  be- 
sides much  timber  of  oak  and  walnut  wood."  Then  too 
they  felt  a  natural  curiosity  to  see  the  new  strange  land, 
of  which  they  had  heard  so  much. 

Whatever  may  have  been  the  special  attraction  to  these 
shores,  of  our  first  Dutch  settler,  we  may  surely  com- 
mend his  taste  in  the  selection  of  this  locality  for  his 
home,  which  is  certainly  "beautiful  for  situation,"  "A 
City  set  on  a  hill." 

On  the  15th  of  June  in  the  year  1662,  Jan  Franz  Van 
Hoesan,  a  native  of  Holland,  purchased  a  tract  of  land 
from  the  Mohicans,  the  Indian  tribe  who  entertained  the 


bold  Explorer  Henry  Hudson  so  hospitably  on  this  shore 
a  half  century  before. 

This  tract  included  the  ground  on  which  the  City  of 
Hudson  is  built  and  a  portion  of  Greenport.  It  extended 
along  the  river  from  Stockport  Creek  on  the  North,  to 
the  mouth  of  Kishna's  Kill,  or  creek  on  the  South,  which 
empties  into  the  South  Bay  near  Mount  Merino,  and  on 
the  East  to  Claverack  Creek. 

Here  it  met  the  boundary  of  the  Van  Rensselaer  patent 
and  priority  of  title  was  contested  by  the  agent  of  the 
Patroon,  but  after  a  long  litigation  the  courts  decided  in 
favor  of  Van  Hoesan. 

These  lands  were  confirmed  to  him  by  patent  from 
Governor  Nicoll,  at  Albany  on  May  14th,   1667. 

Jan  Franz  Van  Hoesan,  the  patentee  died  about  the 
year  1703  and  under  the  law  of  primogeniture  the  prop- 
erty passed  to  his  eldest  son  Jurrieu,  but  on  January  7, 
1704  he  generously  "conveyed  to  his  brothers  and  sister, 
Jacob  Jan,  Johannes,  and  Katherine,  wife  of  Francis  Har- 
dick,  his  lands  lying  on  and  near  the  river."  Francis 
Hardick  when  a  boy  had  run  away  from  Liverpool  and 
shipped  on  a  trading  vessel  to  Manhattan,  from  thence 
he  made  his  way  to  the  "Landing,"  obtained  employment 
of  Mynheer  Van  Hoesan  and  afterward  married  his  daugh- 

In  the  division  of  Jurrien's  inheritance,  Jacob  Jan  re- 
ceived lands  to  the  Northward  while  those  of  his  brother 
Johannes  lay  upon  the  river  and  South  Bay,  extending  on 
the  North  to  the  road  which  formed  the  boundary  of  the 
tract  allotted  to  the  Hardicks. 

This  road  or  "wagon  way"  led  from  the  ferr>'  along 
the  line  of  what  later  became  Ferry  and  Partition  streets, 
and  continued  up  to  the  present  Public  Square,  crossing 
which  it  led  out  to  the  interior. 

The  lands  of  Johannes  Van  Hoesan  and  the  Hardicks 
comprised  a  large  part  of  the  site  of  Hudson  City,  which 


has  had  a  continuous  existence  of  nearly  two  hundred 
and  fifty  years!  The  Van  Hoesan  house,  on  the  site  of 
that  occupied  by  Jan  Franz  Van  Hoesan,  is  still  standing, 
near  the  entrance  to  the  covered  bridge  North  of  the 
city,  bearing  the  date   1729. 

The  first  sale  recorded  was  a  "store  and  wharf-lot,  and 
mill  site"  purchased  by  Jeremiah  Hogeboom,  which  in- 
cluded what  is  now  known  as  Underbills  Pond.  A  grist 
mill  was  built  here  which  was  owned  by  Peter  Hoge- 
boom, Jr.,  in  1783,  and  is  still  in  evidence.  Johannes 
Van  Hoesan  died  on  October  28,  1724,  leaving  his  lands 
to  his  sons,  Jacob  and  Gerrit,  from  whom  they  descended 
to  Hendrick,  Gerrit  and  Katherine  Van  Hoesan,  who  be- 
came the  wife  of  Colonel  John  Van  Alen.  He  was  one 
of  the  most  prominent  as  well  as  most  attractive  person- 
alities of  the  place.  He  is  described  as  "a  man  of  noble 
feelings  and  well  cultivated  mind.  In  stature  he  was  tall 
and  well  formed,  and  true  to  the  Dutch  taste  and  fashion 
of  the  day,  wore  a  bright  red  coat."  His  residence  was 
one  of  the  larger  of  the  fine  brick  dwellings  of  the  early 
Settlement,  with  wide  hospitable  "stoep,"  and  high  pointed 
Dutch  gables;  and  his  business,  which  was  a  flourishing 
one,  was  conducted  in  a  large  warehouse  with  a  "sloop- 
landing"  or  wharf,  which  he  owned. 

It  would  be  interesting  to  inquire  where  Colonel  Van 
Alen  won  his  military  title.  Griffis  says  "that  many 
Officers  who  gained  distinction  in  Holland's  victorious 
eighty  years'  struggle  with  Spain,  were  among  our  colon- 
ists," and  mentions  Captain  John  Smith,  Captain  Myles 
Standish,  and  Governor  Petrus  Stuyvesant,  with  many 
others.  To  these  we  may  safely  add  the  name  of  Colonel 
John  Van  Alen. 

Other  prominent  residents  were  Justus  and  Peter  Van 
Hoesan,  descendants  of  Jurrien  Van  Hoesan.  Justus 
Van  Hoesan  and  his  wife  died  at  the  same  time,  being 
accidentally  poisoned  by  taking  arsenic,  this  event  creat- 


ing  great  excitement  in  the  little  Settlement.  They  were 
buried  in  a  private  burial-ground  on  land  owned  by  Justus 
Van  Hoesan,  near  the  lower  District  School.  This  cemetery 
and  one  on  the  north  side  were  used  by  the  inhabitants 
until  after  the  opening  of  the  new  ground  at  the  present 
location,  when  they  were  discontinued,  and  the  bodies 
subsequently  removed. 

There  was  a  canoe-ferry  kept  by  Conrad  Flock,  starting 
from  the  site  of  the  present  ferry  and  running  to  Loonen- 
burg,  (so-called  from  the  Van  Loan  family,)  now  known 
as  Athens. 

This  was  also  a  Dutch  settlement  of  an  early  date, 
mention  being  made  of  a  tannery  in  operation  there  in 

A  single  canoe  was  used  for  passengers,  and  two  were 
lashed  together  in  order  to  carry  teams;  the  wagons  being 
fastened  upon  timbers  laid  across  the  canoes,  while  the 
horses  were  tied  at  the  sides  and  compelled  to  swim. 
This  soon  gave  place  to  a  boat,  twenty  feet  long,  very 
narrow,  and  sharp  at  both  ends,  on  which  the  horses  were 
put,  and  wagons  in  the  centre. 

It  is  recorded  that  some  of  these  early  settlers  were 
farmers,  but  they  were  principally  engaged  in  fishing, 
there  being  an  abundance  of  fine  fish  in  the  river,  for 
which  they  found  a  ready  market  in  New  York. 

Those  who  preferred  farming  must  have  been  well 
satisfied  with  the  luxuriant  fields  of  indigenous  white 
clover,  they  found  ready  for  cultivation,  and  which  gave 
the  name  to  the  settlement.  "Klauver"  being  the  Dutch 
word   for  clover,   and   "rachen"   meaning   reach,   or  field. 

But  the  one  employment  that  engrossed  them  all,  was 
trading  with  the  Indians.  Even  fanners,  and  the  farm 
laborers  whom  they  had  brought  over  to  assist  them, 
found  it  far  more  profitable  and  less  fatiguing  than  tilling 
the  soil. 

It  was  not  until   after  the   fierce   Indian   wars   checked 


this  traffic  that  the  farmer  turned  his  attention  solely 
to  the  land,  and  found  it  to  be  wonderfully  fertile  and 

Van  der  Donck,  the  veracious  Dutch  historian,  whose 
memory  is  preserved  as  the  "Yonkeer"  or,  "Young  Master," 
after  whom  Yonkers  was  named,  tells  marvelous  tales 
of  these  fields  of  wheat.  Certain  it  is,  that  boats  were 
loading  continuously  at  the  "Landing"  with  their  grain 
and  produce  for  many  years  after. 

Flax  and  hemp  grew  spontaneously,  and  De  Vries  de- 
scribes these  lands  as  being  "very  delightful  and  pleasant 
to  look  upon  when  they  were  all  green  with  the  wheat 
coming  up,  and  the  woods  interlaced  and  festooned  with 
grape  vines,  the  fruit  of  which  was  as  good  and  as  sweet 
as  in  Holland."  "Nut  trees,  wild  plums  and  berries  of 
all  kinds  grew  in  greatest  profusion,  deer  were  plentiful, 
the  forest  was  filled  with  game  and  the  river  with  fish." 
Surely  the  Dutch  immigrant  had  "a  goodly  heritage." 
Then  too  they  came  in  whole  families,  and  not  unfre- 
quently  a  neighborhood  of  close  friends  came  together, 
which  must  have  added  much  to  their  contentment. 

They  were  well  to  do  people,  some  of  them  wealthy, 
and  they  brought  with  them  their  house  furnishings  and 
in  many  cases  their  domestics,  as  the  passenger  lists  of 
the  vessels  prove. 

Their  dwellings  and  storehouses  with  wharves  on  the 
river  front,  were  duplicates  of  those  they  had  left.  They 
were  built  of  small  bricks  burned  with  Dutch  peat,  brought 
out  to  them  in  ships,  and  each  had  its  huge  brick  oven, 
savoring  of  culinary  achievements  unknown  to  the  new 
world.  The  little  colony  gained  some  accessions  from 
Rensselaerwick  the  settlement  that  Killian  Van  Rensselaer, 
the  pearl  merchant  of  Amsterdam,  was  endeavoring  ta 
found  near  Fort  Orange,  now  Albany. 

The  States  General  of  Holland  offered  a  grant  of  land 


with  the  title  of  Patroon,  which  carried  with  it  some  feudal 
privileges,  to  any  one  who  would  settle  fifty  families  in 
the  New  Netherlands.  With  the  assistance  of  the  Rev. 
Johannes  Van  Mechlin,  better  known  as  Domine  Mega- 
polensis,  who  in  the  year  1642  brought  over  forty  families, 
Van  Rensselaer  obtained  this  grant,  and  acquired  still 
larger  tracts  by  purchase   from  the   Indians. 

Fort  Orange  on  the  site  of  Albany,  was  built  by  the 
Dutch  government  in  1614,  as  a  protection  for  future 
colonists  against  Indian  depredations,  and  Sebastian 
Croll  (pronounced  Crull)  was  placed  in  command.  He  is 
the  traditional  inventor  of  the  cruller,  "of  which  the 
doughnut  is  the  coarser  expression." 

Lest  this  should'  be  deemed  too  frivolous  for  so  eminent 
a  personage,  it  must  be  mentioned  that  he  was  also  an 
elder  in  the  "Church  in  the  Fort,"  which  was  founded 
by  the  Rev.  Jonas  Michaelius  in  the  year  1628,  and  which 
on  the  first  Sabbath  had  a  membership  of  fifty  persons. 
"Some  having  brought  their  letters  with  them  from  Hol- 
land, and  others  united  on  confession  of  their  faith." 

A  school  was  soon  opened  in  connection  with  this 
church,  which  is  still  known  in  New  York  City,  as  the 
Collegiate  School  of  the  Reformed  Church. 

Before  the  year  1662  eleven  churches  with  schools 
attached,  besides  out  stations,  had  been  established,  and 
thirteen  ministers  provided. 

Doubtless  there  were  other  schools  in  addition  to  these. 
Washington  Irving  has  preserved  a  Dutch  Schoolmaster 
in  the  amber  of  his  droller>',  but  like  his  other  Knicker- 
bockers, the  caricature  is  so  greatly  exaggerated  as  to 
destroy  the  resemblance  to  the  original. 

Claverack  was  one  of  the  out  stations  under  the  care 
of  the  church  at  Albany  until  the  present  Rcfonned 
church  was  organized  in  1726.  since  which  time  it  has 
had  a  settled  ministry  of  more  than  the  average  ability. 


The  present  sightly  edifice  was  erected  in  the  year 
1767,  and  is  a  most  attractive  and  commodious  house 
of  worship. 

In  1704,  a  Lutheran  congregation  was  organized  in 
Loonenburgh,  and,  some  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  "Land- 
ing" attended  church  there,  and  were  among  the  officers 
of  that  body,  being  rowed  across  in  small  boats. 



Slavery — Post  Riders — Revolutionary  War. 

The  first  census  was  taken  in  1714,  and  showed  the 
population  of  the  settlement  to  be  two  hundred  and 
nineteen,  sixteen  of  whom  were  slaves. 

This  mention  of  slaves  recalls  the  fact  that  this  insti- 
tution that  we  are  accustomed  to  consider  purely  sec- 
tional, existed  in  all  the  original  thirteen  states.  It  was 
not  until  1817  that  the  Legislature  of  the  State  of  New 
York  enacted  a  law  providing  for  its  termination  ten 
years  later.  This  was  carried  into  effect  and  in  1827  the 
blot  was  removed  from  our  escutcheon. 

We  cannot  be  too  thankful  that  the  climate  and  economic 
conditions  at  the  North,  were  not  favorable  to  its  reten- 
tion. In  1626,  seven  years  after  the  introduction  of 
slavery  into  Virginia,  the  Dutch  East  India  Company 
brought  a  small  cargo  of  slaves  to  the  Island  of  Manhat- 
tan. The  Dutch  did  not  take  kindly  to  slavery,  and  we 
are  not  surprised  to  find  Domine  Megapolensis  present- 
ing to  the  Governor  a  very  strong  petition  for  their  manu- 

This  was  granted,  but  a  storm  of  indignation  arose 
when  it  was  learned  later,  that  the  company  were  selling 
the  children  of  these  slaves  to  the  highest  bidder.  It  was 
stopped  at  once,  and  the  Company  were  finally  compelled 
to  hire  most  of  those  they  brought  over  to  the  settlers, 
consequently  but  few  were  imported. 

During  this  period  the  relations  between  master  and 
slave  were  almost  patriarchal.  They  were  given  little 
plots  of  ground  to  cultivate  and  were  treated  most  indul- 


gently,  but  under  the  English  rule  their  lot  was  one  of 
suffering  and  hardship.  Their  number  was  also  greatly 
increased  when  the  Duke  of  York  and  Albany,  afterward 
King  James  the  Second  (after  whom  New  York  and 
Albany  were  named),  was  made  President  of  the  South 
African  Company,  and  directly  interested  in  the  profits. 

The  Governors  of  all  the  colonies  were  continually  urged 
to  greater  diligence  in  the  disposal  of  these  large  cargoes 
of  negroes. 

There  were  but  few  slaves  left  in  this  city  or  county 
when  the  first  Emancipation  Day  dawned,  on  July  fourth, 
1827,  and  the  action  of  "Prince"  Martin  is  typical  of  the 
others.  When  Judge  Martin  told  him  he  was  free  to 
go  or  stay  as  he  pleased,  Prince  scratched  his  woolly  pate, 
already  frosted  with  age,  and  replied,  "Well,  Massa,  you've 
had  the  meat  and  you  may  as  well  have  the  bones." 
A  most  wise  decision!  Prince  lived  many  years  in  the 
old  home,  most  tenderly  cared  for,  and  annually  led  the 
joyous  procession  on  "Emancipation  Day,"  resplendent  in 
the  discarded  raiment  of  his  master. 

The  only  allusion  to  wild  animals  in  the  early  records 
of  the  county  is  in  the  year  1775.  "A  bounty  being  offered 
to  every  free  Indian,  free  negro  or  slave,  who  shall  kill 
panthers  or  wolves  in  Albany  or  the  adjoining  counties, 
on  proof  of  the  same  to  the  justices  or  Supervisors  of 
the  said  county." 

At  a  very  early  date  it  was  found  necessary  to  estab- 
lish regular  communication  between  the  Island  of  Man- 
hattan and  Fort  Orange,  and  various  means  were  tried. 

There  were  many  sloops  plying  upon  the  river  connect- 
ing the  settlements  with  each  other,  and  carrying  both 
passengers  and  freight,  but  they  were  dependent  upon 
the  wind  and  subject  to  serious  delays. 

Small  boats  with  swift  Indian  rowers  were  tried,  but 
were  found  unavailable  because  of  storms,  and  the  ice- 
bound condition  of  the  river  during  the  winter  months. 


Finally,  in  1684  post-riders  carrying  letters  and  dispatches 
were  decided  upon,  and  a  post-road  was  opened  with 
inns  for  the  rest  and  refreshment  of  the  weary  rider,  and 
to  provide  relays  of  fresh  horses.  This  method  proved 
feasible  and  the  current  expression  "post-haste"  wouid 
indicate  that  it  was  at  least  moderately  rapid. 

The  vocation  of  a  mail-carrier  in  those  early  days  was 
fraught  with  danger  and  difficulty.  Picking  his  way  over 
a  mere  bridle  path,  exposed  to  autumn's  gales  and  winter's 
cold  and  snow,  and  in  constant  peril  from  lurking  Indian 
foes,  gladly  must  he  have  welcomed  his  havens  of  warmth 
and  good  cheer. 

The  Post-road  of  which  an  occasional  mile  stone  is 
still  in  evidence,  traversed  the  county  from  north  to  south, 
intersecting  the  "wagon  way"  from  the  Landing,  now 
the  Columbia  Turnpike,  near  the  residence  of  Mrs.  George 
W.  DuBois,  which  was  the  Post  Station  for  Claverack, 
others  being  located  on  either  side,  at  Kinderbrook  and 
Livingston.  The  mother  of  Mrs.  DuBois,  Mrs.  Elbert 
S.  Porter,  remembered  distinctly  having  stopped  over  night 
at  this  Claverack  "stage-house,"  as  it  was  called,  when 
as  a  little  girl  she  traveled  with  her  father  by  stage-coach 
from  Kinderhook  to  New  York. 

These  mail-coaches  of  a  later  day  necessitated  the  im- 
provement of  the  road  and  the  enlargement  of  the  inns 
or  taverns,  for  the  accommodation  of  the  general  pubh'c, 
and  a  steady  stream  of  vehicles  of  all  kinds,  and  of 
wagons  loaded  with  farm  products,  passed  over  it  con- 
tinually. A  little  hamlet  of  Hollanders  had  gathered 
around  the  Post  Station  at  an  earlier  date,  and  about  the 
year  1786  a  Post  Office  was  opened  there. 

Columbia  county  was  formed  from  Albany  county  on 
the  4th  of  April,  1786,  by  an  act  of  the  Legislature,  which 
provided  "that  it  should  be  called  Columbia,  and  that 
a  Court  House  and  gaol  should  be  erected  in  Claverack 


Accordingly  the  dwelling  now  appropriately  known  as 
"Old  Court,"  formerly,  and  for  many  years  the  residence 
of  Peter  Hoffman,  was  built  for  the  purposes  of  the 
courts.     The  cost  including  the  goal  was  3,600  pounds. 

The  county  goal  situated  in  the  rear,  was  a  somewhat 
small  building  of  heavy  squared  timber,  strongly  clamped 
with  iron. 

Claverack  remained  the  county  seat  until  the  year  1805, 
when  it  was  changed  to  Hudson. 

Some  of  the  foremost  men  of  the  day  displayed  their 
budding  talents  in  that  old  Court  House  at  Claverack, 
during  the  eighteen  years  of  its  occupancy  by  the  courts; 
among  them  being  Ambrose  Spencer,  Martin  Van  Buren, 
Elisha  Williams  and  Alexander  Hamilton. 

After  a  century  of  peaceful  prosperity,  our  little  settle- 
ment began  to  hear  the  low  mutterings  of  a  growing  dis- 
content, that  culminated  in  the  momentous  action  of  the 
Continental  Congress,  suspending  commercial  relations 
with  the  mother  country,  whose  senseless  aggressions  had 
become  insupportable. 

Universally  acclaimed  the  most  successful  of  all  the 
colonizing  nations  of  Europe,  England  failed  ignobly  when 
she  tried  her  "prentice  hand"  on  the  American  colonies. 
Being  brought  to  the  alternative  of  concession  or  war, 
she  quickly  chose  the  latter,  and  the  provincials  were 
proclaimed  rebels.  In  the  same  year,  1774,  the  patriots 
of  Albany  county  began  to  raise  a  Regiment,  with  its 
full  complement  of  from  60  to  100  men  to  each  Com- 
pany, and  the  "First  Claverack  Battalion"  was  soon  drill- 
ing on  the  clover-reaches  near  the  village  of  that  name. 

Mynheer  no  longer  smoked  his  long  pipe,  surrounded 

by  "Yeffvrouw"  and  "Kinder,"  but  hied  himself  to  the 
Post  Station,  and  the  newer  tavern  opposite,  to  hear 
and   discuss   the   exciting   news,   while   train   bands   with 


fife  and  drum,  marched  and  counter-marched  on  the  green 

The  sturdy  Dutch  patriots  of  "The  Landing"  responded 
nobly  to  the  call  to  arms,  furnishing  a  Lieut.  Colonel 
Johannes  Van  Hoesan,  a  Company  raised  by  Captain  Hen- 
drick  Van  Hoesan,  and  officered  by  his  brothers  and 
cousin,  Ensign  Francis  Hardick,  Jr.  Also  two  non-com- 
missioned officers  for  Captain  Richard  Esselstyns  Clav- 
erack  Company,  besides  a  large  number  of  Van  Hoesans 
in  the  ranks;  and  of  Hardicks,  Hogebooms,  and  Huycks, 
not  a  few. 

Jans  and  Jacob  Jans,  Jurriens  and  Johanneses,  Hen- 
dricks and  Gerrits,  names  so  familiar  in  the  early  chroni- 
cles were  all  there.  It  is  a  fact  of  pathetic  significance 
that  not  one  of  these  names  enrolled,  was  in  evidence 
in  the  sales  of  Dutch  property  to  the  Proprietors,  ten 
years  later. 

A  company  largely  recruited  in  the  town  of  Livingston 
by  Captain  John  McKinstry  and  Lieut.  Thomas  McKinstry 
of  the  "Landing,"  took  part  in  the  battle  of  "The  Cedars" 
on  the  St.  Lawrence  River,  May  19,  1776,  when  Captain 
McKinstry  was  captured  by  England's  Indian  allies. 

Preparations  were  made  to  torture  and  kill  him  but  a 
Free  Mason's  sign  to  Brant,  who  was  a  member  of  the 
Order  saved  his  life.  McKinstry  and  Brant  remained  fast 
friends  during  the  remainder  of  their  lives,  and  Brant 
was  a  frequent  visitor  at  the  McKinstry  mansion,  in  after 

The  Americans  made  a  strong  effort  to  keep  the 
Indians  neutral  during  the  Revolution,  and  secured  a 
solemn  promise  from  the  Six  Nations  to  that  effect,  but 
the.  English  were  determined  from  the  first  to  avail  them- 
selves of  their  aid,  and  finally  by  appealing  to  their 
avarice,  giving  them  the  most  lavish  presents  of  gold 
pieces,  suits  of  red  clothes,  etc.,  they  succeeded  in  ob- 
taining the  support  of  a   large   proportion   of  the  tribes. 


It  is  also  affirmed  that  the  Indians  were  offered  a  bounty 
for  every  scalp  brought  in,  thus  adding  the  crowning 
horror  to  the  war.  Joseph  Brant,  "Thayendanegea,"  the 
great  chief  of  the  Mohawks,  was  lukewarm  and  indif- 
ferent until  he  was  sent  to  England,  and  there  feasted 
and  honored  as  his  predecessors  had  been,  and  like  them 
he  returned  pledged  to  do  his  royal  master's  bidding. 

The  Mohicans,  leaving  the  Stockbridge  Mission  rallied 
their  scattered  warriors,  and  with  the  Wappingers,  re- 
newed their  vows  of  fealty  to  the  patriots,  with  a  de- 
votion that  has  been  compared  to  that  of  Ruth,  and  was 
expressed  in  almost  the  same  words. 

The  occasion  for  their  services  came  in  the  following 
year  at  the  battle  of  Bunker's  Hill,  on  June  17,  1775. 
The  privations  the  patriots  endured  they  shared  without 
a  murmur,  and  fought  with  unwearied  bravery  to  the  end. 
When  the  tattered  banners  were  folded  away  they  re- 
turned to  their  white  brothers,  united  by  a  holier  tie,  but 
no  truer  friendship  than  that  with  which  they  had  met 
and  welcomed  them,  to  the  shores  of  Hudson's  river,  in 

Washington  bore  testimony  to  their  worth  when  he 
commended  to  Congress  as  the  wards  of  the  nation  "the 
last  of  the  Mohicans." 

In  view  of  the  patriotic  zeal  of  our  Dutch  settlers  dur- 
ing the  revolutionary  war,  the  ease  with  which  they 
surrendered  the  colony  to  the  English  a  century  before 
would  seem  inexplicable,  did  we  not  take  into  account 
the  peculiar  relations  existing  between  the  two  countries 
at  that  time.  If  the  digression  is  pardonable  it  is  inter- 
esting to  revert  to  them  in  this  connection. 

During  Holland's  life- and- death  struggle  with  Spain, 
Queen  Elizabeth,  prodded  by  her  Protestant  Premier, 
backed  by  Protestant  England,  after  heart-rending  vacil- 
lations, at  last  yielded  and  granted  them  a  subsidy  and  a 
few  troops. 


Reprisals  came  quickly  in  the  form  of  the  Invincible 
Armada,  which  it  will  be  recalled,  after  suffering  defeat 
at  the  hands  of  Howard  and  Drake,  was  dispersed  by  a 
terrible  storm. 

A  similar  fate  befell  the  Assyrian  General,  Sennacherib, 
in  Old  Testament  times. 

"Like  the  leaves  of  the  forest  when  summer   is   green, 
That  host  and   its  banners  at  sunset  were  seen. 
Like  the  leaves  of  the  forest  when   autumn  has  blown, 
That   host  on  the   morrow   lay  withered   and  strown." 

By  her  own  heroic  endurance  and  bravery,  with  the 
assistance  sent  by  England,  Holland  was  victorious,  and 
peace  was  declared,  but  it  was  not  an  assured  peace,  and 
in  1668  war  broke  out  afresh,  in  which  England,  Ger- 
many, and  Holland  were  allied  against  France  and  Spain. 
This  war  was  terminated  by  the  Treaty  of  Utrecht  in 
1716,  by  which  Spain  yielded  Gibraltar  to  England,  and 
France  resigned  her  pretensions  to  Hudson's  Bay,  Nova 
Scotia  and  Newfoundland. 

Holland  had  learned  how  to  starve  in  beleagured  Ley- 
den,  and  could  have  repeated  the  experience  in  New 
Amsterdam  if  necessary. 

When,  therefore,  we  read  that  "England  sailed  to  Man- 
hattan with  a  small  armament,  and  met  with  but  slight 
resistance,"  we  may  be  sure  that  such  a  reception  savored 
strongly  of  previous  diplomatic  ''pour  parlcrs.'' 

In  the  words  of  a  writer  very  early  in  the  last  century — 

"There  must  have  been  a  strong  fund  of  good  sense, 
and  native  talent  in  our  early  Dutch  settlers,  to  which 
were  added  a  sound  judgment,  and  liberality  of  feeling, 
associated  with  high  principles  of  honor  and  patriotism." 

England  had  never  for  a  moment  felt  contented  to 
leave  Holland  in  possession  of  the  discoveries  of  her  own 
English  subject,  and  had  only  awaited  her  opportunity  to 
prove  it,  by  force  of  arms  if  necessary. 



The  Rule  of  the  Proprietors— 1783-1810. 

When  the  American  colonies,  obedient  to  the  brave 
edict  of  the  Continental  Congress  in  1774,  suspended 
commercial  intercourse  with  the  mother  country,  she  re- 
taliated by  preying  upon  our  commerce  with  all  her  bound- 
less resources. 

None  of  our  industries  suffered  more  keenly  from  the 
depredations  of  the  British,  than  the  whale  fisheries,  our 
New  England  whalers  being  driven  from  the  sea.  Nan- 
tucket was  at  that  time  the  largest  whaling  station  in 
the  world,  but  she  was  compelled  to  witness  its  rapid 

However,  there  was  still  left  a  ship  to  carry  the  new 
flag  of  the  victorious  Republic,  and  the  first  one  seen  in 
an  English  port,  was  flying  from  the  mast-head  of  a  Nan- 
tucket whaling  ship. 

In  the  spring  of  1783,  a  considerable  number  of  the 
inhabitants  of  that  part  of  the  country,  with  the  hope 
of  bettering  their  fortunes,  determined  to  make  a  settle- 
ment somewhere  on  the  Hudson  River. 

To  this  end  two  brothers,  natives  of  Nantucket,  named 
Seth  and  Thomas  Jenkins,  left  Providence,  Rhode  Island, 
where  Thomas  was  engaged  in  mercantile  business,  for 
the  purpose  of  selecting  a  suitable  site,  taking  with  them 
the  sum  of  100,000  dollars.  On  arriving  in  New  York 
they  called  on  Col.  Henry  Rutgers,  an  old  friend  of 
Seth  Jenkins,  who  offered  to  sell  them  his  farm  on  the 
East  river.  They  considered  his  offer,  but  differed  200 
dollars  in  the  price.  This,  Seth  Jenkins  offered  to 
divide,  but  Col.  Rutgers  declining  to  yield,  the  negotiation 
was  ended. 


The  brothers  then  continued  their  journey,  tarrying  at 
Poughkeepsie  with  a  view  to  purchasing,  but  being  de- 
sirous of  making  a  full  examination  of  the  Hudson  river, 
proceeded  on,  and  finally  decided  upon  Claverack  Landing 
as  meeting  their  requirements.  At  this  point  they  found 
the  river  navigable  for  vessels  of  any  depth,  and  the 
natural  beauty  of  the  location,  combined  with  the  fact 
that  it  was  in  a  thriving,  thickly  settled  farming  popula- 
tion, made  it  seem  in  every  way  desirable. 

On  the  19th  of  July,  1783,  the  first  purchase  was  made 
by  Thomas  Jenkins,  consisting  of  a  "store  and  wharf- 
lot"  of  Peter  Hogeboom,  Junior,  for  £2600,  paying  £500 
down,  and  signing  the  deed. 

This  was  followed  by  two  parcels  of  lots  bought  of  the 
widow  of  Francis  Hardick  and  sons,  for  £1870  and  £540, 

These  three  purchases  being  completed,  the  brothers 
returned  to  Nantucket  for  their  families,  and  in  the  autumn 
Seth  Jenkins  and  John  Alsop  were  the  first  to  arrive  at 
the  "Landing";  Seth  Jenkin's  family,  consisting  of  his 
wife  (Dinah  Folger),  four  children,  Robert,  the  eldest, 
aged  eleven  years,  and  Dinah  Coffin,  the  mother  of 
Dinah  Folger.  His  house  was  the  first  to  be  built,  and 
while  building,  his  family  lived  on  board  the  ship.  This 
and  the  adjoining  dwelling  of  John  Alsop,  were  on  the 
northerly    side    of    Franklin    Square. 

"In  the  spring  of  1784,  the  other  proprietors  followed 
with  their  families,  bringing  with  them  several  vessels, 
and  in  some  instances  the  frames  of  buildings  prepared 
at  Nantucket,   for  erection  upon  their  arrival." 

One  of  these  was  brought  by  Stephen  Paddock  and  upon 
his  arrival  with  his  family,  Col.  Van  Alen  went  on  board 
of  his  vessel,  and  offered  them  the  hospitality  of  his  house 
which  they  accepted,  Mr.  Paddock  remarking  "if  that 
was  a  sample  of  the  Dutch,  they  were  in  a  happy  land." 


"The  proprietors   afterward   found   in   Col.   Van   Alen   a 
warm  friend." 

The  Proprietors'  Association  as  formed  was  to  consist 
of  not  more  than  thirty  members,  all  of  whom  should  be 
merchants,  "or  concerned  in  navigating  the  deep." 

The  articles  of  agreement  subscribed  by  them  were 
the  following: 


We,  the  subscribers,  being  joint  proprietors  of  a  cer- 
tain Tract  of  Land  lying  at  Claverack  Landing  on  the 
banks  of  the  Hudson  River,  purchased  by  Thomas  Jen- 
kins of  Peter  Hogeboom  Junr.,  and  others,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  establishing  a  commercial  settlement,  on  prin- 
ciples of  equity,  do  enter  into  the  following  Articles  of 
Agreement,  to  wit: — 

Article  the  First. 

That  each  proprietor  subscribe  for  such  part  of  the 
above  Tract,  in  proportion  as  near  as  may  be  to  his 
Stock  in  Trade,  with  the  others  concerned. 

Article  the   Second. 

No  person  shall  be  permitted  to  purchase  lands  within 
two  miles  of  the  said  landing,  unless  he  shall  give  the 
Proprietors  the  refusal  thereof  at  the  rates  at  which  he 
himself  purchased  it. 

Article  Third. 

That  each  and  every  one  of  the  proprietors  shall  settle 
there  in  person  and  carry  his  Trading  Stock,  on  or  before 
the  first  day  of  October,  A.  Dom.,  one  thousand  seven 


liundred  and  eighty-five,  unless  prevented  by  some  un- 
avoidable event  that  shall  be  esteemed  a  sufficient  reason 
by  some  of  the  proprietors,  for  his  non-compliance,  and 
his  going  immediately  after  the  obstruction  is  removed. 

In  case  of  Death  his  heirs,  executors  or  administrators, 
with  fully  complying  with  these  Articles,  shall  be  entitled 
to  the  same  privileges  as  other  proprietors. 

Article   Fourth. 

That  no  person  be  permitted  to  dispose  of  his  share 
who  has  not  fully  complied  with  these  Articles,  but  said 
share  revert  to  the  other  Proprietors,  they  paying  the 
first  cost  of  said  share  without  interest,  and  that  the 
proprietors  which  have  complied  with  the  foregoing  shall 
hold  possession  of  lands  according  to  their  several  pro- 

Article  Fifth. 

That  no  proprietor  be  permitted  to  enter  any  building 
on  any  proprietor's  land,  until  it  shall  be  divided,  and 
they  shall  be  subjected  to  such  regulations  as  shall  be 
hereafter  made,  for  regulating  the  Streets,  Lanes,  High- 
ways, Gangways,  &c. 

Article  Sixth. 

That  we  further  agree  that  if  any  one  or  more  shall 
forfeit  the  right  of  his  or  their  interest  in  the  afore- 
mentioned lands,  according  to  the  true  intent  and  meaning 
of  the  preceding  articles,  that  he  or  they  shall  if  fur- 
nished with  Deeds  or  other  Instruments  of  conveyance 
from  Thomas  Jenkins,  give  up  the  same  to  the  Propri- 
etors, or  furnish  them  with  a  clear  Deed  or  Deeds  of  all 
their  right,  title,   and   interest  in   said  lands,   they  paying 


such   person    or   persons   the   first   cost   as    described   in 
article  fourth. 

Article   Seventh. 

That  the  subscribers  do  solemnly  agree  to  abide  by 
the  preceding  Articles  and  regulations,  and  that  this  In- 
strument be  signed  and  sealed  by  each  individual  pro- 
prietor, and  the  original  be  lodged  in  the  hands  of  the 
Proprietors'  Clerk. 

Stephen  Paddock  Thomas  Jenkins 

Joseph  Barnard  Reuben  Macy 

Benjamin  Folger  Cotton  Gelston 

Seth  Jenkins  John  Alsop 

William  Hall  Charles  Jenkins 

Hezekiah  Dayton  Ezra  Reed 

David  Lawrence  Gideon  Gardner 

Titus  Morgan  John  Thurston 

Reuben  Folger  Nathaniel  Greene 

All  the  proprietors  do  not  appear  to  have  signed  these 
articles  of  agreement,  which  is  explained  by  the  fact  that 
two  or  three  did  not  continue  members,  and  the  shares 
of  some  were  included  and  covered  by  the  signatures  of 
the  other  proprietors. — Extracts  from  minutes. — 

1784,  May  14th.  The  proprietors  held  their  first  meeting 
at  the  house  of  Seth  Jenkins,  and  voted  to  elect  such  offi- 
cers as  were  necessary  to  regulate  their  internal  measures, 
so  far  as  their  land  extended.  David  Lawrence  was  chosen 
Moderator  of  the  meeting;  Reuben  Folger,  Clerk  for  one 
year.  A  committee  of  six,  of  which  Seth  Jenkins  was 
chairman,  was  appointed  to  "regulate  streets,  and  to 
attend  in  a  particular  manner  to  the  fixings  of  the  build- 
ings uniformly."  It  was  also  voted  "that  no  person 
should  fix  his  house  without  such  direction  from  a 
majority  of  the  committee  as  they  might  think  proper;" 


and  that  "No  person  should  extend  his  steps  more  than 
four  feet  from  his  door  or  sellar  ways." 

1784,  May  15th.  A  committee  of  four  having  been 
appointed  "to  lay  out,  sell  or  lease  to  David  Bunker  and 
Redwood  Easton  a  convenient  lot  for  a  tan  yard"  reported 
that  "they  had  sold  one-quarter  of  an  acre  near  Peter 
Hogeboom's  grist  mill,  with  benefit  of  the  mill  stream 
for  £8.00  payable  £2.00  per  annum.^' 

1784,  May  17th.  Cotton  Gelston  was  voted  treasurer. 
Five  proprietors  were  authorized  to  call  a  meetmg, 
by  making  application  in  writing  to  the  Clerk.  "And  that 
any  number  of  persons  possessing  sixteen  full  thirtieths  in 
the  proprietorship  shall  constitute  a  meeting  and  not  less.** 

1784,  June  2nd.  It  was  voted  that  a  number  of  men 
should  be  employed  "to  dig  on  the  hill  in  the  direction  of 
Main  street,  in  order  to  open  a  way  to  the  river,  and 
procure  stone  for  the  proprietors." 

This  was  probably  the  opening  of  South  Front  street. 
Gideon  Gardner  was  appointed  to  superintend  that  busi- 
ness." The  portion  of  the  future  city  first  occupied  was 
that  nearest  the  landing,  and  Cotton  Gelston  opened 
the  first  store.  The  first  house  on  Main  street  was  built 
by  Peter  Barnard,  just  above  the  residence  of  Mrs.  j.  S. 
Gould.     Below  it  were  orchards  and  cornfields. 

June  28,  1784.  It  was  voted  "that  a  house  be  immediate- 
ly built  at  the  expense  of  the  proprietors,  20  feet  by  30  to 
be  appropriated  for  a  Market  House  and  that  Daniel 
Paddock  superintend  the  building." 

This  was  the  establishment  of  the  first  or  lower  Market 

Oct.  24th  it  was  voted  "that  a  bridge  be  built  over  th« 
great  hollow  in  Main  street,  with  stone  abutments."  Seth 
Jenkins  was  appointed  to  have  the  work  done. 

The  bridge  was  located  in  front  of  the  upper  comer  of 
"Warren   and  Fourth  streets. 

Oct.  24th.  They  also  voted  "that  Thomas  Jenkins  have 


privilege  to  erect  a  hay  scale  at  his  own  cost,  on  Market 
Square  for  five  years,  he  promising  not  to  exact  more  than 
Is.    6d.    per   load,    for   weighing." 

1784,  Nov.  14th.  It  was  unanimously  agreed  by  the 
proprietors,  that  "in  futur  it  should  be  called  by  the  name 
of  Hudson." 

There  seems  to  have  been  no  debate  on  the  change  of 
name,  or  the  suggestion  of  any  other  by  the  proprietors 
than  that  given.  Governor  George  Clinton  was  desirous 
that  the  settlement  should  be  called  Clinton,  and  was 
displeased  that  the  name  met  with  no  favor  from  the 

1784,  Nov.  23rd.  Thomas  Jenkins,  David  Lawrence  and 
Gideon  Gardner,  were  appointed  a  committee  "to  wait 
on  Col.  John  Van  Alen,  empowered  by  the  proprietors 
to  purchase  his  real  estate  for  £2,500  and  one-thirtieth 
interest  in  the  first  purchase  made,  including  one-thirtieth 
of  his  own  land." 

This  property  was  the  dwelling  and  store  and  wharf 
lot  before  referred  to,  and  included  all  the  land  lying 
between  Ferry  street  and  the  bay,  and  running  easterly 
to  Front  street. 

The  first  child  bom  after  the  purchase  was  Elizabeth 
Bunker,  who  died  while  young.  Her  parents  were 
natives  of  Nantucket,  who  came  here  from  Dutchess 

In  the  autumn  of  1784,  Daniel  Paddock  and  Cotton 
Gelston  were  appointed  by  the  proprietors  a  committee 
to  procure  ground  for  a  Cemetery.  They  called  upon  Col. 
Van  Alen  for  advice  and  assistance  and  after  viewing  sev- 
eral different  localities,  settled  upon  the  site  of  the  present 
ground,  owned  by  Col.  Van  Alen.  When  asked  his 
price  for  four  or  five  acres,  the  Colonel  replied  "that  he 
would  give  that  quantity  to  the  proprietors  to  be  used 
for  a  burial  ground  forever,  and  for  no  other  purpose."" 

Additions   have    been    made    from    time   to    time,    and 


it  is  now  of  quite  considerable  extent,  and  greatly 
admired  for  the  beauty  of  its  scenery.  The  committee 
deserve  credit  for  the  selection  of  a  spot,  at  once  so 
secluded  and  so  accessible. 

The  original  ground  is  that  portion  first  entered  from 
the  small  gate,  and  well  preserved  stones  mark  the 
resting-places  of  Seth  Jenkins,  Gelston,  S.  Pomeroy  White 
and  many  others,  while  beyond  are  scattered  the  brown 
moss-covered  stones  grown  hoary  with  age,  whose  in- 
scriptions are  almost  undecipherable. 

The  first  person  buried  in  this  ground  was  Phebe, 
wife  of  Benjamin  Folger,  the  first  man  who  was  buried 
there  was  Colonel  John  Van  Alen,  who  died  December 
15th,   1784. 

About  the  middle  of  the  last  century  the  city  erected 
a  substantial  monument  to  his  memory,  bearing  the 
following   inscription: 

"He  was  a  man  of  strong  mind  and  liberal  heart.  He 
took  an  active  interest  in  the  settlement  of  Hudson, 
was  the  donor  of  the  original  burying  ground,  and  the 
third  person  buried  therein." 



Final  Acquisition  of  Land. — Ship  Building. 

After  the  death  of  Col.  Van  Alen,  it  was  voted  "to 
ascertain  from  the  widow  Van  Alen  whether  she  had 
power  to  ratify  the  bargain,  and  if  so  to  get  writings 
drawn  and  executed  immediately." 

It  was  also  voted  to  procure  "from  Thomas  Jenkins 
a  one-thirtieth  or  compleat  share  in  the  proprietorship, 
for  the  sum  of  £500  to  be  made  out  to  Catherine  Van 

The  purchase  of  the  property  was  completed,  and  the 
proprietors  "presented  to  Mrs.  Van  Alen  No.  10  house 
lot,  in  the  first  square  and  Main  street." 

Mrs.  Van  Alen  built  a  house  on  the  lot  and  resided 
there  until  1787.  It  was  then  occupied  by  Ambrose 
Spencer  and  his  son  John  C.  Spencer  was  bom  there. 
Its  precise  locality  cannot  be  ascertained. 

Later  when  Greene  street  was  laid  out,  a  large  plot 
bore  the  name  of  Catherine  Van  Alen. 

With  the  purchase  of  about  twelve  acres  additional 
from  Leendert  Hardick,  and  the  division  of  some  un- 
claimed water  lots  among  them,  the  acquisition  of  land 
by  the  proprietors  seems  to  have  rested. 

The  water  lots  lay  along  the  South  Bay  close  to  the 
water's  edge,  and  the  proprietors  with  commendable  fore- 
sight announced  that  "any  person  falling  in  must  not 
look  to  them  for  damages." 

When  we  reflect  that  the  purchasing  power  of  a 
dollar  was  from  ten  to  twenty  times  greater  in  those 
days  than  now,  and  that  the  sums  paid  by  the  proprietors 
were   in   pounds,  multiplying   a   dollar  nearly   five  times, 


the  prices  obtained  by  the  Dutch  settlers  would  argue  very 
good  values;  the  proprietors  being  experienced  business 
men  who  would  not  pay  more  than  the  land  was  worth. 
In  the  meantime  the  enterprise  had  attracted  desirable 
additions  from  Providence,  Martha's  Vineyard  and  New- 
port, nearly  all  of  whom  were  the  possessors  of  comfort- 
able fortunes,  and  the  growth  of  the  little  settlement  was 
almost  unparalleled. 

A  very  large  proportion  of  the  inhabitants  were  members 
of  the  Society  of  Quakers,  and  theirs  was  the  first  religious 
organization  to  apply  for  ground  on  which  to  build  a 
meeting-house  as  we  find  in  the  minutes. 

1784,  Sept.  8th.  It  was  voted  "that  divers  of  the 
proprietors  being  members  of  the  society  called  Quakers, 
who  now  request  that  a  piece  of  ground  be  set  apart  on 
their  right  for  a  meeting-house  and  schoolhouse,  there- 
fore, they  of  the  said  society  being  proprietors,  are  author- 
ized and  empowered  to  make  choice  of  such  one  of  the 
public  squares  for  a  meeting-house  as  they  should  think 
proper,  the  lot  to  be  given  by  the  proprietors  if  built 
upon  before  any  other  society  should  make  application. 
The  half  of  the  adjoining  lot  was  to  be  selected  also  for 
a  schoolhouse  and  a  deed  of  conveyance  of  the  lots  would 
be  given  for  that  purpose,  and  that  only." 

A  lot  on  the  south  side  of  Union  street  seventy-five 
by  sixty  feet,  near  the  comer  of  Third  street  was 
selected  and  a  small  frame  building  was  erected. 

The  society  increasing  rapidly  in  members,  purchased 
the  lot  on  the  opposite  side  of  Union  street  corner  of 
Third,  where  in  the  year  1794,  they  built  a  large  brick 
building  capable  of  accommodating  six  hundred  people, 
in  which  they  worshipped  until  1853,  when  they  occupied 
the  building  vacated  by  the  Methodists. 

This  was  their  last  meeting-house,  their  members 
having  dwindled  to  a  very  few  families. 

Their    places    of    worship    were    like    their    garb    and 


language,  devoid  of  all  unnecessary  ornament,  not  evert 
a  coat  of  paint  being  admissible  on  either  the  interior 
or  exterior,  which  last  possessed  nothing  to  designate  its- 
character  or  use  to  a  stranger. 

The  audience-room  was  divided  by  a  high  partition 
through  the  centre  which  entirely  separated  the  sexes,  and 
was  furnished  with  hard  wooden  benches,  while  facing 
these  were  arranged  a  few  elevated  seats,  for  the  elders 
of  the  society,  and  from  which  the  preachers  discoursed, 
whenever  the  spirit  moved  them. 

The  juveniles  of  the  congregation  were  relegated  to 
the  rear  of  the  respective  divisions,  and  an  early  writer 
gives  a  graphic  account  of  his  efforts  to  keep  awake,  and 
thus  avoid  the  rap  on  the  head  administered  by  the 
cane  of  a  watchful  elder.  He  relates  that  one  Jethro 
Bell,  the  better  to  perform  this  duty  seated  himself 
among  the  youthful  offenders,  and  on  one  particularly 
warm  Sunday,  while  leaning  forward,  with  his  chin  on  his 
cane  fell  fast  asleep! 

An  ungodly  boy,  pretending  to  flick  a  fly  from  the 
elder's  nose,  hit  the  cane  and  Jethro  fell  sprawling  upon 
his  face.  We  can  imagine  the  horror  of  the  whole  as- 
sembly at  this  breach  of  decorum,  and  the  deep  but 
silent  enjoyment  of  the  boys. 

Their  worship  was  ordinarily  silent  but  two  preachers 
are  mentioned  who  occasionally  discoursed  to  them, 
Thomas  Comstock  and  Hannah  Barnard,  both  well 
known  to  "Friends"  in  other  parts  of  the  country. 

The  same  simplicity  that  marked  their  place  and  form 
of  worship,  was  carried  into  every  department  of  life. 
They  never  uncovered  their  heads  in  the  meeting  house 
or  on  any  public  occasion,  and  never  made  use  of  any 
titles  in  their  address  of  each  other,  or  of  the  "world's 
people,"  simply  calling  everyone  by  their  given  name. 

The  Quaker  dress  was  severely  plain.  No  jewelry 
was  tolerated,  and  it  never  varied  either  in  style  or  color, 


but  there  was  a  quaintness  in  the  dove-colored  dress  and 
bonnet,  and  sheer  crossed  'kerchief,  that  was  very  at- 

Lovers  of  order,  hospitable,  benevolent,  industrious,  and 
peaceful  in  all  their  pursuits,  were  these  fascinating  mem- 
bers of  a  society,  that  not  only  originated  and  adorned, 
but  was  itself  the  best  example  of  the  "simple  life." 

A  little  rhyme  by  the  late  Stephen  B.  Miller  well  com- 
memorates the  "Friends"  of  those  early  days  of  the 
Proprietors;  we  give  a  portion  of  it. 

"Full  four-score  years  and  ten   ago 
From  those  lone  and  sea-girt  places, 
Martha's  Vineyard  and  Nantucket 
Came  the  Folgers,  Jenkins,  Macys 
And   the    Paddocks,    Worths   and    Daytons, 
And  there  were  Coffins,  full  a  score. 
With  many  more  a  home  to  find 
Upon   North    River's  quiet  shore. 

They  are  all  gone!  and  in  our  streets 

Of  those  plain  days  there  scarce  a  trace  is, 

Little   save  names   are   left  to  tell 

Of   Bunkers,   Jenkins,    Barnards,   Macys. 

Simple  in  heart,  peace-loving  men 

With   sober-minded,   worthy   dames. 

All  sweet  within  and  drab  without, 

And  all  with  good  old  Scripture  names." 

No  further  mention  is  made  of  the  schoolhouse  pro- 
vided for  in  the  grant  to  the  Quakers. 

The  first  school  opened  after  the  arrival  of  the  pro- 
prietors was  kept  by  James  Burns  in  a  frame  building  on 
the  county  road  near  the  river.  It  had  been  built  and 
used  for  a  schoolhouse  by  the  inhabitants  of  Chivcrack 
Landing,  and  remained  until  the  opening  of  Front  Street, 
when    it  was  demolished. 


The  children  of  all  the  leading  citizens  were  pupils 
of  Mr.  Burns,  and  the  building  was  also  available  for  the 
public  meetings  of  the  day. 

Ship-building  was  commenced  in  the  first  year  of  the 
settlement  and  was  carried  on  extensively  for  many  years. 
A  number  of  vessels  were  brought  here  by  the  proprietors 
and  in  1786  there  were  twenty-five,  carrying  twenty-five 
hundred  tons  owned  here;  more  than  were  at  that  time 
owned  in  the  City  of  New  York.  In  1784  Titus  Morgan 
made  the  first  application  for  the  privilege  of  building 
a  shipyard  on  the  purchase,  "adjoining  the  northernmost 
street,"  agreeing  in  consideration  of  a  lease  being  granted 
him  for  four  years,  (afterward  extended  to  ten),  to  open 
a  street  from  Market  street  to  the  river  passable  for 
wagons,  at  his  own  expense."  This  was  the  opening  of 
North  Front  street  and  the  yard  was  situated  at  the  foot 
of  State  street. 

Ship  yards  were  built  immediately  after  by  Obed  Sears, 
Marshall  Jenkins,  John  T.  Lacy  and  others.  As  many  as 
five  large  ships  were  known  to  be  on  the  stocks  in  these 
various  yards  at  one  time. 

Launching  days  were  frequent  and  were  always  kept 
as  a  holiday.  Booths  were  erected  outside  the  yard  for 
the  sale  of  refreshments  which  consisted  principally  of 
Mrs.  Newberry's  gingerbread.  Schools  were  dismissed, 
the  people  from  the  country  came  in,  and  with  the  greater 
part  of  the  population  of  the  city,  would  gather  at  the 
yard  and  often  wait  patiently  for  hours  for  the  moving 
of  the  vessel,  which  was  the  signal  for  the  firing  of  guns, 
and  the  cheers  of  the  crowd. 

In  addition  to  the  yards  here,  there  were  several  at 
Athens,  in  which  were  built  some  of  the  largest  vessels 
owned  by  Thomas  and  Marshall  Jenkins. 

The  first  ship  launched  was  in  1785  by  Jenkins  and 
Gelston;  it  was  of  three  hundred  tons,  called  "The  Hud- 
son" and  commanded  by  Captain  Robert  Folger. 


The  extensive  commerce  of  the  settlement  gave  great 
impetus  to  every  branch  of  business,  connected  with  the 
building  and  fitting  out  of  ships.  Sail-making,  rope-mak- 
ing, painting,  blacksmithing  and  many  other  industries 
furnished  employment  to  a  large  number  of  men. 

In  1785  Thomas  Jenkins,  Josiah  Olcott  and  others,  built 
a  rope  walk  six  hundred  feet  long,  on  the  westerly  side 
of  Third  and  north  of  State  street. 

Many  of  these  ropes  were  of  such  weight,  as  to  re- 
quire several  yoke  of  oxen  to  convey  them  to  the  river 
to  be  shipped. 

"The  rope  walk  was  ever  with  the  boys  a  favorite  Sat- 
urday resort,  the  processes  of  spinning  and  twisting  amus- 
ing them,  while  its  great  length  afforded  an  ample  field 
for  the  foot-race."  Many  a  staid  citizen  of  a  later  day 
proved  himself  there  "a  fast  young  man." 

Another  industry  connected  with  ships  was  sail  mak- 
ing. This  was  conducted  by  Seth  Jenkins  and  Stephen 
Paddock,  in  a  hemp  and  ducking  factory  erected  on  Third 
street.  They  sent  a  portion  of  their  manufactures  to  New 
York  but  the  greater  part  were  used  in  the  sail  lofts 

A  brewery  was  established  by  Benjamin  Faulkins  who 
stated  in  the  Gazette  "that  he  had  been  regularly  brought 
up  to  this  philosophical  branch  of  business  in  England, 
and  he  did  not  doubt  his  brewery  might  become  of  great 
utihty  to  Hudson  by  giving  his  ale  the  name  of  "Hudson 
Ale,"  the  prices  of  which  were:  stock  ale  five  dollars,  and 
mild  ale  three  dollars  per  barrel."  The  brewery  was  on 
the  north  side  near  the  river. 

In  addition  to  the  brewery  of  Mr.  Faulkins  there  was 
another  in  the  vicinity  of  the  North  Bay.  and  a  third  on 
the  south  side  of  the  settlement.  "None  of  these  brew- 
eries turned  out  more  than  five  barrels  per  day,  but  there 
were  few  more  extensive  than  these,  anywhere  to  be  found 
at  that  time."    There  were  extensive  tanneries  carried  on 


by  a  half  dozen  of  the  proprietors,  and  large  quantities 
of  leather  were  manufactured,  for  a  greater  portion  of 
which  they  found  a  market  in  New  York. 

A  wind  grist  mill  was  built  on  the  top  of  Prospect  Hill 
by  Joseph  Barnard,  which  was  a  prominent  object  in  all 
the  approaches  to  the  settlement,  and  was  visible  many 
miles  distant.  It  gave  place  to  a  house  for  refreshments 
with  the  design  of  making  the  hill  a  public  resort,  but  it 
did  not  succeed.  The  grist  mill  gave  it  the  name  of  "Wind 
Mill  Hill,"  by  which  it  was  known  for  many  years. 



Minutes.   Pen  Pictures  of  the  Proprietors. 

The  minutes  of  the  Proprietors,  to  which  we  will  now 
return,  exhibit  a  strong  desire  for  the  incorporation  of 
the  settlement. 

1785,  Feb.  7th,  Seth  Jenkins  and  John  Thurston  were 
appointed  a  committee  "to  repair  to  the  manors  of  Van 
Rensselaer  and  Livingston,  and  find  where  said  line  inter- 
sects Claverack  Creek,  so  that  the  bounds  of  the  in- 
tended township,  for  which  a  petition  is  to  be  presented 
to  the  Legislature,  may  be  more  accurately  described." 

A  committee  was  also  appointed  to  examine  and  de- 
fine the  limits  on  the  north  and  south  of  the  future  city. 

1784,  Sept.  2nd,  It  was  voted  that  the  "three  wells"  be 
stoned  and  masoned  up.  The  "three  wells"  were  prob- 
ably three  reservoirs,  one  of  which  was  in  Third  street, 
another  in  the  vicinity  of  Second  street,  and  a  third  near 
the  Market  house. 

1785,  April  8th,  "It  was  voted  that  Thomas  Jenkins  and 
David  Lawrence  be  a  committee  to  name  the  streets; 
also  that  Diamond  street  be  put  in  a  passable  condition, 
and  that  the  proprietors  should  send  as  many  men  as 
convenient  until  there  was  a  sufficient  number  to  work 
them,  and  on  producing  a  certificate  to  Titus  Morgan  they 
should  be  entitled  to  receive  four  shillings  per  day,''  Eng- 
lish currency. 

1785,  April  10th.  They  voted  "that  a  lot  50  by  120  feet 
on  Diamond  street  should  be  granted  to  any  person  or 
persons,  who  would  build  a  schoolhouse.  not  less  than 
40  feet  by  24,  such  persons  not  to  receive  more  than 
nine  per  cent  on  tlie  cost  of  the  building  for  the  use  of 
it,  and  to  have  the  power  to  sell  it  to  the  corporation  at 


large,  for  their  own  use,  whenever  they  had  opportunity 
so  to  do;  and  that  it  should  continue  to  be  used  for  a 
schoolhouse,  for  every  description  and  denomination  of 
people  then  settled,  or  which  should  thereafter  settle 

Shortly  after  its  erection  Joseph  Marshall,  who  styled 
himself  "the  public's  humble  servant,"  gave  notice,  "that 
he  designed  opening  a  school  in  the  Diamond  street  school- 
house  from  5  to  7  o'clock  p.  m.,  each  day,  for  the  in- 
struction of  "Misses"  in  writing,  cyphering,  composition, 
English  grammar,  and  geography." 

The  boundaries  being  definitely  ascertained  the  pro- 
prietors proceeded  with  the  business  of  incorporation. 

1785,  Feb.  17th.  It  was  voted  that  "a  petition  be  drafted 
to  be  laid  before  the  Legislative  authority  of  the  state, 
for  the  purpose  of  getting  ourselves  incorporated,  with 
city  privileges,"  and  that  Ezekiel  Gilbert,  John  Thurston, 
Ezra  Reed,  and  Seth  Jenkins  be  a  committee  to  draft 
the  same  and  with  Gen.  Van  Rensselaer,  to  repair  to 
New  York  as  soon  as  convenient,  and  present  the  same 
before  the  General  Assembly  now  in  session,  and  use 
their  utmost  influence  to   get  it  passed  immediately." 

A  committee  was  appointed  "to  lay  out  and  plot,"  the 
future  city.  The  plot  embraced  Union,  Main,  Diamond 
and  State  streets,  with  Second,  Third,  Fourth  and  Fifth 
streets  crossing  them.  First  street  was  not  opened  until 
many  years  later. 

"One  house  lot  was  voted  to  Cotton  Gelston  for  his 
trouble  in  laying  out  the  plot." 

In  all  the  proceedings  of  the  Proprietors  we  find  but 
two  or  three  allusions  to  their  financial  condition,  but  it 
is  evident  from  these  that  they  were  at  times  consider- 
ably pressed  and  advised  the  disposition  of  certain  lots 
for  relief. 

Of  the  government  of  "The  Landing"  we  are  unable 


to  catch  a  glimpse,  but  its  success  must  be  held  to  prove 
its  wisdom. 

Had  the  Proprietors  understood  the  language  of  the 
Hollanders,  their  intercourse  would  have  been  less  diffi- 
cult and  more  agreeable  to  both.  It  is  said  that  the 
"Yankees,"  as  they  were  called,  found  great  amusement 
in  listening  to  the  broken  English  of  their  Dutch  neigh- 
bors, frequently  drawing  them  out  simply  to  have  a  laugh 
at  their  expense,  but  the  Dutch  had  the  advantage  for 
they  understood  English  perfectly,  probably  from  their 
intercourse  with  New  York,  "while  the  Proprietors  could 
not  understand  a  word  that  they  said." 

But  they  seem  to  have  dwelt  together  in  harmony,  both 
being  upright  and  honorable  in  their  business  dealings, 
and  both  possessed  of  that  invaluable  adjunct,  good  com- 
mon sense.  The  distinct  nationalities  must  have  lent  a 
spice  of  variety,  to  the  social  life  of  Claverack  Landing. 
We  have  hints  of  Dutch  frolics  and  feasting,  apple-par- 
ings and  corn-huskings,  with  the  sweet  penalty  of  finding 
a  red  ear,  and  of  country  dances  galore;  while  the  stately 
dinners,  tea-parties  and  quiltings  of  the  staid  New  Eng- 
landers  possess  a  peculiar  charm. 

Even  the  captious  critic  of  "Random  Recollections"  has 
only  unqualified  praise  for  the  beauty,  intelligence  and 
accomplishments  of  the  gentler  sex  who  graced  the  so- 
ciety of  that  day. 

Certainly  no  place  can  claim  more  for  the  character 
of  its  founders  than  Hudson.  All  of  them  were  men 
of  influence,  ability  and  activity,  and  are  described  as 
beinq  physically,  "stout,  well  formed,  noble  looking  men." 

The  Jenkins  family,  who  were  the  leading  spirits  in 
the  enterprise,  carried  on  successfully  every  branch  of 
trade  and  commerce  for  manv  years.  Thomas  Jenkins 
is  described  as  "unitinu;  the  dignified,  princely  air  of  an 
old  school  gentleman,  with  the  address  and  energy  of  a 
man  of  business."     "Standing  on  his  wharf  with  his  gold- 


headed   cane    in    his   hand,    watching    and    directing  the 

preparations  for  the  sailing  of  his  ships,  his  bearing  and 

manner  was  authoritative,  but  his  nature  was  kind  and 

His  residence  was  the  house  Nos.  116  and  118  Warren 
street,  opposite  "The  Worth"  later  divided  into  two  dwell- 
ings, the  lower  of  which  served  for  "The  Misses  Peakes 
Seminary  for  Young  Ladies,"  during  a  portion  of  the  last 

In  its  entirety  it  was  a  palatial  home  contrasting  strongly 
with  the  primitive  simplicity  of  the  Quakers  and  subject- 
ing Mr.  Jenkins  to  the  charge  of  being  "somewhat  aristo- 
cratic." Thomas  Jenkins  died  in  New  York  in  1808, 
his  remains  being  brought  to  Hudson  on  a  sloop,  and  bur- 
ied in  the  ground  belonging  to  the  Quaker  Society.  In 
accordance  with  their  strict  rules,  no  tombstone  was  ever 
placed  on  his  grave,  and  it  cannot  now  be  identified. 

His  son  Elisha  Jenkins,  a  leading  partner  in  the  well- 
known  house  of  "Thomas  Jenkins  and  Sons,"  retiring 
from  business  with  an  ample  fortune  removed  to  Albany 
and  becam.e  prominent,  first  as  State  Comptroller,  and 
later  as  Secretary  of  State. 

Seth  Jenkins  who  was  the  first  Mayor  of  Hudson,  and 
equally  with  his  brother  Thomas,  a  power  in  the  develop- 
ment of  the  Settlement  from  its  earliest  inception,  was  a 
man  of  high  character  and  excellent  abilities.  He  gave 
most  unstintedly  of  his  time  and  personal  service,  beside 
employing  his  wealth  and  influence  for  the  prosperity  of 
all  concerned. 

Mr.  Jenkins  served  with  distinction  as  Mavor  of  the 
city  from  its  incorporation  in  1785,  until  his  death,  which- 
occurred  on  July  30th,  1793.  His  son  Seth  Jenkins,  Junior, 
built  and  resided  in  the  dwelling,  Number  115  Warren 
street,  adjoining  the  Chapter  House  and  of  similar  style 
before  the  radical  alterations  of  the  latter,  for  its  pres- 
ent purposes. 


He  married  Sarah  Hathaway,  who  was  a  sister  of  Cap- 
tain John  Hathaway,  and  an  aunt  of  the  Hon.  Theodore 

From  the  author  of  "Random  Recollections"  who  was 
a  resident  of  Hudson  during  its  formative  period,  we 
gather  a  few  items  of  personal  interest.  He  says  "Among 
the  most  prominent  of  the  fathers  was  Robert  Jenkins,  a 
gentleman  of  the  highest  respectability,  though  somewhat 
abrupt  and  decisive  in  his  tone  and  manner."  Robert 
Jenkins,  a  son  of  Seth  Jenkins,  inherited  his  father's 
executive  ability.  At  the  age  of  nineteen,  he  was  at 
the  head  of  the  first  cotton  mill  erected  in  the  state,  and 
held  many  positions  of  honor  and  trust. 

In  February,  1808,  he  was  appointed  the  third  Mayor 
of  Hudson  by  Governor  Daniel  D.  Tompkins,  and  served 
two  terms. 

For  over  thirty  years  with  the  exception  of  a  short  in- 
terval of  two  years,  the  office  of  Mayor  of  the  City  was 
fille  1  by  some  member  of  the  Jenkins  family. 

In  1811,  at  the  age  of  39  years,  Robert  Jenkins  built 
the  spacious  colonial  mansion,  No.  113  Warren  street, 
which  his  granddaughter,  Mrs.  Marcellus  Hartley  pur- 
chased, and  so  generously  presented  to  the  Hendrick  Hud- 
son Chapter,  of  the  Daughters  of  the  American  Revolu- 
tion, as  a  fitting  memorial  of  her  ancestors. 

Mr.  Jenkins  resided  in  this  dwelling  until  his  death  on 
November   11th,    1819. 

A  man  of  exceptional  activity  and  usefulness  in  the 
settlement  was  Cotton  Gelston. 

He  was  the  first  treasurer  to  the  Proprietors,  the  first 
surveyor  and  made  the  first  plot  of  the  city.  He  drew 
their  first  deeds,  launched  the  first  ship,  opened  the  first 
store,  in  which  was  located  the  first  postotfice  and  was 
appointed  the  first  postmaster. 

Mr.  Gelston  was  possessed  of  a  choleric  temper  and  at 
the  last  meeting  of  the   proprietors,   being  violently   op- 


posed  to  the  transfer  of  the  minutes,  books,  and  papers 
to  the  Common  Council,  made  a  determined  effort  to 
burn  them.  He  succeeded  in  part,  but  after  a  struggle 
the  minutes  were  taken  from  him,  and  saved  by  Gilbert 
Jenkins,  thus  averting  an  irreparable  loss  to  the  future 

Squire  Worth  is  pictured  "as  a  short,  thick-set  man^ 
round-shouldered  and  red-haired;  a  man  of  strict  integrity 
and  good  sense  but  excessively  odd."  He  was  induced  ta 
sit  for  his  portrait,  but  quarrelled  with  the  artist  for  mak- 
ing him  look  "like  a  one-story  house  with  the  chimney 

Captain  Hathaway,  "a  very  worthy  citizen  but  troubled 
with  the  asthma,  and  frequently  suffering  from  the  ex- 
cellence of  his  dinner.  In  politics  always  calculating 
freights  rather  than  majorities,  and  wisely  relying  with 
more  confidence  upon  his  pocket  than  upon  his  party. 
Still  he  was  a  worthy  citizen  and  though  close,  and  some- 
what phthisicy,  an  honest  man." 

David  Lawrence,  "a  man  of  keen  observation  and 
ready  wit;  of  strong  sense  and  stronger  prejudice.  In  his 
old  age  gouty,  irritable  and  sarcastic.  On  hearing  that 
the  Bank  of  Nantucket  had  been  robbed,  'Ugh!'  said  the 
old  gentleman,  with  an  air  of  contempt,  'I  suppose  they 
forgot  to  pull  the  latch  string  in.'  " 

This  was  an  allusion  to  the  wooden  latchets  then  in 
use,  which  were  placed  on  the  inside  of  the  front  door, 
and  were  lifted  on  the  outside  by  a  string  put  through  a 
small  aperture  in  the  daytime,  and  pulled  inside  at  night. 
"The  latch  string  is  out"  was  a  common  expression  of 
hospitality  in  those  days. 

The  writer  occupied  rooms  in  a  house  at  East  Hamp- 
ton, L.  I.,  some  years  ago,  whose  only  protection  was  the 
latch  string  here  described,  and  was  glad  to  remember  that 
the  citizens  of  that  ancient  burg,  had  just  previously 
voted  down  a  proposed  extension  of  the  railroad  to  the 


village,  "because  it  would  bring  so  much  wickedness  with 

The  seven  miles  of  heavy  staging  from  Sag  Harbor,  be- 
came an   element  of  safety  not  before  appreciated. 

Hezekiah  Dayton  is  next  mentioned  as  "a  good  citizen 
and  an  upright  man,  fond  of  argument,  reasoning  upon 
all  things,  but  in  all  things  unreasonable,"  "never  con- 
vinced  and  never  convincing." 

"'Ihen  comes  Robert  Taylor,  a  stout  well  dressed  per- 
sonage, arrayed  in  buff  vest  and  white  top  boots." 

"And  then  Captain  Alexander  Coffin,  one  of  Nature's 
noblemen,  frank,  generous,  warm-hearted  and  brave  as 
Caesar,  but  withal  hot  as  a  pepper-pot,  fierce  as  a  north- 
easter, yet  neither  rude,  aggressive  or  implacable.  He 
was  the  noblest  Roman  of  them  all." 

In  giving  all  due  credit  to  the  Proprietors  for  the  early 
prosperity  of  Hudson  we  should  not  forget  that  their 
efforts  were  ably  seconded  by  many  others,  not  only 
from  the  immediate  vicinity,  but  from  a  distance,  who 
were  attracted  to  the  enterprise  by  its  bright  prospects. 

Ezekiel  Gilbert,  who  seems  very  early  to  have  taken 
an  active  interest  in  it,  was  a  resident  of  Claverack  from 
which  place  he  removed  in  1785,  thus  becoming  Hudson's 
first  lawyer,  first,  not  only  in  order  but  for  many  years 
first  in  ability.  Mr.  Gilbert  was  not  a  man  of  great  tal- 
ent, but  he  made  himself  of  great  service  to  Hudson,  first 
in  the  matter  of  incorporation,  and  in  1790,  when  as  a 
Representative  in  Congress,  he  successfully  advocated 
Hudson's  claims  to  be  made  a  port  of  entry. 

On  returning  from  Washington,  after  serving  four 
years  in  the  House,  Mr.  Gilbert  brought  with  him  a  piano, 
which   was  the   first  one  owned   in   this  city. 

It  seems  curious  when  we  reHect  upon  it,  that  a  little 
comnuinity  with  an  experimental  existence  of  less  than 
a  year  and  a  half  should  so  soon,  and  at  a  single  bound, 
aspire  to  civic  honors. 


It  argues  a  self-confidence  that  the  event  proved  was 
not  ill-founded,  else  would  their  "vaulting  ambition  have 
o'erleaped  itself."  Perhaps  though  "they  builded  better 
than  they  knew!" 

However,  the  Proprietors  after  incorporation  continued 
their  regular  meetings  "being  duly  warned,"  with  Mod- 
erator and  Clerk,  and  retained  their  hold  upon  the  land, 
as  owners,  for  twenty-five  years,  deeding  lots  to  the  Com- 
mon Council  as  they  were  needed.  Thus  presenting  the 
unique  spectacle  of  two  distinct  governing  bodies  in  the 
same  city,  at  the  same  time,  and  composed  largely  of 
the  same  persons. 




On  the  twenty-second  day  of  April,  1785,  the  Act  of 
Incorporation  was  passed  and  Hudson  became  a  city,  the 
third  in  the  state. 

The  territory  of  the  city  as  chartered  extended  from 
the  line  of  the  town  of  Livingston  on  the  south,  to  Major 
Abraham's  (Stockport)  Creek  on  the  north,  and  to  Clav- 
erack  Creek  on  the  east. 

A  portion  of  the  town  of  Stockport  was  taken  off  in  1833 
and  the  town  of  Greenport  in  1837  reducing  the  boun- 
daries of  Hudson  to  their  present  limits. 

On  the  fourth  day  of  May,  Ezekiel  Gilbert  arrived 
from  New  York,  bringing  with  him  the  Charter  of  the 
City,  and  the  appointment  by  Governor  George  Clinton, 
of  Seth  Jenkins  as  the  first  Mayor. 

Its  reception  was  attended  with  the  firing  of  cannon, 
raising  of  flags,  and  every  other  demonstration  of  joy  and 
gratification,   by  the   citizens. 

On  the  day  following.  Mayor  Jenkins  issued  his  proc- 
lamation announcing  the  incorporation  of  the  city,  his 
appointment  as  Mayor,  and  calling  "upon  all  the  freemen 
within  the  limits  of  the  city,  to  meet  at  the  schoolhouse," 
a  small  frame  building  then  standing  on  the  counrv'  road 
near  the  river,  "on  the  Monday  following  (the  9th  day  of 
May),  to  choose  necessary  officers,  and  to  transact  other 
important  business." 

This  was  Hudson's  first  charter  election,  but  it  was 
conducted  without  a  contest.  There  is  no  record  of  the 
vote  cast,  nor  of  the  population  of  the  city  at  that  time, 
but  it  grew  with  great  rapidity,  and  from    1785  to    1786, 


one  hundred  and  fifty  dwellings,  warehouses,  wharves  and 
shops  were  built,  besides  manufactories. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  common  council  was  held  on 
the  9th  day  of  May,  1785. 

Present — Seth  Jenkins,  Mayor;  Nathaniel  Greene,  Re- 
corder; appointed  by  the  Governor.  William  Mayhew 
and  Stephen  Paddock,  Aldermen;  Dirck  Delamater  and 
Marshall  Jenkins,  Assistants. 

The  following  individuals  have  held  the  office  of  Mayor 
by  appointment  from  the  Governor  and  council  of  ap- 

Seth  Jenkins,  April,  1785. 

Thomas  Jenkins,  November,  1793. 

Robert  Jenkins,  February,   1808. 

John  Tallman,  March,  1813. 

Robert  Jenkins,   February,    1815. 

John  Tallman,  February,  1820. 

Alexander  Coffin,  February,   1821. 

From  the  year  1823  to  1840  the  Mayor  was  electee: 
by  the  common  council,  since  that  date  they  have  been 
elected  by  the  people. 

The  first  City  Clerk  was  John  Bay,  1785.  The  first 
Chamberlain  was  John  Alsop,   1785. 

In  August,  1785,  a  seal  for  the  city  the  same  that  is 
now  in  use,  was  purchased;  "Nathaniel  Greene,  Seth 
Jenkins,  John  Bay,  Ezra  Reed,  Stephen  Paddock,  Ben- 
jamin Folger,  Dirck  Delemater,  John  Ten  Broeck,  and 
Peter  Hogeboom  each  contributing  eleven  shillings,  and 
four  pence,  to  defray  its  expense."  From  the  early 
minutes  of  the  council  we  make  the  following  extracts: 

"1785,  June  9th.  Land  was  granted  to  the  corporation 
for  the  erection  of  a  Gaol  on  the  N.  E.  corner  of  the 
northermost  square  on  Fourth  street." 

The  Gaol  which  was  30  feet  long,  20  feet  wide  and 
one  story  high,  was  constructed  of  logs  with  iron  grates 
at  the  windows.     It  is  said  that  almost  the  first  prisoner 


confined   in   it,   concealed   an   augur  on   his   person   with 
which   he   bored   through   the   logs,   and   escaped. 

1785,  July  26th.  Abimeleck  Riggs  was  appointed  keeper 
of  the  Gaol.  On  the  same  date,  William  Wall  was  ordered 
to  have  completed  the  Stocks  and  Whipping  Post  at  the 
Market,  which  he  did,  at  a  cost  of  3  pounds,  4  shillings 
and  1 1  pence.  Eight  years  later  these,  then  quite  common 
devices,  were  ordered  removed  "to  a  point,  at  or  near 
the  common  Gaol,  and  to  be  under  the  care  and  inspection 
of  the  Gaoler." 

The  punishment  of  whipping  was  inflicted  for  petty 
offences,  and  in  addition  the  offender  was  sometimes  sen- 
tenced to  be  driven  out  of  the  city.  In  that  case  he  was 
tied  to  the  tail  of  a  cart  and  commencing  at  the  lower 
end  of  Main  street,  received  a  certain  number  of  lashes 
at  each  corner,  until  the  head  of  the  street  was  reached, 
where  he  was  set  at  liberty  and  directed  to  leave  the 
limits  at  once.  The  officer  inflicting  the  punishment  was 
called  a  "Whipping  Master"  and  received  his  appointment 
from  the  common  council. 

1785,  July  25th.  It  was  voted  "that  one  house  lot  on 
Main  street  should  be  given  to  Ezekiel  Gilbert,  as  a  free 
donation,  for  his  essential  services  done  the  proprietors, 
in   bringing  about  the   incorporation   of   this  city." 

Whether  Mr.  Gilbert  built  on  this  lot  is  uncertain,  but 
in  the  year  1800,  he  occupied  a  pleasant  country  resi- 
dence standing  on  or  near  the  site  of  the  St.  Charles 
Hotel,  and  gave  to  the  city  a  portion  of  the  ground 
for  the  upper  Public  Square,  with  the  intention  of  having 
it  laid  out  as  a  park. 

1785,  August  2nd.  It  was  ordained  "that  it  should  not 
be  lawful  for  any  person  or  persons  whatsoever,  to  run 
or  gallop  his,  her  or  their  Horse,  or  Horses,  through  any 
of  the  Streets  of  the  said  city,  and  that  if  any  person 
or  persons,  should  be  convicted  of  running,  or  galloping 
his,  hers  or  their  Horse,  or  Horses,   through   any   of  the 


Streets  of  said  city,  he,  she  or  they  should,  for  every 
such  offense,  forfeit  and  pay  the  sum  of  six  shillings 
current  money  of  the  State  of  New  York,  to  be  recovered 
before  the  Mayor,  Recorder  or  any  of  the  Aldermen  with 
Costs  of  Suit,  one-half  to  go  to  the  Informer,  the  other 
half  to  the  Overseers  of  the  Poor  of  the  City  for  the 
use  of  the  poor  thereof." 

1785,  Sept.  5th.  Ordinances  were  passed  prohibiting 
storekeepers  from  throwing  glass  in  the  streets,  boys 
from  swimming  near  the  ferry  landing,  also  prohibiting 
any  person  chopping  wood  on  Main  street  "with  an  axe" 
and  the  running  at  large  of  "any  hog  or  hogs,  goose  or 
geese,  unless  properly  yoked." 

1785,  Sept.  7th.  "Whereas  John  Dewitt  late  of  the  City 
of  New  York  had  run  away  and  left  his  wife  and  children," 
it  was  ordered  "That  Mrs.  Dewitt,  wife  of  the  said  John 
Dewitt,  with  her  children,  be  sent  to  the  City  of  New 
York,  the  place  from  whence  the  said  John  Dewitt  came." 

1787,  March  1st.  "Freelove  Clark  was  ordered  to  be 
sent  back  to  Nantucket,  and  Stephen  Paddock  was  author- 
ized to  take  proper  measures  to  remove  her." 

It  was  the  custom  to  send  vagrants  back  to  their  for- 
mer place  of  residence,  and  several  instances  similar  to 
the  foregoing  are  reported  in  the  minutes. 

In  July,  1785.  "Chimney  Viewers  were  appointed  and 
many  regulations  were  established  for  the  protection  of 
the  city,  and  for  the  prevention  of  fires." 

It  was  required  by  an  ordinance  "that  every  house  with 
three  fire-places  should  provide  two  leather  buckets,  and 
every  house  with  more  than  three  fire-places,  three 
leather  buckets,  sufficient  to  contain  at  least  two  gallons 
of  water.  Brewers,  bakers,  and  tavern  keepers,  were 
required  to  furnish  them,  to  hold  three  gallons." 

They  were  to  be  marked  with  the  owner's  initials,  and 
kept  near  the  front  door,  ready  to  be  used  to  extinguish 


In  1794,  the  "Overseers  were  directed  after  a  fire,  to 
cause  all  the  buckets  to  be  collected,  and  carried  to  the 
Market  House,  where  citizens  might  know  where  to  find 
them,  and  if  injured  to  cause  them  to  be  repaired  at  the 
expense  of  the  city;  and  if  any  were  lost,  they  were  to 
be  replaced  upon  proper  proof  of  the  fact.  Any  person 
detaining  them  from  the  owner  above  twenty-four  hours 
after  any  fire,  forfeited  for  every  one  so  detained  twenty 

"Fire  Wardens  were  appointed  whose  duty  it  was  im- 
mediately upon  the  cry  of  fire  to  repair  to  the  place,  to 
direct  the  inhabitants  in  forming  themselves  into  ranks, 
for  handing  the  buckets  to  supply  the  engines  with  water. 
The  citizens  were  enjoined  to  comply  with  the  directions 
of  the  wardens,  and  it  was  expected  that  all  other  per- 
sons would  refrain  from  giving  directions,  and  would 
cheerfully  obey  such  as  were  given  by  authorized  per- 
sons." It  was  customary  for  the  women  to  aid  in  the 
lines  for  passing  the  buckets,  they  usually  passing  up 
the  empty  line,  while  the  men  returned  them  filled. 

"The  Mayor,  Recorder  and  Aldermen,  upon  such  occa- 
sions were  to  carry  a  wand  five  feet  at  least  in  length, 
painted  white,  with  a  gilded  flame  at  the  top."  "The 
Fire  Wardens  were  to  carry  a  speaking  trumpet  painted 
white,  and  each  Fireman  was  required  to  provide  himself 
with  a  leather  cap,  with  the  crown  painted  white,  or 
forfeit  the  sum  of  six  shillings  for  every  month  he  neg- 
lected to  do  so." 

"It  was  enjoined  upon  all  the  citizens  in  case  of  fire 
in  the  night,  to  place  lighted  candles  in  their  windows, 
in  order  that  the  inhabitants  might  pass  through  the 
streets  in  safety,  and  to  throw  their  buckets  into  the  street, 
that  there  might  not  be  delay  in  obtaining  them." 

"Robert  Folger  and  others  were  appointed  'bagmen" 
to  preserve  and  secure  property  at  fires,  and  were  directed 


to  procure  bags  and  other  implements  necessary  for  that 

1799,  Nov.  9th.  "Paul  Dakin  was  appointed  to  pro- 
cure four  small  fire-hooks,  chains,  ropes,  poles,  and  six 
ladders,  from  twelve  to  sixteen  feet  long,  with  hooks  and 
brads,  to  be  used  at  fires,  in  pulling  down  buildings." 

Simple  and  curious  as  these  regulations  may  seem, 
they  were  doubtless  the  best  then  in  use.  Notwithstand- 
ing all  these  ordinances  considerable  anxiety  was  felt 
on  the  subject  of  fire,  and  in  1792,  when  a  number  of 
buildings  were  going  up,  the  press  suggested  that  they 
should  not  be  placed  too  near  together. 

In  1793,  a  subscription  paper  was  circulated,  and  it  is 
said,  "twenty  citizens  showed  themselves  forward  enough 
to  sign  it.  An  engine  was  contracted  for  which  was 
to  cost  100  pounds,  hold  180  gallons,  and  be  constructed 
with  four  pumps  to  throw  three  hundred  feet."  "Also  to 
be  fixed  with  a  suction,  and  do  good  execution." 

The  common  council  on  the  17th  day  of  April,  1791, 
appointed  nineteen  Firemen  to  superintend  Fire  Engine 
No.  1.  The  engine  not  being  finished  at  the  time  prom- 
ised, another  company  was  formed  in  1794,  and  an  en- 
gine was  purchased  by  them.  This  was  No.  2,  and  they 
adopted  "a  white  jacket  and  trousers,  with  a  leather 
cap"  as  their  uniform.  That  of  No.  1  was  at  first  "a 
green  flannel  jacket  and  leather  cap."  In  1794,  the 
council  directed  that  two  houses  should  be  built,  "suitable 
for  the  wants  of  the  companies,  and  the  protection  of  their 
engines."  "They  were  located,  the  one  in  Third  street, 
and  the  other  near  the  market,  and  were  of  very  small 
dimensions,  but  they  managed  to  accommodate  companies 
of  considerable  numbers."  The  engines  were  very  small, 
No.  2  being  the  larger  and  more  powerful.  "No.  1  in 
after  years  was  called  the  'pocket  engine'  and  finally  be- 
came a  plaything  for  the  juveniles  in  her  vicinity." 

The  first  fire  in  the  city  occurred  in  February,    1793, 


and  was  the  bookstore  and  printing  office  of  Ashbel  Stod- 
dard, publisher  of  the  "Gazette."  In  the  next  issue  of 
the  paper  the  editor  said,  "The  organization  of  the  fire 
department  being  extremely  deficient,  there  being  no 
engines,  no  buckets,  no  water,  and  no  firemen,  the  fire 
was  left  to  take  its  own  course,  and  it  accordingly  raged, 
not  only  unchecked  but  unmolested.  Fortunately  the  night 
was  calm,  and  the  flames  ascended  directly  upward,  to 
the  very  skies,  carrying  with  them  innumerable  fragments 
of  paper,  and  burning  books,  blazing  as  they  flew,  filling 
the  whole  air  with  their  fiery  forms,  and  then  descending 
in  every  direction,  covering  the  town,  as  with  a  shower 
of  falling  stars."  A  substantial  sum  was  raised  by  the 
sympathizing  citizens  and  presented  to  Mr.  Stoddard. 

In  1825,  a  fire  of  some  magnitude  occurred.  Com- 
mencing south  of  Warren  street  near  Front,  it  extended 
through  Warren  to  Diamond,  destroying  in  its  rapid  prog- 
ress a  large  number  of  buildings.  First  street  was  opened 
after  this  fire,  and  Front  street  was  rebuilt  with  stores 
and  residences  of  a  substantial  character.  It  immediately 
became  the  fashionable  shopping  district,  fairly  rivaling 
Main  street  in  appearance. 

In  later  years  Hudson  suffered  frequently  and  heavily 
from  fires;  that  portion  of  the  city  nearest  the  river  having 
undergone  an   almost  complete   change   from   that  cause. 



Whale  and  Seal  Fisheries. 

The  early  whale  fisheries  were  very  successful,  the 
vessels  bringing  in  large  and  valuable  cargoes  of  sperm 
oil.  In  1797,  the  ship  American  Hero,  Captain  Solomon 
Bunker,  returned  from  the  Pacific  with  a  cargo  of  sperm 
oil,  which  at  that  time  was  the  largest  that  had  ever 
been  brought  into  the  United  States. 

In  Diamond  street,  between  First  and  Second  streets, 
were  the  oil  and  candle  works  of  Thomas  Jenkins,  and 
on  the  northeast  corner  of  Second  and  State  streets,  were 
those  of  Cotton  Gelston.  These  works  were  as  exten- 
sive as  any  then  existing,  but  the  amount  manufactured 
in  one  year  was  not  so  large  as  the  oil  works  of  later 
years  manufactured  in  one  month.  When  Talleyrand 
was  traveling  through  the  states,  he  visited  Hudson  and 
was  shown  through  the  oil  and  candle  works  of  Thomas 
Jenkins,  examining  thoroughly  into  all  the  mysteries  and 
details  of  the  manufacture  of  sperm  candles. 

Until  about  the  year  1800,  the  seal  fishery  was  car- 
ried on  to  a  considerable  extent.  Five  or  six  vessels 
were  constantly  engaged  in  bringing  from  the  Falkland, 
and  other  islands  in  the  South  Atlantic,  large  numbers 
of  fur  and  hair  seal  skins,  and  usually  with  them  a 
quantity  of  sea  elephants'  oil.  Many  of  the  skins  were 
sold  in  New  York,  but  the  greater  part  were  tanned  here, 
the  leather  being  very  generally  used  for  shoes. 

The  last  voyage  for  seals  was  made  in  the  year  1799, 
in  the  ship  "Ajax,"  Captain  Pinkham,  Zephaniah  Coffin, 
first  mate. 

"Some  of  the  Captains  engaged  in  the  seal  fishery,  were 
accustomed  to  tell  wonderful  stories  of  the  islands  which 


they  visited;  among  other  things  they  boasted  that  they 
lived  upon  turtles  so  large,  that  one  man  could  not  turn 
them  over,  and  some  of  the  eggs  which  they  boiled, 
were  little  less  in  size  than  a  man's  head." 

Hudson  became  a  port  of  entry  in  1790,  the  first  Gov- 
ernment officers  being  Doctor  Joseph  Malcolm  and  Isaac 
Dayton.  It  was  then  rapidly  growing  in  commercial  im- 
portance and  seemed  destined  to  become  the  second  city 
in  the  state. 

Some  of  the  statements  relative  to  the  business  of  the 
city  at  that  period  seem  almost  incredible,  but  there  is 
no  reason  to  doubt  their  accuracy. 

In  1802,  on  the  first  day  of  March,  twenty-eight  hundred 
loaded  sleighs  entered  the  city.  We  find  this  fact  stated 
in  the  "Columbian  Balance"  of  that  date.  It  is  said  to 
have  been  frequently  the  case,  that  a  "continuous  line  of 
teams,  extending  from  the  river  into  Main  street  would 
be  kept  waiting  to  discharge  in  order,  their  loads  at  the 
different   freighting  establishments." 

It  is  also  stated  that  the  South  Bay  was  often  closely 
dotted  with  vessels,  awaiting  their  turn  at  the  wharves 
to  unload,  and  take  on  their  fresh  cargoes.  Fifteen  ves- 
sels heavily  laden  were  frequently  known  to  depart  at  one 

The  large  brick  store-houses  near  the  river,  built  at 
a  very  early  date,  and  some  of  which  are  still  standing, 
confinn  these  statements. 

The  articles  exported  were  beef,  pork,  shad,  herring. 
staves,  heading,  hoop-poles,  leather,  and  countr\'  produce. 
The  packing  of  beef  and  pork  was  very  extensively  carried 
on,  large  quantities  of  cattle  and  hogs  coming  from  Berk- 
shire county,  Massachusetts.  Herring  were  ver>'  abun- 
dant; a  ship  of  one  hundred  tons  was  known  to  have  been 
filled  in  the  vicinity  of  Rogers  Island,  at  one  tide.  These 
were  pickled  largely,  one  thousand  barrels  each  of  beef, 
and  pickled  herring,  having  been  sold  and  shipped   from 


here  in  a  single  day.  In  addition  to  the  pickling  of 
herring,  shad  were  put  up  to  some  extent,  and  quantities 
of  herring  were  smoked  and  boxed. 

Staves,  heading,  and  hoop-poles  were  exported  to  the 
West  Indies,  the  vessels  in  return  bringing  valuable  car- 
goes of  rum,  sugar  and  molasses.  The  only  ship  from 
the  "old  world"  ever  known  to  have  entered  this  port, 
was  a  Dutch  ship  from  Amsterdam,  consigned  to  William 
Wall,  which  loaded  with  lumber  and  returned  to  Holland. 
During  its  stay  it  was  visited  by  a  large  number  of  Dutch 
people  in  the  vicinity,  who  were  delighted  to  see  a  vessel 
from  their  "fatherland"  and  a  crew  who  could  speak 
their  own  tongue. 

During  the  winter  months  considerable  traffic  was  car- 
ried on  with  some  of  the  southern  ports  of  this  country, 
principally  with  Charleston.  Articles  of  commerce  with 
the  South,  were  provisions  and  general  country  produce, 
returning  vessels  bringing  cargoes  of  cotton  and  rice,  the 
latter  finding  a  market  at  New  York,  but  the  former  was 
used  for  home  consumption. 

Very  few  woolen  goods  were  then  used,  most  families 
spinning,  dyeing,  and  manufacturing  cotton  into  yarn  and 

Many  branches  of  industry  were  directly  dependent  on 
the  commerce  of  the  city,  and  gave  employment  to  a 
much  larger  number  of  men  during  the  warm  season, 
than  in  winter,  and  it  was  the  custom  for  many  of  the 
mechanics  to  seek  the  South  at  the  close  of  navigation, 
if  they  did  not  choose  to  remain  idle,  returning  in  the 

We  have  the  following  amusing  incident  connected  with 
a  voyage  of  one  of  the  vessels  to  San  Domingo  loaded 
with  lumber.  It  had  been  rafted  down  the  river  late  in 
the  fall,  and  shipped  after  the  beginning  of  winter,  con- 
siderably covered  with  ice,  some  of  which  was  still  to  be 
found  on  her  arrival  out.     It  was  the  first  ice  the  negroes 


had  ever  seen,  and  so  terrified  were  they  by  its  touch 
upon  their  naked  backs,  that  they  plunged  overboard 
whenever  the  sailors  applied  it.  The  crew  enjoyed  the 
sport  so  long  and  so  heartily,  that  the  Captain  was  obliged 
to  use  some  severity  before  he  could  put  an  end  to  it, 
and  finish  unloading. 

During  the  French  Revolution  and  long  protracted  war 
in  Europe,  neutral  vessels  were  in  great  demand.  Large 
prices  were  paid  for  freight,  and  many  of  the  ships  owned 
here  were  engaged  in  the  carrying  trade.  British  orders 
and  French  decrees  swept  many  of  them  away  from 
their  owners,  others  were  lost  by  shipwreck,  and  the 
embargo  and  non-intercourse  of  1807-8,  followed  by  the 
war  of  1812,  gave  a  finishing  stroke  to  the  commerce  of 
Hudson.  The  losses  at  sea  produced  great  embarrassment 
and  many  failures,  and  that  of  the  Bank  of  Hudson  in 
1819  brought  heavy  losses  upon  the  neighboring  farmers, 
thus  seriously  affecting  the  prosperity  of  the  city. 

In  the  year  1829,  the  whale  fishery  was  revived,  and 
a  company  was  organized  at  a  time  when  the  business  of 
Hudson  was  in  a  most  languishing  condition.  The  re- 
turns from  their  first  ventures  animated  their  hopes,  and 
the  number  interested  in  the  business  was  largely  in- 
creased; as  many  as  fourteen  vessels  being  at  one  time 
owned,  and  fitted  out  here.  The  most  valuable  cargo  re- 
turned by  a  single  vessel,  was  valued  at  eighty  thousand 
dollars.  As  many  as  eight  thousand  barrels  of  sperm 
oil,  were  returned  in  a  single  year,  by  the  different 

A  company  was  incorporated  in  1833,  under  the  name 
of  the  "Hudson  Whaling  Company."  Captain  Laban 
Paddock  was  President,  but  the  business  was  transacted 
by  Robert  A.  Barnard,  Superintendent.  Three  of  the 
ships  were  owned  by  the  company,  the  remainder  by  in- 
dividuals, and  for  many  years  the  industr>'  was  carried  on 
successfully,   with   a   prospect   of   its   becoming   a   source 


of  permanent  prosperity  to  the  city.  After  a  time,  how- 
ever, it  declined,  and  in  1845  was  abandoned,  after  bring- 
ing heavy  losses  upon  those  who  were  engaged  in  it. 
The  last  ship,  the  "Martha"  was  sold  in  that  year. 

Captain  Laban  Paddock  and  his  brother  Judah  were 
the  sons  of  Stephen  Paddock,  one  of  the  Proprietors  and 
principal  men  of  the  early  settlement.  They  were  suc- 
cessful sea-faring  men  and  amassed  considerable  wealth. 
The  house  of  Laban  Paddock,  a  large  brick  building.  No. 
117  Union  street  is  still  well  preserved.  It  formerly  had 
a  tall  lookout  at  the  back,  from  whence  Mr.  Paddock,  after 
retiring  from  active  business,  could  watch  for  his  re- 
turning ships. 

Captain  Judah  Paddock  was  engaged  in  an  extensive 
and  lucrative  trade  with  the  West  Indies,  Liverpool  and 

In  the  Masonic  Lodge  in  this  city  is  preserved  a  sword 
which  was  presented  to  Judah  Paddock,  prior  to  1800,  by 
the  Empress  Catherine  of  Russia,  for  relieving  a  Russian 
man-of-war  when  in  distress,  and  by  him  presented  to 
the  Lodge  of  which  he  was  a  member,  "as  a  token  of  his 
high  regard  for  Masonry." 

Captain  Paddock's  "Narrative,"  published  in  1818,  con- 
taining a  full  account  of  his  shipwreck  off  the  coast  of 
Barbary,  is  more  interesting  than  many  of  the  novels  of 
that  day,  for  which  similar  adventures  furnished  a  favorite 
theme.  He  relates  that  he  sailed  from  New  York  for 
Cork,  in  the  ship  Oswego  of  Hudson,  on  the  8th  of 
January,  1800,  with  flax  seed  and  staves.  After  disposing 
of  his  cargo,  he  decided  to  go  to  the  Cape  de  Verde 
Islands  for  salt  and  skins,  thence  back  to  New  York. 

Being  driven  out  of  his  course  by  gales  and  strange 
currents,  he  seems  to  have  lost  his  reckoning,  and,  on 
April  3rd,  his  ship  was  driven  upon  the  rocks,  off  the 
coast  of  Barbary.  They  succeeded  in  landing  some  food 
•and  water  and  a  few  necessaries,  including  six  hundred 


dollars  in  gold  which  the  Captain  concealed  on  his  person. 
His  faithful  black  man,  "Jack"  observed  the  two  pieces 
of  flowered  tabinet  that  the  Captain  had  purchased  at 
Cork  for  his  wife,  and  was  determined  to  save  them. 
Captain  Paddock  tried  to  dissuade  him  from  adding  their 
weight  to  his  heavy  pack,  but  in  vain.  They  now  took 
up  the  line  of  march  for  St.  Cruz  (Mogadore),  hoping 
to  obtain  assistance  from  the  consul  there  in  getting  home, 
but  after  a  few  days  they  were  captured  by  Arab  slave 
traders,  and  stripped  of  their  clothing,  and  everything  they 
possessed.  They  were  then  sold  into  slavery,  and  the 
Captain  never  again  saw  his  devoted  servant  "Jack." 

They  were  given  but  little  food,  and  were  driven  long 
weary  miles  each  day  over  the  burning  sand,  and  scorched 
by  the  pitiless  sun  of  the  Arabian  desert,  "where  no 
water  is." 

At  length,  after  enduring  almost  indescribable  suffer- 
ings, being  sold  again  and  again,  sometimes  rejoining 
members  of  the  crew,  and  not  unfrequently  meeting  Eng- 
lish sailors,  who  were  slaves  like  themselves,  the  Cap- 
tain succeeded  in  convincing  his  latest  purchaser,  that  if 
he  would  take  him  to  St.  Cruz,  he  would  arrange  for  their 
ransom.  Finally,  after  harrowing  delays,  on  the  18th  of 
May,  he  reached  the  Consulate,  and  was  warmly  welcomed 
by  the  British  consul,  Mr  Gwyn.  He  congratulated  Cap- 
tain Paddock  upon  the  shortness  of  his  captivity,  it  being 
only  six  weeks,  when  they  were  more  frequently  kept 
months,  or  even  years  in  slavery.  He  furnished  him  with 
clothing,  and  the  services  of  an  English  sailor  in  cleansing 
and  shaving  him,  which,  owing  to  his  neglected  condition, 
was  both  a  long  and  laborious  task. 

Afterward  for  the  first  time,  the  Captain  saw  himself  in 
the  glass,  and  "was  so  shocked  at  his  altered  appearance, 
he  did  not  get  over  it  for  many  a  day,"  "such  ghastli- 
ncss  as  I  never  saw  in  a  body  that  had  life  and  motion." 

Captain    Paddock    showed    admirable    sense    and    good 


judgment  in  all  his  intercourse  with  the  Arabs,  but  in 
nothing  more  wisdom  than  in  calling  himself  a  British 
subject.  He  knew  we  would  probably  not  have  an  Ameri- 
can consul  at  Mogadore,  and  in  fact  the  nearest  was  at 
Tangier,  but  the  English  were  a  power  to  be  reckoned 
with.  Consul  Gwyn  ordered  some  soldiers  at  once  sent 
out  to  bring  in  Captain  Paddock's  crew,  and  the  English 
boys  who  were  with  them,  and  arranged  the  amount  of 
the  ransom,  which,  including  the  Captain,  amounted  to 
1700  dollars.  This  was  promptly  repaid  by  our  Govern- 
ment, after  the  matter  was  explained  by  Captain  Paddock, 
who  also  sent  a  valuable  box  to  Consul  Gwyn. 

After  all  arrangements  had  been  made,  and  Captain 
Paddock  was  about  leaving  the  Consulate,  an  Arab  ped- 
dler was  shown  in,  and  on  opening  his  pack,  imagine 
the  surprise  of  the  Captain  to  behold  the  two  pieces  of 
tabinet,  that  poor  "Jack"  had  saved  from  the  wreck! 
They  were  purchased  by  a  gentleman  of  the  company,  not 
knowing  that  they  were  once  the  property  of  Captain 
Paddock,  and  on  ascertaining  the  fact  he  made  every 
effort  to  induce  him  to  take  them.  But  this  the  Captain 
resolutely  refused  to  do,  so  the  matter  was  dropped. 

The  merchants  of  Mogadore  showed  Captain  Paddock 
the  greatest  kindness  and  consideration,  in  honoring  his 
drafts,  and  in  advancing  the  money  for  his  ransom,  and 
that  of  his  crew;  and  he  was  the  recipient  of  social  at- 
tentions from  all  the  prominent  residents. 

Just  one  year  from  the  day  he  left  his  home  in  Hudson, 
Captain  Paddock  returned  to  his  overjoyed  family,  and 
on  unpacking  his  trunk  was  astonished  to  find  carefully 
hidden  away  in  the  bottom,  the  light  colored  piece  of 
flowered  tabinet!  So  his  wife  received  her  present,  and 
the  Captain  naively  remarks,  "wears  the  gown  at  times 
to  this  day." 

Captain  Judah  Paddock,  like  his  brother  Laban,  was  a 
public-spirited,  benevolent  man.     He  was  the  earliest  sup- 


porter  and  most  liberal  contributor  to  the  Lancaster  School 
for  the  education  of  the  children  of  the  poor,  and  at 
his  death,  which  occurred  in  1822,  he  left  a  legacy  for  its 

Captain  Paddock's  residence  was  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
pioneer  Jan  Franz  Van  Hoesan's,  near  the  Bunker  bridge, 
and  was  of  similar  style.     It  cannot  now  be  identified. 

The  "Bunker  bridge"  as  the  covered  bridge  was  always 
called,  will  no  longer  be  useful  as  a  landmark,  having 
been  condemned  as  unsafe  and  replaced  by  a  modern 
iron  structure  during  this  present  year  of   1908. 



Aqueduct  Company — City  Ordinances. 

In  the  year  1785,  a  number  of  citizens  "associated 
themselves  together  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  water 
into  the  city,  to  supply  themselves  and  such  others  as 
might  be  deemed  consistent."  "Each  lot  holder  was  en- 
titled to  a  share  in  the  association  on  the  payment  of 
twenty-five  dollars,  with  the  right  to  carry  it  into  his  pos- 
sessions, or  house,  for  the  supply  of  the  family,  or  fam- 
ilies, which  his  house  contained,  but  should  not  be  allowed 
to  sell  water  to  his  neighbor,  or  any  other  person." 

"Persons  not  shareholders  were  supplied  on  payment 
of  an  annual  tax." 

The  water  first  brought  into  the  city  was  from  a  spring 
known  as  the  "Ten  Broeck  spring,"  which  was  given  to 
them  by  John  Ten  Broeck  and  was  located  on  the  Heer- 
mance  farm,  now  owned  by  the  Cement  Company. 

In  1793,  the  Hudson  Aqueduct  Company,  as  the  asso- 
ciation was  called,  purchased  the  "Fountain"  situated  upon 
the  road  leading  from  Claverack  to  Hudson.  The  legis- 
lature was  appealed  to,  and  an  act  was  passed  "for  the 
better  regulating  and  protecting  the  aqueducts  in  the 
city  of  Hudson,  providing  for  the  election  of  officers, 
passage  of  by-laws,  and  giving  to  the  Common  Council 
the  right  by  ordinance  to  fix  a  penalty,  not  exceeding  five 
pounds,  for  a  breach  of  any  of  the  by-laws  of  the  Com- 

Hezekiah  Dayton  was  for  many  years  Inspector  and 
Collector,  for  which  service  they  voted  "one  shilling  per 
hour  when  actually  engaged." 

It  was  the  custom  of  Squire  Dayton,  as  he  was  called, 
"to   detect  leaks   and   waste,   by   entering   the   cellars   of 


shareholders  and  listening  for  the  sound  of  trickling  or 
dropping  water,  and  reporting  the  offenders  at  head- 

1778,  March  1st.  "Forty-one  licenses  to  sell  liquor 
were  granted,  for  sums  varying  from  eight,  to  sixteen 
shillings."  It  is  fair  to  infer  that  something  besides  water 
was  imbibed  in  early  times. 

1791,  August  30th.  It  was  resolved  "that  John  Kemper 
be  appointed  to  take  the  pump-brake  and  upper  box,  from 
the  public  pump,  and  at  the  hour  of  six  in  the  morning, 
at  twelve  at  noon,  and  at  five  in  the  evening,  of  each  day, 
go  with,  or  deliver  it  to,  the  hands  of  some  careful  per- 
sons, to  be  carried  to  the  pump,  that  each  of  the  citizens 
applying  for  water,  might  have  an  equal  proportion,  and 
that  said  brake  and  box,  should  not  be  delivered  at  any 
other  times  of  the  day,  until  a  constant  supply  of  water 
should  be  found  in  the  pump." 

The  "town  pump"  was  located  near  the  lower  market. 
In  later  times  the  streets  of  Hudson  were  punctuated  with 
huge  unsightly  pumps  at  frequent  intervals — usually  on 
the  corners — which  are  gradually  disappearing,  under  the 
modern  system  of  furnishing  water  to  the  city. 

1794,  May  lOth.  Elisha  Jenkins,  Thomas  Frothingham, 
and  Jared  Coffin,  three  of  the  principal  men  of  the  place, 
were  appointed  scavengers. 

Immediately  after  the  machinery  of  a  city  government 
was  in  operation,  the  work  of  grading  and  widening  the 
streets,  and  the  building  of  sewers  was  actively  entered 
upon,  and  an  ordinance  was  passed  directing  "the  com- 
mencement of  paving  the  sidewalks,  in  Main  street." 

1793,  September  1st.  "Cotton  Gelston,  Ambrose  Spen- 
cer and  Jared  Cottin  were  appointed  to  superintend  the 
work."  Previous  to  this,  there  was  no  attempt  at  uniform- 
ity in  the  walks;  "some  were  stone,  others  were  plank, 
but  a  ^Tcatcr  portion  were  naked  ground."  Front  street, 
between  Main  and  Union,  required  much  heavy  blasting, 


and  near  the  junction,  was  a  deep  hollow  over  which  a 
bridge  was  built.  Through  this  hollow  flowed  a  stream 
of  water,  which  was  entered  by  another,  where  the  County 
road  crossed  the  street,  thence  emptying  into  the  South 
bay.  The  portion  of  Allen  street  between  Front  and 
Third  streets,  was  opened  at  a  very  early  date,  and  known 
as  Federal  street.  "Main  street  was  opened  upon  a  ridge 
that  sloped  on  each  side  toward  the  bay,  and  as  far  as 
Third  street,  presented  a  nearly  level  surface  covered  with 
fields,  with  a  few  trees  scattered  through  them." 

Fourth  street  was  the  upper  terminus  of  the  city,  and 
^'to  the  City  Hall  was  considered  a  very  lengthy  walk." 

The  road  up  the  Academy  Hill  was  opened  by  the 
Columbia  Turnpike  Company  in  the  year  1800. 

This  Company  was  chartered  in  1799,  and  was  the 
third  Turnpike  Company  organized  in  the  state. 

Not  long  after,  the  road  leading  out  of  Main  street  in 
a  southerly  direction  was  opened  by  the  Branch  Company, 
and  the  South  Bay  road  was  built  by  the  Howland  Com- 
pany, the  President  of  which,  Mr.  Howland  was  a  resi- 
dent of  New  York.  The  operations  of  this  Company  ex- 
tended  from  New  York  to  Albany. 

In  1823-4  the  road  connecting  Third  street  and  the 
Bay  road  was  constructed,  and  in  1827  the  approach  to 
the  city  by  Underbill's  Pond  was  completed. 

1788,  Jan.  5th.  "Citizens  voluntarily  associated  them- 
selves into  a  watch  against  thieves  and  fires,  and  to  pre- 
serve order  in  the  city  at  night."  Shortly  after,  the  Com- 
mon Council  deeming  it  a  "salutary  institution"  ordained 
"that  it  should  consist  of  four  citizens  for  each  night,  to 
begin  their  watch  at  nine  o'clock  in  the  evening,  and 
continue  until  daybreak."  Jonathan  Worth  was  ap- 
pointed to  "notify  the  citizens  on  the  roll,  at  least  twelve 
hours  before  they  were  to  come  on  the  watch,  and  in 
case  of  absence  or  disability  was  to  supply  their  places." 
They  were  empowered  to  interrogate  any  persons  out  at 


an  unseasonable  hour,  and  unless  satisfactory  answers 
were  received,  to  confine  them  in  the  watch-house  until 
the  following  morning,  when  they  were  taken  before 
the  proper  officer  and  discharged,  or  punished. 

Each  man  received  one  dollar  a  night  for  his  services, 
and  was  provided  with  a  strong  oak  club,  for  the  double 
purpose  of  protection,  and  sounding  the  hours,  which  was 
done  by  heavy  blows  upon  the  posts,  or  sidewalk,  and 
crying  out  with  the  hour,  "All's  well."  Night  locks,  win- 
dow fastenings,  iron  safes,  revolvers,  and  the  num- 
erous articles  of  the  present  day,  for  protection  against 
burglars  were  not  yet  invented,  nor  had  the  need  of  them 
been  felt.  Robberies,  however,  were  frequent,  and  rowdy- 
ism not  unknown.  Stoops  were  overturned,  gates  were 
unhinged,  signs  misplaced,  door  knockers  mysteriously 
sounded  and  many  similar  pranks  were  perpetrated,  until 
the  Press  complained  loudly  "of  the  disgraceful  course 
certain  young  men  were  pursuing  and  threatened  them  with 
exposure  unless  they  desisted  from  their  evil  practices." 
Undaunted  by  this  threat  we  find  in  1793,  "certain  young 
men  still  pursuing  their  evil   practices." 

It  was  the  custom  in  those  days  to  designate  the  differ- 
ent public  houses  by  a  portrait  of  some  crowned  head  of 
the  old  world,  on  their  signs.  That  of  Col.  John  Mc- 
Kinstry,  which  was  the  first  public  house  opened  in  Hud- 
son, and  was  on  the  site  of  No.  247  Warren  street,  was 
decorated  with  that  of  the  King  of  Prussia.  Kings  were 
not  very  popular  in  this  country  just  at  that  time,  and 
being  distasteful  to  the  young  men,  they  proceeded  to 
demolish  each  of  them  in  turn,  their  hilarious  proceedings 
being  brought  to  a  fitting  close,  by  honoring  Air.  Kellogg's 
sign  of  General  Washington,  with  vociferous  cheers. 

They  were  subsequently  prosecuted,  and  were  compelled 
to  pay  heavy  damages. 

1797.  "Cotton  Gclston  and  Mr.  Kellogg  were  appointed 
a  committee   to  direct   the   construction,   and   the   placing 


of  a  number  of  lamps,  not  exceeding  twenty,  in  the  streets, 
and  to  provide  a  suitable  person  to  light  the  same  upon 
the  dark  nights." 

The  Council  also  resolved  to  assist  the  County  Magis- 
trates in  suppressing  disorderly  behaviour  on  Sunday.  A 
committee  had  been  previously  appointed,  to  superintend 
the  execution  of  the  law  against  Sabbath  breaking. 

1801,  June  14th.  Ordinances  were  passed  "regulating 
the  sale  of  lamb,  preventing  boys  playing  ball  or  hoop 
in  Warren  or  Front  street,  prohibiting  the  smoking  of 
pipes,  or  cigars  in  any  of  the  streets  or  alleys  after  sun- 
set, and  providing  for  the  killing  of  dogs  after  the  first 
day  of  August." 

1801,  July  17th.  "It  was  resolved  that  no  meat  should 
be  exposed  for  sale  in  the  market,  or  elsewhere  in  the 
city  after  the  hour  of  eight  o'clock,  on  Sunday  morning. 
Also,  that  all  barber  shops  should  be  shut  at  the  hour  of 
ten  o'clock,  on  that  day. 

1801,  August  15th.  Mr.  Hathaway  was  authorized  to 
purchase  Daniel  Allen's  house  on  State  street  for  the 
reception  of  the  aged,  and  other  poor  of  the  city,  for  a 
sum  not  to  exceed  480  dollars.  This  house  was  used 
for  the  purpose  mentioned,  until  the  completion  of  the 
building  now  owned  and  occupied  by  the  Hudson  Orphan 
and  Relief  Asylum,  which  was  erected  as  a  City  Poor 
House  in  1818,  after  plans  drawn  by  Robert  Jenkins. 
Its  cost  was  five  thousand  and  seven  hundred  dollars. 

The  first  Overseers  of  the  Poor  were  Cotton  Gelston 
and  Thomas  Frothingham,  and  they  were  authorized  "to 
allow  Phebe  Cummings  two  dollars  and  fifty  cents  per 
month,  if  she  would  take  herself,  and  her  three  children 
out  of  the  city." 

In  1790,  "Stephen  Paddock  and  Thomas  Frothingham 
were  empowered  to  engage  and  agree  with  the  printer, 
to  strike  off  one  hundred  pounds  in  small  bills,  or  notes 
of  credit  upon  the  corporation."    "One  ream  of  paper  was 


directed  to  be  furnished,  of  suitable  quality,  and  struck 
off  in  'tickets,'  to  be  signed  by  the  clerk  of  the  city,  of 
the  value  of  one,  two,  three,  and  four  cents."  There  was 
a  scarcity  of  silver,  and  an  almost  total  absence  of 
"coppers,"  and  these  "tickets"  circulated  freely  as  "small 

1798,  May  10th.  "Recorder  Geljston  and  Samuel  Ed- 
munds were  appointed  to  build  a  fence  three  boards  high, 
with  red  cedar  posts,  and  a  suitable  gate,  around  the  bury- 
ing ground,  and  have  the  bushes  cleared  up."  Reuben 
Folger  was  directed  to  procure  a  suitable  lock.  The  cost 
of  the  fence  was  84  pounds,  five  shillings  and  three  pence, 
and  of  the  lock,  four  shillings.  Previous  to  this,  little 
had  been  done  toward  improving  the  ground,  which  up 
to  this  time  had  been  reached  by  a  road  through  a  piece 
of  woods  leading  from  the  County  road,  now  Green  St. 

June  10th.  Samuel  Edmunds  and  James  Nixon  were 
paid  three  dollars  each,  for  mending  the  cover  to  the 
well  in  Third  street.  This  was  one  of  the  reservoirs 
before  referred  to. 

1795,  March  23rd.  Jemmie  Eraser  was  appointed  bell- 
man, and  to  be  paid  sixteen  pounds  per  year.  The  bell 
on  the  Presbyterian  Church  was  ordered  to  be  rung,  at 
sunrise,  at  twelve  o'clock  at  noon,  and  at  nine  in  the 
evening,  not  less  than  five  minutes  at  any  one  time  on 
working  days,  and  at  nine,  and  ten,  in  the  morning,  two, 
in  the  afternoon  and  nine  in  the  evening  on  Sunday. 

1799,  April  Oth.  It  was  resolved  "that  m  future  the 
Common  Council  meet  on  Saturday  after  the  Mayor's 
Court,  in  each  month  at  four  o'clock,  and  that  fifteen 
minutes  grace  be  allowed  from  Mr.  Parkman's  clock." 
Up  to  this  time,  and  for  many  years  after,  the  Council 
had  no  regular  place  of  meeting,  hut  met  at  different 
public  houses,  in  1815,  they  met  in  a  bedroom  in  the 
tavern  of  Samuel  Br>'an  on  the  southwest  corner  of 
Warren  and  Third  streets. 


Robert  Jenkins  then  Mayor  said  that  he  "considered 
it  a  shame  that  the  Common  Council  of  such  a  city  as 
Hudson,  should  meet  in  a  bedroom,  and  appointed  Oliver 
Wiswall  and  Jonathan  Frary,  a  committee  to  provide  a 
suitable  room  in  the  City  Hall,  in  which  they  regularly 
held  their  meetings,  until  1835.  The  new  Court  House 
and  jail  being  then  completed,  the  city  regained  possession 
of  the  old  jail,  and  fitted  it  up  for  city  purposes.  This  was 
used  until  the  new  City  Hall  was  built  in  1855,  when 
the  city  officers  were  more  comfortably  accommodated. 

The  vacated  property  was  purchased  by  John  Davis,  a 
real  estate  dealer  and  was  known  as  Davis's  City  Hall 
until  it  was  acquired  by  Mr.  M.   P.  Williams  in   1862. 

The  City  Hall  was  erected  in  1786,  on  the  southwest 
corner  of  Warren  and  Fourth  streets,  but  the  interior 
was  not  finished  until  Hudson  became  the  county  seat, 
in   1805. 

It  was  a  square  brick  building  in  the  very  plainest 
style  of  architecture,  two  stories  in  height.  The  upper 
part  was  capable  of  accommodating  four  hundred  people, 
being  used  for  public  purposes,  the  lower  part  for  offices. 

The  Mayor's  Court  was  instituted  with  the  charter  of 
the  city  in  1785.  It  was  superseded  by  Justices'  Courts, 
and  the  Police  Court. 

A  seal  bearing  the  device  of  an  anchor  with  the  legend 
"'Hudson  Mayor's  Court  Seal"  was  adopted.  Their  meet- 
ings were  held  monthly  and  at  that  held  in  December, 
1785,  Ambrose  Spencer  among  others,  was  admitted  to 
practice  in  the  Court. 

In  1798,  the  currency  was  changed  from  pounds,  shil- 
lings and  pence,  to  dollars  and  cents. 

The  legislative  assembly  met  regularly  in  New  York 
city,  until  the  near  approach  of  the  British  compelled 
the  lawmakers  to  a  hasty  retreat.  This  they  accomplished 
in  good  order,  carr>'ing  with  them  the  state  archives,  and 
finding  an  asylum  in   Kingston.     In    1777,  Kingston  was 


bumed  by  the  Tories,  and  the  archives  were  hurriedly 
removed  to  the  village  of  Hurley,  thence  to  Pough- 
keepsie,  where  in  1778,  the  Legislature  was  convened. 
Its  sessions  were  continued  there  until  the  evacuation  of 
New  York  City  by  the  British  in  1783,  Washington  making 
his  grand  entry  on  the  25th  of  November  in  that  year, 
when  the  assembly  resumed  its  deliberations  in  that  city. 

In  1797,  during  the  term  of  the  Hon.  John  Jay  as 
Governor,  it  was  determined  to  select  a  capital  of  the 
state,  and  an  exciting  contest  ensued. 

Poughkeepsie  and  Kingston  had  aspirations,  but  the 
principal  competitors  for  the  honor  were  Albany  and 
Hudson,  and  Albany  secured  it  by  a  majority  of  only 
one  vote,  reminding  one  of  Browning's  pertinent  lines: 

"O!  the  little  more  and  how  much  it  is! 
And  the  little  less,  and  what  worlds  away!" 



Parade  Hill — Gazette — Mail   Coaches. 

Returning  to  the  early  records  we  find  that  in  1795, 
it  was  voted  "that  the  certain  piece  of  land  known  as 
the  Parade,  or  Mall,  in  front  of  Main  street  and  on  the 
banks  fronting  the  river,  should  be  granted  to  the  Com- 
mon Council  forever,  as  a  public  walk  or  Mall,  and  for 
no  other  purpose  whatever." 

The  "Mall"  remained  in  an  unimproved  condition  for 
many  years,  except  the  erection  of  a  house  for  "refresh- 
ments." This  was  octogon  in  shape  and  was  called  the 
"Round  House,"  and  the  hill,  until  its  improvement  in 
1834,  was  called  "Round  house  hill."  In  that  year  it 
was  enclosed,  walks  were  laid  out,  and  the  name  of 
"Parade  Hill"  was  adopted. 

1794,  July  24th.  It  was  ordained  "that  all  bread  falling 
short  of  the  established  weight,  or  price,  should  be  for- 
feited to  the  city  for  the  use  of  the  poor." 

An  inspector  was  appointed  whose  duty  it  was  to  thor- 
oughly enforce  the  ordinance.  The  established  weight 
and  price,  which  were  kept  conspicuously  printed  at  the 
head  of  the  Hudson  Gazette,  was  as  follows: 

Loaf  of  Superfine  flour,  3  lbs.  8  oz.,  one  shilling. 
Loaf  of  Superfine  flour,  1  lb.  12  oz.,  six  pence. 
Loaf  of  common  flour,  3  lbs.  13  oz.,  one  shilling. 
Loaf  of  Rye  flour,  3  lbs.  4  oz.,  sixpence. 

"Walter  Johnson  was  the  principal  baker,  and  engaged 
extensively  in  the  supply  of  ships,  on  the  comer  of  Front 
and  Ferry  streets."  "Mrs.  Newberry,  who  kept  a  small 
shop   farther  up,  on   Front  street,  was  his  rival  in  the 


department  of  cakes  and  buns,  most  of  which  were  sold 
through  the  streets  in  baskets." 

In  somewhat  later  years,  Ursula  Bunker,  better  known 
as  "Aunt  Usley,"  maintained  the  dignity  of  a  house  full 
of  maiden  sisters,  by  carrying  on  a  domestic  bakery.  No 
tea  table  was  deemed  complete  on  great  occasions,  with- 
out a  supply  of  "Aunt  Usley's  soft  tea  biscuits." 

1799,  October  10th.  The  name  of  Main  street,  was 
by  resolution  of  the  Council,  changed  to  Warren.  The 
public  were  informed  of  the  change  by  the  following 
notice  chalked  on  the  fences,  which  at  that  time  were 
mostly  red  and  yellow:  "This  street  is  no  longer  Main 
Street,  but  called  Warren,  by  order  of  the  Common 

In  September,  1799.  "The  Mayor  was  reported  absent 
in  town,  Alderman  Taylor  absent  in  town,  the  other  Alder- 
men and  Assistants  absent  out  of  town,  and  the  Re- 
corder 'solitary  and  alone'  adjourned  the  Council  to  meet 
on  the  following  day  at  Russell  Kellogg's  tavern." 

1800,  April  7th.  Peter  Hall  was  appointed  bell-man, 
"bell  to  be  rung  as  usual,  to  be  paid  at  the  rate  of  thirty- 
eight  dollars  per  year."  Jemmy  Fraser  was  promoted  to 
the  office  of  City  Crier  and  to  receive  a  reward  of  not 
less  than  one  shilling  for  every  time  of  service,  and  not 
more  than  three,  agreeably  to  exigencies  of  the  weather." 

1801,  August  15th.  A  committee  was  appointed  to  pro- 
cure a  clock  with  three  dials,  to  be  placed  in  the  steeple 
of  the  Presbyterian  meeting-house,  and  were  authorized 
to  loan  not  exceeding  200  dollars,  to  be  applied  with  the 
sum  already  subscribed  and  deposited  in  the  bank." 

This  clock  was  afterward  placed  in  the  steeple  of  the 
old  Episcopal  church. 

December  9th,  Committee  reported  that  Daniel  Rumap 
was  paid  20  dollars  in  addition  to  the  sum  agreed  upon, 
for  additional  work,  and   that  they  had  placed  the  clock 


in   the  meeting-house,   and   had   made   provision    to    pay- 
Deborah  Jenkins  200  dollars  for  borrowed  money." 

1803,  April  1st.  It  was  resolved  "that  any  member  of 
the  Council  not  appearing  within  fifteen  minutes  after 
the  hour  of  meeting,  should  pay  to,  and  for  the  use  of 
the  Council,  the  sum  of  fifty  cents.  The  time  always  to 
be  determined  by  the  City  clock."  Mr.  Parkman's  time- 
piece had  ceased  to  be  the  standard. 

1799,  June"  1st.  Elisha  Pitken  was  authorized  to  erect  a 
suitable  Market  House  on  the  jail  square,  corner  of  War- 
ren and  Fourth  streets.  This  was  the  second  or  upper 

A  postoffice  was  established  in  this  city  in  1793,  pre- 
vious to  which  time  the  residents  of  Hudson  were  com- 
pelled to  go  to  Claverack  for  their  mail. 

The  first  Postmaster  was  Cotton  Gelston  and  the  office 
was  kept  in  the  upper  part  of  his  store,  a  small  two-story 
building  on  the  site  of  211  Warren  street;  his  dwelling 
being  at  No.  205.  Mr.  Gelston  continued  in  the  office 
until  the  election  of  Thomas  Jefferson  to  the  Presidency 
when  he  was  removed  and  Alexander  Coffin  appointed 
in  his  place. 

Post-riders  were  superseded  by  mail  coaches  in  1786. 
In  that  year  an  act  was  passed  by  the  Assembly  granting 
Isaac  Van  Wyck,  Talmage  Hall,  and  John  Kinney  "the 
exclusive  right  to  erect,  set  up,  carry  on,  and  drive  a 
stage-wagon  between  Albany  and  New  York  on  the  east 
side  of  Hudson's  river,  for  a  period  of  ten  years;  and 
restraining  all  opposition  by  a  penalty  of  200  pounds." 

They  were  to  furnish  at  least  two  covered  wagons, 
each  drawn  by  four  able  horses,  and  trips  must  be  made 
twice  each  week.    Fare  limited  to  four  pence  per  mile. 

The  company  advertised  that  "during  the  season  of  good 
roads,  their  stage-wagon  would  perform  the  journey  in 
two  days,  with  a  charge  of  only  three  pence  per  mile,  but 
that  in  times  of  bad  roads,  for  the  ease  of  the  passen- 


gers,  the  time  of  running  through,  would  be  lengthened 
to  three  days,  and  price  raised  to  four  pence  per  mile," 
agreeably  to  Act  of  Assembly. 

"The  stopping  place  in  Hudson  was  at  Kellogg's  Tav- 
ern." This  was  the  second  public  house  erected  in  this 
city,  and  was  on  the  site  of  the  "Worth."  It  was  kept  in 
later  years  by  Samuel  Bryan  and  was  still  the  stage-house 
and  it  was  to  accommodate  the  large  and  increasing  travel 
by  stage,  that  the  "Hudson  House,"  now  the  "Worth,"  was 
built  in  1837.  It  was  not  uncommon  at  that  time,  for  two 
hundred  passengers  to  stop  here  daily  for  meals,  dur- 
ing the  winter  months,  and  of  the  large  number  of  visitors 
to  the  Springs  at  New  Lebanon  during  the  summer,  the 
greater  part  were  sent  there  by  stages  from  this  place. 

In  1785,  the  Hudson  Gazette  informed  the  public  "tha*^ 
they  had  agreed  to  establish  a  post,  to  ride  weekly  to  Litch- 
field, Conn.,  where  he  will  exchange  papers  with  the  post*^ 
from  Boston,  Hartford  and  New  Haven."  In  1787  the^ 
reminded  "the  public  that  the  post-rider  had  ridden  al- 
most half  a  year  not  asking  for  pay,  he  now  requests  pay 
in  good  merchantable  goods,  grain  of  any  kind,  or  riax 
at  cash  prices."  This  post-rid  also  carried  small  parcels, 
and  executed  commissions,  being  particularly  requested 
by  the  hair  dresser  of  Hudson,  "to  bring  in  all  the  human 
hair  he  could  collect  on  his  route  in  the  remote  districts." 

Ashbel  Stoddard  was  the  pioneer  printer  of  Hudson. 
On  the  7th  of  April,  1785,  he,  in  company  with  Charles 
R.  Webster,  a  fellow  apprentice  in  the  office  of  the  Con- 
necticut Courant,  commenced  the  publication  of  a  weekly 
newspaper,  called  th«  "Hudson  Gazette."  In  it  he  points 
out  to  the  public  the  many  advantages  which  would  re- 
sult to  "our  already  flourishing  place."  from  the  establish- 
ment of  an  impartial  newspaper.  "Being  deprived  of 
these  privileges  must  be  seriously  felt  by  Hudson,  there- 
fore he  had  commenced  the  publication  of  the  Hudson 
Gazette,  to  be  issued  weekly  at  the  rate  of  twelve  shillings 


(three  dollars)   per  year;  money  to  be  refunded  to  sub- 
scribers who  were  not  satisfied  with  the  paper." 

It  was  a  small  sheet,  not  more  than  eight  by  ten,  printed 
on  paper  of  a  yellowish  tint  but  with  fair  type.  Its  de- 
livery was  announced  for  many  years  by  the  carrier  blow- 
ing a  horn.  Mails  were  few,  one  from  the  east  and  three 
from  New  York  each  week  by  stage,  beside  the  post- 
rider  of  whom  mention  has  been  made. 

It  seems  at  first  to  have  received  but  a  poor  support, 
very  few  advertisements  except  Mr.  Stoddard's  own  being 
found  in  its  columns. 

The  sale  of  negroes  and  rewards  for  runaway  slaves 
were  the  most  numerous.  Cotton  Gelston  advertised  a 
negro  as  having  "walked  away  being  too  lazy  to  run." 
At  a  later  date  Refine  Latting  a  prominent  merchant  and 
farmer  of  Hillsdale,  advertised  "One  cent  reward  for 
return  of  negro  girl  'Sal'  who  ran  away  from  my 
premises.  All  persons  are  forbid  harboring  her  under 
penalty  of  the  law." 

In  1786,  Mr.  Webster  withdrew  and  the  paper  was  con- 
tinued by  Mr.  Stoddard,  who  greatly  improved  its  appear- 
ance. He  also  published  "Webster's  Speller"  and  an 
almanac  which  was  highly  esteemed,  many  arranging  their 
domestic  affairs  by  its  weather  table. 

In  the  same  year.  1786,  the  list  of  letters  in  the  post- 
office  was  published  for  the  first  time.  We  give  the  sub- 
stance of  some  of  the  curious  advertisements  found  in 
its  pages. 

Mr.  Robardet  of  Connecticut  advertised  in  the  winter 
of  1785,  that  he  would  open  a  class  for  "instruction  in  the 
polite  accomplishment  of  dancing,  after  the  most  ap- 
proved method."  "Scholars  would  be  taken  from  seven 
to  fifty  years  of  age."     And  this  in  a  Quaker  City! 

Ambrose  Liverpool  advertised  that  he  would  open  a 
Seminar}',  where  he  would  teach  all  the  English  branches, 
also  Latin  and  Greek  classics;   also  at  convenient  times 


the  principles  of  several  musical  instruments,  and  that 
he  had  also  several  dozen  strong  English  beer,  which  he 
wished  to  dispose  of.'' 

"Mrs.  Hussey  notified  the  ladies  of  Hudson  that  she 
would  be  happy  to  wait  upon  their  commands  in  millinery, 
and  mantua  making  after  the  most  approved  fashions, 
regularly  received  from  New  York  City,  at  her  house  on 
the  hill,  near  the  wharf." 

Monsieur  Hyacinth  L'Escure  stated  that  he  kept  "a 
choice  lot  of  Essences  near  the  Market  House,"  also  that 
he  would  furnish  cushions  to  the  ladies  and  queues  to 
the  gentlemen,  of  excellent  human  hair,  for  which  he 
would  take  his  pay  in  wheat,  and  Indian  corn."  Monsieur 
"L'Escure  had  been  a  drummer  under  Burgoyne,  and  was 
"barber  to  the  corporation,"  there  being  no  other  at  this 
time  in   the  city. 

He  is  described  as  having  a  frizzled  head,  broad  low 
forehead,  little  black  eyes,  wide  mouth  and  triangular 
visage,  and  was  accustomed  to  walk  back  and  forth  be- 
fore his  shop  door,  humming  a  tune  and  snapping  his 
fingers."  His  dress  was  in  keeping  with  his  person  and 
profession;  "a  long  striped  calico  gown,  a  short  white 
apron,  tight  nankeen  small  clothes,  and  ruffled  shirt,  com- 
pleted with  silk  stockings,  and  yellow  slippers." 

Hudson's  first  circus.  On  August  15,  1786,  Mr.  Pool 
advertised  "a  circus  on  the  green"  stating  that  he  was  the 
first  American,  who  ever  attempted  equestrian  feats,  and 
among  other  wonderful  things  which  he  would  exhibit, 
were  two  horses,  which  at  word  of  command  would  "lay 
down  and  groan."  The  price  of  admission  was  three 
shillings,  and  ladies  and  gentlemen  were  "beseeched  not 
to  bring  any  dogs  with  them  to  the  performances." 

The  first  menagerie  consisting  of  "two  camels"  was  ad- 
vertised for  exhibition;  they  were  described  as  "stupendous 
animals,"  "having  necks  three   feet  eight   inches  long,  a 


high  bunch  like  a  pedestal  on  the  back,  four  joints  in  their 
legs,  and  can  travel  fourteen  days  without  water."  The 
curious  were  invited  to  come  and  see  them  without  fail. 
Admission  one  shilling. 

A  few  of  the  many  firms  doing  business  here  in  1785 
were,  "Thomas  Jenkins,  Merchant,  who  advertised  the 
best  West  India  and  New  England  Rum.  Iron,  Salt  and 
Dry  Goods."  "Barzilla  and  Tristram  Bunker,  Sail- 
makers."  J.  Pritchard,  "Taylor  and  Ladies  Habit-Maker, 
from  London."  "Thomas  Worth,  Silk  and  Stuff  shoes,  at 
his  shop  near  the  Market  House,"  and  "Lot  Tripp,  Drugs 
and  Medicines." 

In  1792,  the  Gazette  was  somewhat  enlarged  and  its 
columns  gave  evidence  of  prosperity,  "but  it  was  de- 
ficient in  matters  of  local  interest."  Mr.  Stoddard's  small 
one-story  building  located  on  the  south-east  corner  of 
Warren  and  Third  streets  and  known  for  generations  as 
"Stoddard's  Corner,"  sufficed  not  only  for  the  publica- 
tion of  the  "Gazette,"  and  Sunday  school  books,  but  was 
also  the  emporium  for  school  supplies  of  every  sort,  in- 
cluding goose  quills,  which  were  abundantly  festooned 
about  the  store  to  become  seasoned.  Metallic  pens  were 
still  unknown  and  school  teachers  were  expected  to  make 
and  mend  the  pens  for  fifty  scholars,  as  well  as  set  their 

Liberal  subscriptions  from  the  citizens  enabled  Mr. 
Stoddard  to  re-establish  his  business  immediately  after 
the  destruction  of  his  office  by  fire  in  1793.  He  re-built 
on  the  same  site  and  resumed  the  publication  of  the 
"Gazette,"  but  in  1803  or  4,  it  was  discontinued,  other 
political  papers  having  taken  the  field. 

Mr.  Stoddard  was  small  and  of  delicate  constitution,  but 
he  lived  to  the  age  of  seventy-eight  years,  dying  in  Octo- 
ber  1840,  a  worthy  and  greatly   esteemed  citizen. 

A  semi-monthly  literary  paper  was  started  in  1824,  by 


his  son,  William  B.  Stoddard,  called  the  "Rural  Reposi- 
tory;" it  was  neatly  printed  in  quarto  form,  and  was  highly 
successful.  Its  discontinuance  in  1851  was  much  re- 
gretted by  the  many  families  in  which  it  had  been  a 
regular  and  welcome  visitor. 



Early  Journalism — County  Records. 

The  history  of  journalism  in  Hudson  during  the  early 
part  of  the  19th  century,  is  a  record  of  almost  phenomenal 
mortality   among   infant   newspapers. 

A  complete  list  was  compiled  in  the  year  1885,  showing 
that  out  of  twenty-nine  journals  that  had  been  started  in 
the  city  since  its  incorporation,  only  two,  the  Gazette  and 
the  Republican,  and  their  daily  issues  survived.  In  this 
year  of  Our  Lord,  1908,  the  list  would  be  longer,  but  the 
result  would  be  the  same. 

Mention  will  be  made  of  a  few  of  the  earlier  of  these 
ephemeral   productions. 

"The  Columbian  Balance"  was  commenced  in  1801  by 
Ezra  Sampson,  George  Chittenden  and  Harry  Croswell, 
in  the  upper  part  of  a  store  in  Warren  street,  near  Second. 

Mr.  Sampson  was  a  Presbyterian  minister  who  previous 
to  1800  was  settled  over  the  Presbyterian  church  in  this 
City  as  a  temporary  supply. 

Mr.  Chittenden  was  a  book-binder  and  shortly  after, 
he  established  the  well  known  Chittenden  Mills,  for  the 
manufacture  of  paper,  in  the  town  of  Stockport,  which 
was  then  a  wilderness.  He  conducted  the  business  success- 
fully until  his  death  in   1845. 

Mr.  Croswell  had  been  a  printer,  afterward  he  became  a 
Clergyman  of  the  Episcopal  church,  and  was  settled  for 
many  years  in  New  Haven,  where  he  died  at  an  advanced 

The  "Balance"  was  printed  in  small  quarto  form  on 
dingy  paper,  but  being  ably  edited  had  a  large  subscrip- 
tion, and  circulated  throughout  the  United  States. 


It  was  removed  to  Albany  in  1808,  and  soon  after  was 

Party  spirit  ran  high  between  the  Federalists  and  Anti- 
Federalists,  the  "Balance"  being  the  organ  of  the  former, 
and  the  "Bee,"  which  appeared  in  1802  of  the  latter.  The 
columns  of  both  were  filled  with  bitter  personalities,  which 
led  the  editors  into  frequent  difficulties. 

Soon  after  the  appearance  of  the  "Bee"  a  small  paper, 
less  than  a  letter  sheet  in  size,  was  issued  from  the  office 
of  Mr.  Croswell,  called  the  "Wasp"  edited  by  "Robert 
Rusticoat,  Esq."  Its  object  was  indicated  by  the  follow- 
ing couplet: 

"If  perchance  there  comes  a  Bee, 
A  Wasp  shall  come  as  well  as  he." 

It  was  published  but  a  short  time  and  both  "Wasp  and 
Bee"  stung  with  personalities.  The  "Bee"  was  published 
by  Mr.  Charles  Holt  in  the  upper  part  of  Judge  Hezekiah 
Dayton's  store,  on  or  near  the  site  of  Number  23  Warren 
street.  The  lower  part  of  the  store  was  the  headquarters 
of  the  Democratic  Club;  "there  'round  a  red  hot  stove 
in  an  atm.osphere  blue  with  smoke,  seated  on  old  pine 
benches  and  wooden  bottomed  chairs,  with  the  dust  and 
cobwebs  of  twenty  years  undisturbed  on  the  shelves,  met 
the   great  Anti-Federal   fathers   of  the   City." 

The  Federal  Club,  of  which  Elisha  Williams,  one  of 
the  most  influential  men  in  the  State  was  the  acknowl- 
edged leader,  always  met  in  the  best  furnished  room  of 
one  of  the  public  houses.  Each  party  maintained  a  large, 
and  well-trained  instrumental  band,  composed  of  mem- 
bers of  the  party.  Mr.  Holt  sold  out  his  establishment  in 
1810  to  Mr.  Samuel  Clark,  who  continued  the  publication 
of  the  "Bee"  until  lcS21,  when  it  was  united  with  the 
Columbia   Republican. 

Another  important  paper  of  the  day  was  The  Northern 
\X'hig,"  commenced  by  Francis  Stebbins  in  I  SOS.  He  was 
succeeded   by    '^'illiani    L.    Stone,    afterward    of   the    New 


York  Commercial  Advertiser,  who  conducted  it  until  1816, 
and  was  succeeded  by  Richard  L.  Corse,  from  whom  it 
passed  into  the  hands  of  William  B.  Stebbins,  a  son  of 
the  original  proprietor,  and  was  discontinued  in    1824. 

Its  circulation  was  large,  and  it  was  considered  one 
of  the  ablest  Federal  papers  in  the  state. 

It  numbered  among  its  contributors  Elisha  Williams, 
William  W.  Van  Ness,  Thomas  P.  Grosvenor,  and  others 
of  that  stamp. 

Captain  Alexander  Coffin  was  one  of  the  most  ardent 
supporters  of  the  Anti-Federalists.  He  was  a  man  of 
strong  political  prejudices  and  fiery  temperament,  but 
also  of  great  personal  respectability,  and  possessing  many 
noble  qualities.  After  his  death  his  portrait  was  placed 
by  the  city  in  the  Common  Council  room,  where  it  still 

In  1803,  Mr.  Croswell  published  in  the  Balance  a  vio- 
lent attack  on  President  Jefferson  for  which  he  was  in- 
dicted by  the  grand  jury  of  Columbia  county. 

The  case  came  to  trial  in  February,  1804,  in  the  Court 
House  at  Claverack,  before  Chief  Justice  Lewis.  Attor- 
ney General  Ambrose  Spencer  conducted  the  case  for 
the  people,  and  William  W.  Van  Ness  and  Alexander 
Hamilton  appeared  for  the  defendant.  The  trial  attracted 
wide-spread  attention,  both  from  the  nature  of  the  ques- 
tion at  issue,  and  from  the  eminence  of  the  Counsel  en- 

Interest  naturally  centered  in  the  brilliant  Hamilton,  and 
the  reporter  for  the  New  York  Evening  Post  after  describ- 
ing the  efforts  of  Spencer,  and  Van  Ness  said — "and  then 
came  the  great,  the  powerful  Hamilton."  "No  language 
can  convey  an  adequate  idea  of  the  astonishing  power 
evinced  by  him."  "The  audience  was  numerous,  and  was 
composed  of  those  not  used  to  the  melting  mood,  and  the 
effect  on  them  was  electric."  *  *  *   "As  a  profound  com- 


mentary  on  the  science  and  practice  of  government,  it 
has  never  been  surpassed." 

The  Court  instructed  the  jury  that  they  were  called 
simply  to  decide  whether  the  alleged  language  had  been 
published,  the  court  would  determine  the  question  of  libel, 
and  notwithstanding  the  eloquence  and  pathos  of  the  de- 
fense, the  case  was  decided  adversely  to  the  defendant, 
who  was  convicted  but  never  punished.  It  is  said  to 
have  been  the  last  case  in  which  Hamilton  appeared.  Five 
months  afterward  he  fell  by  the  pistol  of  Aaron  Burr. 

The  following  note  from  the  Right  Reverend  William 
Croswell  Doane,  Bishop  of  Albany,  will  enhance  our  in- 
terest in  the  fiery  young  editor: 

Bishop's  House, 

April    16,    1908. 

I  have  no  relationship  by  blood  with  the  Croswells, 
but  Dr.  William  Croswell  of  Boston,  a  son  I  think  of  the 
Rev.  Harry  Croswell,  was  my  father's  most  intimate  friend, 
and  was  my  God-father,  and  I  was  named  after  him. 
What  you  tell  me  of  the  suit  in  Hudson  is  most  interest- 

Believe   me. 

Always  very   faithfully, 


After  the  entry  of  Rev.  Harry  Croswell  upon  the  minis- 
try, his  first  sermon  was  preached  in  (Christ  Church  in 
this  city.  The  occasion  drew  out  a  lar.i;c  attendance  of 
his  former  political  friends  and  acquaintances,  and  A\r. 
Croswell    solenmly    addressed    them,    telling    them    "they 


had  seen  how  well  he  had  served  his  political  masters,  and 
should  bear  witness  how  much  more  faithfully  he  should 
follow  the  new  master,  upon  whose  service  he  had  en- 

The  old  Court  House  at  Claverack  was  the  arena  for 
many  a  battle  royal  between  the  rival  lawyers  of  the 
day;  men  whose  names  are  synonymous  with  legal  lore, 
keen  wit,  and  scathing  invective,  there  met  foemen  worthy 
of  their  steel. 

The  first  sentence  to  the  penitentiary  was  in  1798  "two 
years  for  grand  larceny,  and  to  remain  in  County  Jail 
until  prison   is  completed." 

Robberies  and  horse  stealing  seem  to  have  become  so 
common  that  a  resort  was  had  to  death  sentences.  On 
April  2,  1788,  three  men  were  sentenced  for  horse  steal- 
ing; in  the  curious  words  of  the  Court,  "that  having  been 
respectively  convicted  of  the  felonies  you  have  severally 
committed,  you  shall  be  taken  to  the  place  of  execution, 
and  there  be  severally  hanged  by  the  neck  until  you  be 
respectively  dead."  A  man  who  stole  a  bee-hive  fared 
better,  his  case  being  put  over  from  term  to  term  and 
ending  finally  in  an  acquittal,  notwithstanding  the  swarm 
of  witnesses.  Another  item  found  in  the  early  records 
of  the  County  Courts,  though  not  particularly  connected 
with  Hudson,  is  worthy  of  note  because  of  a  general  in- 
terest in  everything  concerning  President  Roosevelt.  On 
Jan.  12th,  1789,  John  Bay,  attorney  at  Claverack  and  the 
first  Clerk  of  this  City,  confessed  judgment  for  45  pounds 
six  shillings,  and  costs,  against  Joseph  Lee,  in  favor  of 
James  Roosevelt,  who  kept  a  country  store  at  Chatham. 
Mr.  Roosevelt  married  a  sister  of  Peter  Van  Schaack, 
the  founder  of  the  old  family  of  that  name  in  Kinderhook, 
and  soon  afterward  removed  to  New  York,  where  he 
amassed  a  fortune  in  the  iron  business.    Wishing  to  know 


whether  Mr.  James  Roosevelt  was  a  relative  of  President 
Roosevelt,  inquiry  was  made  at  "The  White  House." 
The  reply  was  prompt  and  characteristic. 

The  White  House, 

May  6,    1908. 

I  think  that  was  my  great-grandfather.  Indeed  I  am 
pretty  sure  so,  because  my  great-grandmother  was  a  Miss 
Van  Schaack. 

With  all  good  wishes. 

Sincerely  Yours, 

Although  the  calm  of  the  erstwhile  peaceful  village  of 
Claverack,  must  have  been  rudely  broken  by  the  whipping- 
master,  and  frequent  executions,  they  still  clung  to  the 
prestige  of  being  the  County  Seat.  It  was  not  until  after 
strong  opposition,  and  considerable  contention,  that  the 
courts  were  removed  to  Hudson  in  the  year  1805,  by  an 
act  passed  by  the  Assembly  entitled,  "An  act  altering  the 
place  for  holding  the  courts,  in  the  County  of  Columbia." 

The  County  buildings  at  Claverack  were  sold  and  the 
proceeds  were  expended  on  the  Court  House  and  jail  at 

The  City  Hall  was  at  once  rc-modcled,  and  the  Com- 
mon Council  appropriated  it  to  the  County,  to  be  used 
as  a  Court  House. 

They  also  voted  the  sum  of  2.000  dollars,  and  a  lot 
of  land  for  the  erection  of  a  new  jail.  The  present  ofticc 
of  the  Hudson  Register  and  Gazette  is  located  in  the 
building,  that  was  then  erected  for  a  County  prison. 


The  first  session  of  the  courts  was  held  in  January, 
1806,  but  the  Court  House  was  still  used  for  all  public 
assemblages,  and  was  the  home  of  each  religious  orga- 
nization in  its  infancy,  until  its  purchase  by  the  Presby- 
terian  Society. 

1806,  Jan.  11th.  Benjamin  Birdsall  was  voted  by  the 
Common  Council,  forty  dollars  for  his  services  as  com- 
mitteeman in  procuring  a  change  of  the  County  seat.  In 
the  year  1800,  the  population  of  Hudson  was  3,664,  rank- 
ing third  in  the  state  in  commerce,  and  fourth  in  manu- 




In  1785,  a  committee  was  appointed  to  rent  and  regu- 
late the  ferry,  which  at  an  earlier  date  was  in  the  hands 
of  Conrad  Flock.  Possession  was  not  obtained  by  the 
city  until  1790,  when  scows  with  sails,  so  constructed  that 
teams  could  enter  from  either  end  were  adopted.  The 
keeper  was  required  to  furnish  "two  scows  with  four  able 
bodied  men  to  each,  and  on  reaching  the  landing  at 
Loonenburg,  it  was  the  duty  of  some  one  of  the  ferrymen, 
to  blow  a  shell  or  trumpet,  to  give  immediate  notice  of 
their  arrival,  and  to  remain  there  fifteen  minutes." 

A  committee  was  appointed  in  April,  1803,  to  confer 
with  the  citizens  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  respect- 
ing a  "Canal  through  the  Flats,"  but  they  seem  to  have 
been  apathetic  on  the  subject,  and  nothing  was  done  until 
1816,  when  the  work  was  performed  under  the  direction 
of  Robert  Jenkins,  Oliver  Wiswall  and  Judah  Paddock,  a 
committee  appointed  by  the  Common  Council,  funds  be- 
ing provided  by  a  lottery.  The  scows  continued  in  use 
until  displaced  by  the  horse-boat,  which  was  built  by 
William  Johnson  at  a  cost  of  six  thousand  dollars. 

Its  introduction  was  a  great  event  in  the  history  of  the 
city.  The  Mayor,  Robert  Jenkins,  and  a  portion  of  the 
Council  made  a  trial  trip  around  the  flats,  when  the  pilot 
not  yet  accustomed  to  the  management  of  his  new  craft, 
collided  with  a  vessel  so  forcibly,  as  to  bring  the  official 
party  to  a  level  with  the  deck. 

In  1858,  to  the  great  relief  of  everyone  the  steam  ferry- 
boat was  substituted. 

Before  the  year  1S07,  all  freight  and  passenger  traffic 
was  carried  on  by  means  of  sloops,  of  which  there  were  a 


number  of  lines,  owned  by  Coffin,  Hathaway,  Edmonds, 
Hogeboom,  Van  Hoesan  and  others. 

Samuel  Edmonds  had  been  with  Col.  Van  Alen,  and  at 
his  death  had  succeeded  to  his  business.  Captain  John 
Hathaway  was  an  enterprising  man  of  English  puritan 
descent.  He  advertised  that  "his  sloops  had  better  ac- 
commodations than  any  others  on  the  river,"  and  also  said 
"that  he  would  be  pleased  to  have  any  body 
to  whom  he  was  in  debt,  call  on  him  and  get 
their  pay,  //  they  wished  it."  The  journey  to  New 
York  was  made  by  sloops,  under  the  most  favor- 
able conditions  of  wind  and  tide  in  twenty-four  hours, 
but  more  frequently  required  four  or  five  days  an  aver- 
age trip  being  from  two  to  three  days.  Fare  was  three 
dollars,  the  Company  finding  board  and  lodging,  or  one 
dollar  and  fifty  cents,  the  passengers  "finding  themselves." 

In  1806,  two  packets  were  built  exclusively  for  pas- 
sengers, not  even  a  package  of  goods  being  allowed  on 
them.  They  are  said  to  have  been  the  first  vessels  con- 
structed in  this  country  for  passengers  only.  They  were 
called  "The  Experiments,"  and  were  commanded  by  Cap- 
tains Laban  Paddock  and  Elihu  Bunker.  Steam  naviga- 
tion was  introduced  in  the  following  year,  owing  to  which 
they  proved  unprofitable.  John  Lambert,  an  Englishman 
stopping  here,  three  months  after  Robert  Fulton  passed 
up,  says  that  on  the  22n  1  day  of  November,  he 
"embarked  on  one  of  the  fine  new  sloops  called  the 
'Experiments,'  built  expressly  to  carry  passengers  between 
Hudson  and  New  York."  "It  was  fitted  up  finely,  and 
accommodations  were  very  comfortable;  fare  for  passage 
five  dollars  including  a  bed-place  (berth)  and  three  meals 
a  day  "with  spirits."  "About  nine  o'clock  we  left  the 
wharf,  which  was  crowded  with  people  to  see  us  depart, 
and  having  a  smart  breeze,  soon  left  the  City  of  Hudson 
behind  us."    He  does  not  say  when  he  reached  New  York! 

On  the  17th  day  of  August,  1807,  Fulton's  steamboat,  the 


Clermont,  passed  here  through  the  Western  channel,  mak- 
ing the  passage  from  New  York  in  thirty-three  hours, 
"without  sails  or  oars,  being  propelled  by  a  common  water 
wheel,  which  was  moved  by  the  assistance  of  machinery, 
with  steam."  "On  her  return  trip  the  next  day,  she  grati- 
fied the  citizens  of  Hudson  by  making  her  passage  through 
the  Hudson  channel."  Every  spot  which  afforded  a  sight 
of  the  river  was  crowded  with  people  eager  to  get  a  view 
of  "the  great  curiosity." 

Not  long  after  her  first  trip  she  came  from  New  York 
in  twenty-seven  hours,  landing  here  with  one  hundred 
and  twenty  passengers,  which  fact  was  considered  worthy 
of  a  special  notice.  In  the  "Bee"  of  June,  1808,  appeared 
the  following  curious  advertisement: 

For  the  Information  of  the   Public. 

The  Steamboat  will  leave  New  York  for  Albany  every 
Saturday  afternoon  exactly  at  6  o'clock  and  will  pass 
West   Point   about  4   o'clock   Sunday   morning. 

Newburgh  7  do. 

Poughkeepsie  1 1   do. 

Esopus  2  in  the  afternoon 

Red  Hook  4  do. 

Catskill  7  do. 

Hudson  9  in  the  evening 

She  will  leave  Albany  for  New  York  every  Wednesday 
morning  exactly  at  8  o'clock  and  pass 

Hudson   about  3  in  the  afternoon 

Esopus  8  in  the  evening 

Poughkeepsie   12  at  night 

Newburgh  4  Thursday  morning 

West  Point        7  do. 

As  the  time  at  which  the  boat  mav  arrive  at  the  differ- 


ent  places  above  mentioned,  may  vary  an  hour  more  or 
less,  according  to  the  advantage  or  disadvantage,  of  wind 
and  tide,  those  who  wish  to  come  on  board,  will  see  the 
necessity  of  being  on  the  spot,  an  hour  before  the  time. 
Persons  wishing  to  come  on  board  from  any  other  land- 
ing than  here  specified,  can  calculate  the  time  the  boat 
will  pass,  and  be  ready  on  her  arrival.  Inn  keepers  or 
boatmen  who  bring  passengers  on  board,  or  take  them 
ashore,  will  be  allowed  one  shilling  for  each  person. 

Prices  of  Passage — From  New  York. 

To  West  Point 








Red  Hook 






From   Albany. 

To  Hudson 


Red  Hook 






Newburgh  and  West  Point 


New  York 


All  other  passengers  are  to  pay  at  the  rate  of  one 
dollar  for  every  twenty  miles,  and  a  half  a  dollar  for  every 
meal  they  may  eat. 

Children  from  1  to  5  years  of  age,  to  pay  one-third 
price,  and  sleep  with  the  persons  under  whose  care  they 

Young  persons  from  5  to  15  years  of  age,  to  pay  half 
price,  provided  they  sleep  two  in  a  berth,  price  for  each 
one  who  requests  to  occupy  a  whole  berth. 


Servants  who  pay  two-thirds  price  are  entitled  to  a 
berth;  they  pay  half  price  if  they  do  not  have  a  berth. 

Every  person  paying  full  price  is  allowed  60  lbs.  of 
baggage;  if  less  than  whole  price,  40  lbs.  They  are  to 
pay  at  the  rate  of  three  cents  a  pound  for  surplus  bag- 
gage. Storekeepers  who  wish  to  carry  light  and  valu- 
able merchandise,  can  be  accommodated  on  paying  three 
cents  a  pound. 

Passengers  will  breakfast  before  they  come  on  board; 
dinner  will  be  served  up  exactly  at  2  o'clock;  tea  with 
meats,  which  is  also  supper,  at  eight  in  the  evening;  and 
breakfast  at  9  in  the  morning;  no  one  has  a  claim  on  the 
steward   for  victuals  at  any  other  hour. 

The  Clermont  had  been  lengthened,  improved,  and  re- 
named the  North  River,  before  the  opening  of  the  season 
of  1808.  These  minute  regulations  were  doubtless  adopted 
by  her  owners  when  she  was  then  placed  on  the  route. 
She  was  commanded  by  Capt.  Wiswall. 

The  first  steamboat  owned  here  was  the  Legislator,  pur- 
chased in  1828,  by  the  Hudson  Tow  Boat  Company. 
Previous  to  this,  large  barges  built  for  the  transportation 
of  freight,  had  been  towed  to  New  York  by  steamboats 
running  from  Albany. 

The  captains  of  the  steamboats  in  that  day  were  very 
important  personages,  wearing  a  unifomi  profusely 
trimmed  with  gold  lace,  and  carrying  a  silver  trumpet, 
through  which  they  gave  their  orders. 

The  Legislator  was  soon  succeeded  by  several  lines 
of  fine  steamboats,  which  are  still  plying  nightly  between 
Hudson  and  New  York,  and  daily  between  Hudson  and 
Albany,  and  inter\'ening  points. 

In  addition  to  these  we  have  "the  neatest  and  swiftest 
steam  fcrr>'-boat  on  the  river."  So  wrote  the  author  of 
"Historical  Sketches  of  Hudson"  in  the  year  1860. 



Robert   Fulton. 

Should  the  reader  have  become  weary  of  digressions, 
and  aver  that  this  at  least  is  too  far  afield,  the  writer 
can  only  plead  in  extenuation  the  tempting  material  placed 
at  her  disposal,  from  records  in  the  possession  of  Robert 
Fulton's  grandson,  Robert  Fulton  Ludlow,  of  Claverack, 
New  York. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  timeliness  of  this  little  sketch 
may,  with  its  truthfulness  prove  its  own  raison  d'etre. 

Robert  Fulton  was  born  in  the  year  1765  in  Little 
Britain,  Lancaster  county,  Pennsylvania. 

He  was  of  Irish  parentage,  his  father  having  emigrated 
from  Ireland  in  1750,  and  purchased  a  farm  of  three 
hundred  and  sixty-four  acres,  in  the  town  of  Little  Britain, 
for  which  he  paid,  nine  hundred  and  sixty-five  pounds. 

There  Robert  Fulton  was  bom,  being  the  third  child 
and  eldest  son.  The  following  year  the  farm  was  mort- 
gaged and  the  family  removed  to  Lancaster,  where  the 
father  died  in   1768. 

Like  many  men  of  Fulton's  mould  the  routine  of  school 
life  had  no  attractions  for  him,  much  to  the  serious  con- 
cern of  his  master,  and  also  of  his  mother.  He  pre- 
ferred to  spend  his  time  in  the  machine  shops  and  fac- 
tories in  the  neighborhood,  where  he  was  a  prime  favorite. 
He  was  clever  with  the  pencil  in  drawing  and  designing, 
and  when  he  was  seventeen  years  of  age  he  went  to 
Philadelphia,  where  he  supported  himself  by  painting 

He  made  the  acquaintance  of  Benjamin  Franklin  and 
other  distinguished  men  while  there,  who  seem  to  have 
been  much  interested  in  him. 


So  successful  was  he  in  his  profession,  that  in  four 
years  he  saved  enough  to  enable  him  to  satisfy  his  boy- 
hood's dream,  and  buy  a  home  for  his  widowed  mother. 
Selecting  a  snug  little  place  in  Washington  county,  Penn., 
he  bought  it  and  deeded  it  to  her.  "A  Golden  Deed," 
one  of  his   biographers  calls   it,  thinking  possibly — 

"So  shines  a  good  deed  in  a  naughty  world." 

Having  thus  affectionately  provided  for  his  mother,  and 
being  advised  to  go  abroad  for  his  health  which  was  never 
very  vigorous,  in  1791 — at  the  age  of  twenty-one  years, 
he  proceeded  to  London.  Here  he  was  cordially  wel- 
comed by  Benjamin  West,  the  celebrated  artist,  then  at 
the  height  of  his  fame,  and  was  invited  to  become  an 
inmate  of  his  home. 

Benjamin  West  was  also  a  native  of  Pennsylvania  and 
his  father  was  an  intimate  friend  of  William  Penn. 

Fulton's  life  in  London  apart  from  his  art  studies  as 
a  pupil  of  West,  was  devoted  to  the  work  of  perfecting 
himself  as  a  civil  engineer. 

It  is  evident  from  his  correspondence  with  Lord  Stan- 
hope, a  portion  of  which  is  still  extant,  that  so  early  as 
1783,  he  entertained  the  idea  of  propulsion  by  steam, 
while  he  pursued  with  ardor  the  study  of  canals,  which 
he  advocated  in  place  of  turnpikes,  and  in  which  he  never 
lost  interest  during  his  very  active  life. 

Fulton  contributed  to  various  London  journals  on  his 
favorite  topic,  and  published  a  treatise  on  "The  ^fpi- 
provement  of  Navigation"  illustrated  by  plates  mflde  from 
his  own  drawings,  a  copy  of  whicU  fiaving  been  sent  to 
General   Washington,  was  most  graciously  acknowledged. 

In  171)7.  having  been  made  a  civil  engineer  in  'OS, 
Fulton  took  up  his  residence  in  Paris,  in  the  family  of 
the  Hon.  Joel  Barlow,  then  United  States  Minister  to 
France.  Here  he  acquired  the  French  and  German  lan- 
guages, and  also  applied  himself  to   the  study  of  higher 


mathematics,  and  other  branches  of  science  which  com- 
pleted his  equipment  for  practical  work. 

On  the  3rd  of  July,  1801,  Fulton  and  three  companions 
tested  a  "plunger"  as  he  called  it,  named  the  "Nautilus," 
and  descended  twenty-five  feet  below  the  surface  of  the 
Seine,  remaining  submerged  one  hour.  On  August  7th, 
with  a  store  of  compressed  air  contained  in  a  cubic  foot 
of  space,  the  "Nautilus"  remained  under  water  six  hours, 
without  inconvenience  to  the  occupants.  Fulton  also  in- 
vented a  crude  torpedo  which  was  to  be  launched  from 
the  submarine. 

England  kept  Fulton  under  close  surveillance  while 
these  experiments  were  being  made,  as  she  was  then  at 
war  with  France,  but  Fulton  seems  to  have  disliked  Na- 
polean  too  much  to  desire  to  place  them  at  his  disposal. 
An  English  deputation  suggested  an  interview  with  a 
neutral  friend  in  Holland,  to  which  Fulton  acceded, 
spending  three  months  there,  but  while  accomplishing 
nothing  tangible  in  diplomacy,  he  made  some  clever 
sketches  of  Dutch  character,  and  scenery. 

While  the  Dutch  government  was  strictly  neutral,  a 
private  citizen,  presumably  of  Amsterdam,  furnished 
Fulton  with  part  of  the  money  to  go  on  with  his  experi- 

In  1803,  the  English  Minister  made  a  distinct  proposi- 
tion to  Fulton  to  withdraw  from  France,  and  give  Eng- 
land the  benefit  of  his  inventions.  This  he  consented 
to  do,  but  on  his  arrival  was  surprised  and  hurt  by  the 
unfairness  of  the  English  in  trials  of  his  torpedoes.  "Ob- 
taining permission  he  blew  up  a  Danish  vessel  of  two 
hundred  tons,  as  if  it  had  been  a  bag  of  feathers,"  and 
soon  after  returned  to  Paris. 

On  the  arrival  of  the  Hon.  Robert  L.  Livingston  as 
American  Minister  to  France,  Fulton's  attention  was  turned 
afresh  to  the  subject  of  steam  navigation.  This  meeting 
of  Robert  Fulton  and  Chancellor  Livingston  was  a  for- 

HISTORY   OF    HUD50N  85 

tunate  event  in  the  history  of  the  steamboat,  the  one 
a  man  of  great  wealth  and  business  sagacity,  the  other 
an  inventive  and  artistic  genius. 

At  once  experiments  were  made  with  models  on  the 
Seine,  and  ere  long,  from  Fulton's  own  original  speci- 
fications was  ordered,  out  of  England's  best  shops,  the 
engine  that  was  to  propel  the  first  successful  steamboat 
in  the  world! 

Livingston  had  previously  experimented  somewhat  on 
his  own  account,  with  the  assistance  of  Brunei  who  was 
a  French  refugee,  afterward  famous  as  the  Engineer  of 
the  Thames  Tunnel  in  London. 

So  sanguine  of  success  was  the  Chancellor,  that  he 
applied  to  the  Legislature  of  the  State  of  New  York  for 
protection,  and  a  bill  was  passed  granting  him  the  exclu- 
sive right  to  navigate  the  waters  of  the  state  for  twenty 
years,  "providing  he  produced  a  boat  within  a  year,  that 
would  attain  a  speed  of  four  miles  an  hour." 

While  the  bill  was  on  its  passage.  Judge  Livingston 
was  the  butt  of  the  legislature  and  the  standing  joke  of 
the  callow  members;  which  is  not  strange  when  even  the 
learned  Benjamin  Franklin,  and  the  American  Philosophi- 
cal Society  of  Philadelphia  pronounced  the  scheme  im- 
possible and  impracticable,  giving  weighty  reasons  there- 
for. "The  project,"  wrote  Fulton,  "was  viewed  by  the 
public  with  indifference,  or  contempt,  as  a  visionary 
scheme.  Never  did  a  single  word  of  encouragement,  or 
of  bright  hope,  or  a  warm  wish,  cross  my  path.  Silence 
itself  was  but  politeness,  veiling  doubt,  or  hiding  its  re- 

The  trial  boat  built  by  Livingston  at  great  expense 
was  never  used,  and  the  legislative  enactment  was  ex- 
tended to  cover  the  joint  ownership  of  Livingston  and 
Fulton,  until   it  was  finally  repealed. 

In  i8()().  Robert  Fulton  returned  to  America,  and  active 
work  on   the  Clermont   (named   after  Chancellor  Living- 


ston's  estate  on  the  Hudson)  was  begun  at  once.  The 
engine  did  not  arrive  from  England  until  1807,  and  the 
hull  having  been  constructed  in  a  ship  yard  on  the  East 
River,  the  boat  was  completed  in  August,  and  ready  for 
her  first  trip  on  the  16th  of  that  month. 

The  boat  was  launched  amidst  a  crowd  of  jeering  spec- 
tators but  when  "Fulton's  folly"  demonstrated  its  inherent 
wisdom,  the  jeers  were  silenced  or  turned  to  awe  and 

The  appearance  of  the  Clermont  at  night  must  have 
been  of  an  order  to  produce  those  sensations. 

The  dry  pine  fuel  sent  up  a  column  of  fiery  sparks  and 
vapor  many  feet  above  the  flue,  and  the  noise  of  her 
revolving  paddle  wheels  was  not  reassuring. 

The  white  wings  of  the  "Half  Moon"  two  hundred  years 
before,  had  startled  the  untutored  savages,  but  they  were 
as  the  visit  of  an  angel,  compared  to  this  fiery  monster. 

Fulton  in  his  published  report,  says:  "I  left  New  York 
on  Monday  at  one  o'clock,  and  arrived  at  Chancellor  Liv- 
ingston's seat  at  one  o'clock  on  Tuesday — time  twenty-four 
hours,  distance  one  hundred  and  ten  miles.  On  Wednes- 
day I  departed  from  the  Chancellor's  at  nine  A.  M.,  and 
reached  Albany  at  five  P.  M.  The  sum  is  one  hundred 
and  fifty  miles  in  thirty-two  hours,  equal  to  nearly  five 
miles  an  hour.  Returning  I  made  it  in  thirty  hours — 
just  five  miles  an  hour." 

Fulton  also  says  "that  throughout  the  whole  passage 
both  ways,  the  wind  was  ahead,  so  the  steam  engine  had 
no  assistance  from  his  sails."  The  whole  report  bears 
the  stamp  of  real  greatness  in  its  modesty  and  simplicity. 

In  June,  1813,  the  New  York  journals  had  glowing  ac- 
counts of  a  "Notable  display  of  Steamboats  in  New  York 
harbor,  nine  being  displayed  at  once!  The  Robert  Fulton 
for  the  East  River,  one  each  for  the  Potomac  and  James 
Rivers,  and  three  running  to  Powles-Hook  and  Hoboken; 


a  circumstance  of  no  trifling  importance,  as  it  adds  much 
to  the  despatch,  certainty  and  security  of  the  principal 
ferries."  Fulton's  steam  ferry  boat  is  minutely  described 
as  "one  of  the  marvels  of  the  day." 

In  1815,  when  only  fifty  years  of  age,  Robert  Fulton 
died,  worn  out  by  toil  and  anxiety.  A  succession  of  law 
suits  to  defend  his  numerous  inventions,  hastened  the  end. 

He  rests  in  Trinity  churchyard  in  the  city  of  New  York, 
but  his  fame  undying  will  live  forever  in  the  memory 
of  the  American  people. 

Robert  Fulton  married  a  daughter  of  Walter  Livingston, 
whose  spacious  country  house  erected  before  the  Revolu- 
tion, is  still  in  good  preservation.  It  is  situated  in  the 
town  of  Livingston  and  has  been  occupied  for  many  years 
by  the  Crofts  family. 

Here  after  the  death  of  her  husband,  Mrs.  Fulton  and 
her  three  children  resided  for  some  time.  She  afterward 
married  an  English  gentleman  named  Charles  Augustus 
Dale,  and  removed  to  England. 

Only  eleven  years  after  Robert  Fulton's  death  she  fol- 
lowed him  to  the  tomb,  and  was  buried  among  kinsfolk 
and  friends  in  her  native  land.  A  modest  monument  in 
the  fine  old  cemetery  in  Claverack,  New  York,  bears  this 
simple  inscription : 

Harriet  Livingston   Dale 
Died  March  24,   1826.  ' 

Aged  4!   years. 

One  of  her  daughters  married  Robert  Morris  Ludlow, 
whose  only  child,  Robert  Fulton  Ludlow,  resides  in  the 
old  Ludlow  house,  erected  in  the  village  of  Claverack  in 

Here  are  preserved  manv  valuable  relics  of  Robert 
Fuilton.  notably  a  portrait  of  Fulton  painted  by  Benjamin 
West  and  presented  by  the  great  artist  "to  his  pupil  as 
a  memento."  Also  a  portrait  of  Joel  Barlow,  and  a  variety 
of   sketches    painted    by    Robert    Fulton,    showing    artistic 



talent  of  a  high  order.  The  original  compass  by  which 
the  first  steamboat  Clermont  was  navigated  may  here  be 
seen,  the  needle  still  pointing  to  the  magnetic  pole,  un- 
mindful of  the  flight  of  years,  that  have  witnessed  the 
marvelous  development  of  that  mysterious  power,  which 
binds  the  needle's  point  and  flashes  in  wireless  teleg- 
raphy, and  telephony  across  the  sea. 

Although  it  is  not  claimed  that  Robert  Fulton's  mind 
was  the  first  to  conceive  the  possibility  of  applying  steam 
to  the  propulsion  of  vessels,  it  must  forever  be  conceded 
that  the  final  success  of  this  great  invention  was  due  to 
his  genius,  persistence,  and  practical  ability. 



Glimpse  of  City — Banks — Lodges  Instituted. 

A  glimpse  of  the  appearance  of  Hudson  in  1807  may 
be  obtained  from  the  account  given  to  the  press  by  our 
"English  Tourist,"  whom  we  left  voyaging  to  the  metropo- 
lis on  board  the  packet  "Experiments." 

Possibly  he  saw  on  the  beautiful  hill  just  below  thic 
city,  the  rare  merino  sheep  just  sent  over  by  Chancellor 
Livingston,  from  the  noted  flock  of  Prince  Rambouillet, 
near  Paris.  These  were  distributed  among  his  different 
farms  along  the  river,  and  gave  its  name  to  Mount 

Our  Tourist  says:  "In  the  evening  we  arrived  at  Hud- 
son. This  town  is  of  modern  construction,  and  like  Troy 
consists  of  one  long  street.  The  houses  are  of  wood  or 
brick,  many  of  them  built  with  taste,  and  all  spacious  and 
commodious.  Shops  and  warehouses  are  numerous,  and 
there  are  several  large  inns  from  which  I  conceived  that 
a  considerable  trade  was  carried  on  between  this  town 
and  the  interior.  It  has  the  appearance  of  a  thriving 
settlement  and  advantageous  for  commerce.  There  are 
several  large  brick  warehouses  near  the  wharves  for  the 
reception  of  goods,  and  a  great  many  small  vessels  sail 
continually  between  this  town  and  New  York. 

"Ship  building  is  carried  on  here,  and  a  vessel  of  three 
or  four  hundred  tons  was  just  ready  for  launching.  Sev- 
eral other  vessels  of  that  size  were  also  in  the  harbor." 

Another  writer  of  the  same  date  sees  only  the  "com- 
manding views  on  every  side,"  and  says,  "With  Mount 
Merino  on  the  south,  Becraft's  Mountain  on  the  east,  fine 
northern  views,  and  the  Catskills,  alwavs  a  delight  greet- 


ing  one's  eyes  on  the  west — Hudson  is  in  many  particulars 
without  a  rival." 

A  Gazeteer  published  in  1810,  says,  "Hudson  has  a 
population  of  nearly  5000,  fifty-four  of  whom  are  slaves. 
It  has  two  banks,  combined  capital  two  hundred  and  sixty 
thousand  dollars;  four  houses  of  worship,  one  each  for 
Quakers,  Presbyterian,  Episcopal  and  Methodist,  and  an 
Academy,  a  handsome  brick  edifice  beautifully  located, 
with  a  magnificent  view.  Also  a  Masons  Lodge  and  some 
District  Schoolhouses."  "But  few  of  the  streets  are  yet 
paved  or  lighted  by  public  lamps."  "The  town  is  supplied 
with  excellent  water  from  springs  conveyed  in  aqueducts. 
Principal  spring  is  about  two  miles  from  city,  foot  of  lime- 
stone hill." 

The  Gazeteer  speaks  of  Hudson's  rapid  progress  and 
predicts  its  continued  growth.  The  population  of  Al- 
bany in  1810  is  given,  as  about  12,000,  254  of  whom  were 

Compared  with  the  mushroom-like  growth  of  recent 
cities,  especially  in  our  western  states,  the  increase  seems 
small  in  both  Albany  and  Hudson,  but  we  are  reminded 
that  there  was  but  little  foreign  immigration  in  those 
days,  and  very  few  facilities  for  travel. 

And  while  from  our  standpoint  the  city  seems  crude 
and  chaotic,  with  its  many  ungraded,  unpaved,  and  un- 
lighted  streets,  it  was  doubtless  as  far  advanced  in  these 
respects  as  other  cities  of  the  same,  or  even  of  an  older 

The  following  list  of  such  of  the  inhabitants  as  were 
assessed  one  hundred  pounds,  and  upward,  in  the  year 
1797,  is  taken  from  the  "tax  book"  for  that  year,  which 
was  certified  to  as  follows:  "This  Tax  Book  contains  the 
value  of  each  man's  estate,  both  real  and  personal,  within 



the  city  of  Hudson,  to  the  best  of  our  knowledge  accord- 
ing to  the  usual  way  of  assessm'=*nt " 
Hudson,  27th  May,  1797. 

Jacob  Davis 
Jonathan  Becraft 
Isaac  Northrup 


McArthur,  Arthur         £140 

Allen,  Benjamin  160 

Allen,  Howard  200 

Alsop,  John  400 

Ashley,   William  260 

Barnard,  Joseph  Est.  210 

Barnard,  Abisha  130 

Bunt,  Jacob  250 

Bunker,   Solomon  130 

Bunker,  Silas  150 

Bunker,  Barzilla  120 

Bunker,   Elihu  130 

Becraft,  Jonathan  230 

Bolles,  John  R.  120 

Bolles,  Jeremiah  160 

Burk,  James  100 

Cotfin,   Alexander  300 

Coffin,  Jared  135 

Coffin,  David  340 

Coffin.  Uriah  120 

Coventry,   William  300 

Comstock,  Thomas  170 

Clark,  George  105 

Clark,   Daniel  170 

Cheanee,  Abiel  190 

Delemater,  Dirck  550 
Delematcr,  Claudius  L.   470 

Delemater,  Claudius  150 

Dakin.  Paul  160 

Decker,  George  225 

Dayton,  Hezekiah  205 

Dayton,  Isaac  100 

Elting,  James  300 

Everts,  J.  &  Sons  Est.  180 

Ernst,  John  L.  120 

Edmonds,  Samuel  180 

Folger,  Reuben  225 

Folger,  Benjamin  100 

Frothingham,  Thomas  140 

Frary,  Giles  300 

Greene,    Nathaniel  820 

Gelston,  Cotton  415 

Gilbert,  Ezekiel  160 

Gardner,  William  120 

Goldthwart,  Thomas  180 

Greene,  John  140 

Hardick,  John  F.  280 

Harder,  Jacob,  Jr.  250 

Harder,  John  M.  120 

Heydorn,  Adam  225 

Hosmcr,  Prosper  135 

Hyatt,  James  230 

Hubhcll.    Levi  100 

Hammond,    Abncr  1  10 

Haxtum.    Benjamin  130 

Hogeboom,  Peter  540 

Hailonbcck,  William  320 

Hallcnbcck,  Robert  320 



Hollenbeck,  Mathias  200 

Hollenbeck,  John  R.  180 
Hollenbeck,  William  G.  140 

Hathaway,  John  500 

Hoxie,  Christopher  160 

Huyck,  Casper  Est.  300 

Irish,  Jonathan  100 

Jenkins,  Thomas  2660 

Jenkins,  T.  &  Sons  1150 

Jenkins,  Seth  Est.  850 

Jenkins,  Marshall  750 

Jenkins,    M.    &    Son  310 

Jenkins,  Charles  270 

Jenkins,  Lemuel  Est.  200 

Jenkins,  Deborah  195 

Jenkins,  Robert  &  Co.  200 

Johnston,  Walter  120 

Kellogg,   Russell  270 

Lawrence,   David  325 

L'Escure,  Hyacinth  115 

Mooklar,  James  &  M.  230 

Morgan,  James  105 

Morton,  Reuben  1 15 

Macy,  Capt.  Reuben  450 

Morrison,  James  170 

Moores,  Reuben  130 

Nixon,  James  200 

Nichols,  Samuel  G.  150 

Northrop,  Isaac  125 

Olcott,  Josiah  225 

Paddock,  Stephen  425 

Paddock,  Daniel  Est.  130 

Plass,  John  435 

Power,  Thomas  233 

Parkman,  Thomas  100 

Reed,  Ezra  900 

Rand,  Peter  190 

Race,  Jonathan  135 

Riley  &  Storrs  100 

Schermerhorn,  John  100 

Spencer,  Ambrose  180 

Sears,  Nathan  100 

Slade,   William'  100 

Thurston,  John  120 

Ten  Broeck,  John  Est.  600 

Ten  Broeck,  Jeremiah  550 

Ten  Broeck,  Samuel  130 

Tobey,  Seth  325 

Tallman,  John  120 

Van  Hoesan,  J.  H.  Est.  700 

Van  Hoesan,  Abraham  190 

Van  Hoesan,  Peter  290 

Van  Hoesan,  Jenny  105 

Van  Hoesan,  Peter  Est.  100 

Van  Rensselaer,  H.  I.  600 

Van  Rensselaer,  Wm.  430 

Van  Deusen,  Tobias  300 

Van  Allen,  Adam  265 

Vander  Bergh,  Peter  165 

Vander  Bergh,  James  165 

Whittaker,  Ephriam  210 

White,  Mrs.  140 

Whitlock,  Thomas  145 

Worth,  Shubael  225 

Worth,  Thomas  2nd  100 

Webb,  Job  140 

Ward,  Samuel  200 

This  list  is  interesting  not  only  as  showing  the  growth 
•of  the  city  in  wealth   during  the  twelve  years  since   its 


incorporation,  but  it  has  also  served  to  preserve  the  names 
of  a  portion  of  our  early  citizens. 

It  is  recorded  that  in  1803,  the  following  vote  was  cast 
at  a  charter  election  "not  warmly  contested  and  not  a 
full  vote": 

Federal. — For  Supenn'sor,   Cotton   Gelston,   232. 

Democratic. — For  Supervisor — Jared   Coffm,    180. 

In  1806,  at  a  charter  election  a  vote  of  500  was  cast, 
and  in  1807  at  a  state  election,  a  vote  of  700.  Until 
1815,  city  officers  were  elected  on  a  general  ticket,  and 
were  obliged  to  qualify  on  the  night  following  the  day 
of  the  election.  In  that  year  the  law  in  this  respect  was 
changed,  and  the  city  was  divided  into  two  wards,  Third 
street  being  the  line  of  division. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  dwell  on  the  ephemeral,  political 
and  civic  questions  which  have  agitated  Hudson,  even 
those  of  recent  date  have  already  become  "flat,  stale  and 

As  regards  national  affairs  we  cannot  forbear  quoting 
once  more  the  sapient  reflections  of  the  author  of  "Random 

After  deploring  the  "decline  and  fall  of  that  patriot 
race  which  guided  our  country  from  1770  to  1790,"  he 
continues;  "Though  we  gain  in  some  things  we  lose  in 
others;  we  gain  in  knowledge  but  seem  to  fall  back  in 
principle,"  which  is  as  true  of  today  as  of  1804.  He  pro- 
ceeds to  console  himself  by  a  contemplation  of  the  sins 
of  the  chosen  people,  on  which  he  expatiates  at  some 
length,  concluding  thus:  "But  it  is  incumbent  upon  us 
diligently  to  remember  that  the  transgressions  of  these 
later  days  are  not  to  be  cloaked  by  comparison  with  those 
illustrious  ancients,  whether  Jews  or  (jcntilcs' — which 
certainly  leaves  the  modern  sinner  without  the  smallest 
loophole  of  escape! 

In  1792,  the  Rank  of  Columbia  was  chartered  with 
a  capital  of  $160,000.     It  was  the  first  bank  organized  in 


Hudson,  and  the  third  in  the  state,  there  being  at  that 
date  but  one  in  each  of  the  cities  of  New  York  and  Albany. 

It  occupied  a  building  near  the  foot  of  Warren  street 
later  known  as  the  Hosmer  house,  until  1803,  when  it 
was  removed  to  the  corner  of  Warren  and  Second  street, 
going  thence  to  number  231  Warren  street.  Thomas 
Jenkins  was  the  first  President  and  under  his  wise  and 
prudent  management  it  was  very  strong  and  successful. 
After  his  death  in  1808,  its  affairs  were  not  so  judi- 
ciously conducted  and  in  1829  it  failed,  inflicting  grievous 
losses  on  both  the  city  and  county. 

James  Nixon  was  the  first  Cashier  and  in  this  con- 
nection we  recall  the  sad  downfall  of  our  quondam  friend 
Jemmy  Fraser,  whose  promotion  from  bell-man  to  the 
exalted  and  dignified  office  of  town  crier  has  been  faith- 
fully chronicled  in  a  former  chapter.  It  happened  that 
Mr.  Nixon  in  going  late  one  evening  from  the  office  to 
his  home,  lost  the  key  of  the  bank,  and  after  a  long 
and  unsuccessful  search  was  compelled,  as  the  last  resort 
to  send  for  Jemmy. 

Now  truth  constrains  us  to  acknowledge  that  Jemmy's 
habits  had  become  increasingly  bibulous,  and  his  con- 
duct on  this  occasion  was  only  a  too  deplorable  example 
of  his  recent  performance  of  his  official  duties. 

However,  he  was  duly  directed  to  cry  the  lost  key 
through  the  streets  of  the  city,  with  a  reward  of  two 
dollars  to  the  finder,  and  was  specially  charged  to  let  no 
one  know  that  it  was  the  key  of  the  hank.  So  a  little 
after  sunrise  Jemmy  commenced  his  round,  bell  in 
hand, — ding,  ding — ding,  ding!  "Hare  ya!  Hare  ya!" 
But  early  as  it  was  Jemmy's  potations  had  already  been 
numerous,  and  the  boys  crowding  and  shouting  at  his 
heels  added  to  his  confusion,  so  he  quickly  forgot  his  in- 
structions as  to  what  to  say,  and  more  especially  as  to 
what  not  to  say.  Still  jingling  his  bell  stoutly  he  began 
Again:  "Hare  ya!    Hare  ya!     Lost,  between  Jamie  Nixon's 


and  twalve  o'clock  at  night,  a  large  kay."  Here  the  boys 
interrupted  him  with,  "What  sort  of  a  key .  was  it?" 
"Go  to  the  de'il!"  cried  Jemmy,  turning  short  upon 
them,  "an'  I  tell  ye  that,  ye'll  be  gettin'  into  the  bunk 
wi'  it." 

For  this  very  natural  but  injudicious  reply,  Jemmy 
lost  his  position. 

The  second  bank  was  organized  in  1808,  called  the 
Bank  of  Hudson,  with  a  capital  of  $100,000.  It  was 
located  in  the  rooms  vacated  by  the  Bank  of  Columbia 
until  its  own  structure  at  116  Warren  street  was  com- 
pleted. It  was  never  a  very  strong  institution  and  failed 
in  1819,  but  with  the  failure  of  these  two  early  banks, 
our  dismal  record  is  concluded,  there  have  been  none 
since.  Through  we  know  not  what  of  storm  and  stress 
our  later  institutions  have  passed  successfully. 

The  President  of  the  Bank  of  Hudson  was  John  C. 
Hogeboom,  Cashier,  Gorham  A.  Worth.  After  its  fail- 
ure the  banking  building  was  never  again  used  for  busi- 
ness purposes,  and  subsequently  became  the  hospitable 
home  of  the  Hon.  Henry  Hogeboom,  a  son  of  its  first 

The  Hudson  River  Bank,  the  third  organized  in  this 
city,  was  chartered  in  June,  1830,  and  in  July  of  that 
year  purchased  the  property  number  231  Warren  street, 
which  they  occupied  until  June  17,  1907,  when  they  re- 
moved to  their  new  building  number  520  on  the  same 

Oliver  Wiswall  was  President  of  the  Hudson  River 
Bank  until  1855,  when  its  charter  expired  and  the  pres- 
ent organization  commenced  operations  under  the  presi- 
dency of  Robert  A.   Barnard. 

It  was  converted  into  a  National  Bank  in  1865  and 
Stephen  A.  DuBois  was  its  third  President. 

The  Farmers'  Bank  was  chartered  in  1838.  and  re- 
organized  in    1865   as    'The   Fanners'    National   Bank   of 


Hudson."     They  erected  their  present  fine  banking  build- 
ing, No.  544  Warren  street  in   1873. 

The  Hudson  City  Savings  Institution  was  incorporated 
in  1850,  and  from  small  beginnings  has  grown  to  be  a 
very  strong  organization.  They  have  occupied  the  prem- 
ises No.  230  Warren  street  for  many  years.  The  First 
National  Bank  was  organized  in  1864  and  removed  to 
their  present  convenient  location  in  the  Opera  House 
building  in   1869. 

The  oldest  public  institution  in  the  city  of  Hudson  is 
that  of  the  Order  of  Free  Masons,  a  Lodge  having  been 
organized  in  1786,  only  three  years  after  the  arrival  of 
the  Proprietors. 

At  a  meeting  called  at  the  public  house  of  Col.  John 
McKinstry  a  petition  was  prepared  to  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  the  State  of  New  York,  requesting  that  "a  Charter 
might  be  granted  them,  for  the  purpose  of  making,  pass- 
ing, and  raising  Free  Masons."  This  was  signed  by  eight- 
een of  the  most  prominent  men  of  the  Settlement.  It 
will  be  remembered  that  Col.  McKinstry's  life  had  been 
saved  during  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  by  Captain  Joseph 
Brant,  on  his  giving  the  masonic  sign,  and  it  is  note- 
worthy that  a  Mohawk  Indian  Chief  was  sufficiently  civil- 
ized at  that  early  day,  to  comprehend  the  tenets  of  Ma- 
sonry, and  prove  an  acceptable  candidate  for  membership 
in  the  Order. 

On  the  occasion  of  Captain  Brant's  last  visit  to  Col. 
McKinstry  in  1805,  he  visited  the  Hudson  Lodge  "where" 
it  is  said  "his  presence  attracted  much   attention." 

Lodge  No.  7,  received  its  Charter  in  1787,  and  the  Offi- 
cers, of  whom  Worshipful  Seth  Jenkins  was  Master,  were 
duly  installed  by  the  Worshipful  Senior  Grand  Warden 
at  Albany. 

The  Lodge  continued  to  hold  its  meetings  in  some  one 
of  the  public  houses  until  1795,  when  on  petition  of 
Marshall  Jenkins  and  Samuel  Edmonds,   the   proprietors 


granted  a  lot  of  land  on  the  southeast  corner  of  Union 
and  Third  streets  "to  the  Society  called  Free  Masons  for 
the  purpose  of  erecting  a  building  suitable  for  their  use, 
which  must  be  fifty  by  twenty-five  feet  in  size  and  must 
never  be  used  as  a  tavern." 

The  corner  stone  was  laid  on  June  12,  1795,  and  the 
building  "with  its  four  gables  and  a  cupola,  was  con- 
sidered an  ornament  to  the  city."  It  was  dedicated  with 
impressive  Masonic  rites  on   December  27,   1796. 

On  July  4,  1829,  it  was  partially  destroyed  by  fire  and 
a  new  St.  John's  Hall  was  erected  on  the  ruins.  In  the 
war  of  1812,  the  lower  part  of  the  Hall  was  used  as 
barracks,  for  soldiers  enlisted  under  Capt.  Smith  of  the 
U.  S.  Light  Dragoons  and  Lieut.  Theophilus  E.  Beekman, 
recruiting  officers. 

It  was  this  service  that  first  brought  Mr.  Beekman  to 
this  city,  of  which  he  became  one  of  the  most  prominent 
citizens.  During  a  row  among  the  soldiers  in  the  barracks 
which  he  was  endeavoring  to  quell,  he  received  an  injury 
for  which  he  afterward  drew  a  pension. 

If  the  truth  may  be  told,  we  fear  the  dashing  Lieuten- 
ant did  not  regret  that  disabling  wound  so  deeply  as  he 
ought,  having  surrendered  to  the  captivating  charms  of 
the  pretty  daughter  of  Captain  John  Hathaway. 

For  some  unexplained  reason  Captain  Hathaway  re- 
fused his  consent  to  their  marriage,  and  the  ardent  lovers 
eloped.  After  their  return  they  sought  parental  forgive- 
ness, but  in  vain,  the  irate  father  was  obdurate,  so  they 
took  rooms  at  No.  2S3  Warren  Street,  from  whence  the 
weeping  bride  could  look  with  tear-dimmed  eyes  across 
to  her  beloved  home,  which  seemed  closed  to  her  forever. 

Captain  Hathaway 's  residence  at  No.  v^lO  Warren  street 
was  well-known  for  many  years  as  the  Beekman  house, 
and  was  highly  prized  as  one  of  our  choicest  survivals  of 
the  Colonial  period,  but  it  was  recently  metamorphosed 
into  something  new  and  strange. 


In  a  short  time  the  Captain  relented  and  the  young 
couple  were  taken  home,  where  "they  lived  happily  ever 

To  return  to  Masonic  matters,  from  Lodge  No.  7,  have 
originated  Hudson  Royal  Arch  Chapter  No.  6  instituted 
in  1798.  Lafayette  Encampment  No.  7  of  Knights  Temp- 
lar, organized  in  1806,  now  Lafayette  Commandery,  and 
Aquila  Lodge  No.  700  instituted  in  1870.  In  addition 
to  these  there  are  the  Masonic  Hall  Association  and  the 
Masonic  Club,  incorporated  in  1897  and  1899  respectively. 

St.  John's  Hall  which  is  the  home  of  all  these  Masonic 
bodies  was  torn  down  in  1889  and  rebuilt  on  a  much 
larger  scale,  affording  ample  and  convenient  accommoda- 
tions. One  cannot  but  wish  that  they  had  added  the 
"four  gables  and  cupola"  of  a  century  ago,  when  "it 
was  considered  an  ornament  to  the  city." 

The  first  Lodge  of  the  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fel- 
lows in  Hudson  was  chartered  in  1824.  Allen  Lodge  No. 
92  was  instituted  in  1843  and  Hudson  City  Lodge  No. 
389  in  1849.  The  latter  is  the  only  Lodge  of  that  Order 
now  in  existence  in  this  city. 

The  first  notable  reception  of  a  distinguished  guest  by 
the  city  government,  was  that  accorded  to  the  Hon.  John 
Jay  on  the  fourth  day  of  July,  1792.  He  came  from  Al- 
bany by  way  of  Kinderhook,  and  was  met  at  Claverack 
by  a  cavalcade  of  two  hundred  gentlemen.  "After  call- 
ing on  William  H.  Ludlow,"  at  the  Ludlow  house,  "where 
they  regaled  themselves  with  a  glass  of  wine,"  they 
escorted  him  into  the  city. 

Here  he  was  received  by  a  salute  from  Frothingham's 
Artillery,  and  proceeded  to  Russel  Kellogg's  tavern 
where  "an  elegant  entertainment  had  been  provided," 
his  Honor,  Seth  Jenkins,  then  Mayor,  presiding.  Mr.  Jay 
drank  to  "the  prosperity  of  Hudson"  which  called  out 
the  Mayor  in  a  speech,  concluding  with  a  toast  to  "the  Man 
of  the  Day,"  to  which  Mr.  Jay  replied  at  some  length. 


"In  the  evening  a  large  number  of  the  principal  citi- 
zens called  to  pay  their  respects,  and  on  the  following 
morning  the  honored  guest  boarded  the  sloop  Pompey  and 
sailed  for  the  residence  of  Governor  Lewis;  amid  the  ac- 
clamations of  the  people  and  the  firing  of  cannon.  The 
Hon.  John  Jay  succeeded  Governor  Lewis  in  the  guber- 
natorial office  and,  as  previously  stated,  was  Governor  of 
the  State  of  New  York  in  1797,  when  the  seat  of  legis- 
lation was  removed  by  the  General  Assembly,  from  New 
York  City  to  Albany. 




The  Military — Noteworthy  Events. 

The  military  spirit  survived  quite  strongly  in  all  the 
states  after  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  as 
early  as  1786,  Hudson  maintained  a  company  of  Artillery, 
commanded  by  Captain  Daniel  Gano. 

A  second  company  was  formed  in  1788  called  Frothing- 
ham's  Artillery  under  the  command  of  Captain  Thomas 
Frothingham,  which  aided  in  the  celebration  of  the  4th 
of  July  in  that  year,  which  was  the  first  observance  of  the 
day  in  this  city,  and  of  which  we  have  the  following  re- 

"Fothingham's  Artillery  ushered  in  the  day  with  a 
salute  of  thirteen  guns  on  the  eminence  near  the  river, 
which  with  three  cheers  enlivened  the  countenances  of 
the  very  numerous  crowd  present.  At  three  o'clock  in 
the  afternoon  an  elegant  dinner  was  provided  at  Russell 
Kellogg's  tavern  at  which  was  present  a  large  number 
of  the  most  respectable  inhabitants  of  the  city."  "Patri- 
otic toasts  were  drank,  which  were  announced  by  a  dis- 
charge of  cannon.  The  day  closed  with  a  most  beautiful 
exhibition  of  fire-works,  at  which  were  present  a  great 
many  ladies  and  gentlemen  from  the  adjacent  country, 
who  seemed  to  retire  extremely  pleased  with  the  evening's 

The  day  was  celebrated  annually  with  much  spirit  after- 
ward, and  as  the  bitterness  of  party  strife  increased  po- 
litical celebrations  were  introduced,  and  we  have  frequent 
accounts  of  two   celebrations;   and  occasionally  the   me- 


chanics  of  the  city,  apparently  disgusted  with  both  parties, 
added  a  third. 

One  party  had  its  orations  in  the  Presbyterian  church, 
the  other  in  the  City  Hall,  and  upon  one  or  two  occasions 
the  Episcopal  church  was  used. 

In  1786,  Ezekiel  Gilbert  is  spoken  of  as  Brigade  Major, 
and  in  1788,  Marshal  Jenkins  as  Adjutant  of  the  Regiment. 
In  1793,  a  third  company  of  Artillery  existed  under  the 
command  of  Benjamin  Haxton  called  Haxton's  Artillery 
and  shortly  after,  a  company  of  Infantry  under  the  com- 
mand of  Captain  Nicholas  Hatheway,  (who  was  not 
related  to  Captain  John  Hathaway,  and  who  spelled  his 
name  with  an  e).  Hatheway's  Infantry  wore  a  uniform 
consisting  of  "a  black  cocked  hat,  blue  coat  faced  with  red, 
and  white  or  blue  pantaloons." 

We  find  no  allusion  to  either  of  these  companies  except 
in  the  following  proceedings  of  the  Common  Council 
on  the  receipt  of  the  intelligence  of  the  death  of  Wash- 

At  a  Common  Council  holden  in  and  for  the  City  of 
Hudson  the  26th  day  of  Dec,  1799.  Present  Cotton  Gel- 
ston,  Esq.;  Recorder,  Elisha  Pitkin,  Paul  Dakin,  Samuel 
Edmonds,  Thomas  Power  Aldermen,  Robert  Folger,  Rob- 
ert Taylor,  Silas  Rand,  Rufus  Buckus,  Assistants, 

The  Council  having  received  certain  accounts  of  the 
Death  of  our  illustrious,  beloved  General  Washington,  and 
being  desirous  of  testifying  their  sorrow  in  the  most  pub- 
lic manner,  do  Resolve;  "that  the  citizens  be  immediately 
notified  to  repair  to  the  City  Hall,  to  form  a  procession 
to  the  Presbyterian  Meeting  House,  where  suitable  prayers 
will   be  made  by  the   Rev.   Mr.  Sampson,  and  an   Eulogy 


will  be  spoken  by  Mr.  Gilbert  on  the  solemn  occasion." 
"The  procession  to  move  in  the  following  order: 

Capt.   N.    Hatheway's   Company   of   Infantry   with   Arms 

reversed   and   Musick 

Muffled   &    Shrouded 

Recorder  and  Orator. 

Common  Council   two  and  two. 

Reverand   Clergy. 

Officers    of   the    late    Revolutionary    Army. 

Other  Officers  Civil  and  Military. 

Citizens,  two  and  two." 

"During  the  moving  of  the  procession,  the  bell  was 
tolled,  all  places  of  business  were  closed  and  the  citizens 
wearing  crape  on  their  left  arms,  assembled  in  great 
numbers  to  listen  to  Mr.  Gilbert's  touching  and  eloquent 
eulogy,  commencing  with  the  words,  'He  is  not  dead, 
but  sleepeth.'  Upon  this  occasion  Haxton's  Artillery  fired 
minute  guns." 

Following  Capt.  Hatheway's  Infantry  came  the  Wigton 
Artillery,  commanded  by  Capt.  William  Wigton,  wearing 
a  similar  uniform.  At  this  time  party  feeling  was  strong 
and  was  carried  into  every  department  of  life.  The 
papers  were  filled  with  the  most  bitter  personalities,  each 
party  had  its  club,  its  bank,  and  each  its  military  com- 
pany. The  Wigton  Artillery  was  the  Republican  Com- 

The  Hudson  Greens,  a  company  of  Infantry  was  the 
Federal  Company.  Their  uniform  was  "a  green  coat  and 
pantaloons,  black  hat  and  green  feather."  Harry  Cros- 
well  was  one  of  its  early  commanders. 

Both  of  these  companies  were  ordered  off  in  the  war 
of  1812,  and  stationed  at  New  York.  Shortly  after  the 
opening  of  that  war  General  Winfield  Scott,  with  seven 
hundred  men,  encamped  over  night  in  this  city,  on  the 


open  green  then  lying  on  the  easterly  side  of  the  pres- 
ent Court  House. 

Under  the  lead  of  Capt.  John  Hathaway  the  General 
and  his  men  were  supplied  with  wood,  coffee  and  an 
abundance  of  the  best  provisions.  "The  lighted  camp 
was  visited  by  a  large  number  of  citizens,  and  on  the 
following  morning  General  Scott  proceeded  on  his  way 
North,  passing  up  Warren  Street,  himself  the  admiration 
of  the  hundreds  crowding  the  sidewalks." 

"Captain  Hathaway  was  a  generous,  public  spirited 
man,  at  the  same  time,  extremely  close  and  particular  in 
all  matters  of  business.  He  was  an  ardent  supporter  of 
the  war  of  1812,  and  gave  liberally  in  various  ways  in 
support  of  the   soldiers." 

In  the  year,  1820,  Hudson  received  a  visit  from  the 
Cadets  at  West  Point,  who  encamped  on  the  hill  over- 
looking the  South  Bay  and  remained  about  four  days. 
Their  camps  covered  the  entire  hill  which  at  that  time 
was  of  much  greater  extent  than  at  present. 

Hudson  at  that  period  being  for  the  first  time  without  a 
military  company,  the  Cadets  were  received  by  a  caval- 
cade of  citizens  under  the  direction  of  a  committee  ap- 
pointed by  the  Common  Council.  A  ball  was  given  by 
the  citizens  at  Holley's  tavern  during  their  stay,  and  the 
hospitalities  of  the  city  both  public  and  private  were  so 
marked  and  generous,  as  to  draw  from  them  a  warm 
expression  of  gratitude  on  their  departure.  Immediately 
after  this  visit  the  "Hudson  City  Guards  were  organized, 
their  uniform  consisting  of  a  'blue  coat,  silvered  buttons, 
white  pantaloons,  with  a  high  bucket  shaped  leather  hat, 
surmounted  by  a  white  plume  about  half  a  yard  in 
length.'  "  "It  was  considered  in  its  day  a  fine  uniform, 
and  the  company,  always  with  full  ranks  and  spirited, 
was  the  pride  of  the  city." 

In  the  same  year,  1820,  the  Scotch  Plaids  were  or- 
ganized,   their    uniform    being    in    accordance    with    their 


name,  of  bright  plaid,  trimmed  with  black,  and  bright 
buttons;  the  cap  was  of  black  beaver,  low,  with  a  cluster 
of  black  plumes  in  front.  "It  was  an  attractive  dress  and 
from  its  novelty  is  said  to  have  been  the  favorite  com- 
pany with  young  Hudson."  Both  of  these  companies  did 
escort  duty  on  the  occasion  of  the  visit  of  General  La- 
fayette to  Hudson  in  1824,  this  city  having  been  one  of 
the  first  in  the  Union  to  send  a  committee  to  New  York, 
to  meet  Lafayette,  and  to  tender  him  its  hospitalities. 

In  September  of  that  year  Lafayette  came  up  the  river 
on  the  steamer  James  Kent  to  visit  various  places  on  its 
banks,  and  on  his  arrival  at  the  residence  of  the  Hon. 
Edward  P.  Livingston,  the  Mayor  of  Hudson,  Rufus  Reed, 
and  distinguished  citizens,  Gens.  Van  Rensselaer  and 
Fleming,  and  their  respective  suites,  accompanied  by  the 
two  military  companies  before  mentioned,  and  the  Hud- 
son Brass  Band,  proceeded  down  the  river  to  greet  La- 
fayette and  escort  him  to  this  city. 

On  their  arrival  at  Clermont,  the  seat  of  Judge  Living- 
ston, they  participated  in  the  festivities  provided,  and  after 
a  short  visit  at  Catskill,  reached  Hudson  about  noon  on 
the  following  day. 

Here,  it  is  recorded,  "Lafayette  met  with  a  reception 
the  most  heartfelt  and  joyous  ever  bestowed  upon  man." 
"He  was  conducted  to  an  elegant  carriage  drawn  by 
four  black  horses,  attended  by  four  grooms  in  livery,  and 
accompanied  by  a  lengthy  procession  of  military  and 
citizens  of  Hudson  and  vicinity,  under  the  direction  of 
Col.  Charles  Darling  as  Marshall  of  the  day — was  carried 
through  all  the  principal  streets,  which  were  literally 
choked  with  people — to  all  of  whom  Lafayette  tried  in 
vain  to  bow."  "Arches  of  evergreens  and  flowers  were 
erected  at  various  points,  bearing  inscriptions  of  welcome, 
and  that  at  the  head  of  Warren  street,  was  surmounted 
by  a  colossal  figure  of  the  Goddess  of  Liberty,  bearing  in 
her  hand  the  Stars  and  Stripes." 


At  the  Court  House,  which  was  filled  "by  elegantly 
dressed  women,"  the  General  was  welcomed  by  his  Honor, 
the  Mayor,  to  whom  he  replied  in  a  brief  speech.  Sixty- 
eight  veterans  of  the  Revolution  were  then  presented 
to  him,  for  each  of  whom  he  had  a  kind  word;  after  them 
the  military  officers,  and  lastly  "the  elegantly  dressed 

"Dinner  had  been  provided  for  a  great  number  of  people 
at  Mr.  Allen's  tavern,  and  over  the  chair  designed  for  La- 
fayette was  suspended  a  wreath  of  beautiful  flowers,  en- 
closing an  appropriate  poetical  greeting,  while  around  the 
room  were  the  most  tasteful  and  elaborate  decorations 
which  had  been  anywhere  seen  on  his  journey."  "But 
these  labors  of  love  were  all  lost,  the  want  of  time  pre- 
venting his  remaining  for  dinner."  However,  "he  alighted 
from  his  carriage  and  remained  a  short  time,  partaking  of 
a  glass  of  wine,  after  which  he  bade  the  multitude  fare- 
well, and  proceeding  directly  to  the  river,  embarked  for 
Albany,  about  the  middle  of  the  afternoon." 

The  particulars  of  this  reception  are  taken  from  the 
Commercial  Advertiser  of  that  date,  whose  reporter  ac- 
companied General  Lafayette  on  his  extended  tour  through 
the  country. 

In  addition  to  the  Guards  and  Plaids,  there  was  also 
at  that  time  an  organization  known  as  the  Hudson  Mili- 
tary Association  the  only  mention  of  which  is  in  connec- 
tion with  the  funeral  obsequies  of  Lieut.  Allen,  U.  S.  N. 

After  the  passing  of  these  organizations  the  military 
spirit  of  Hudson  seemed  to  become  extinct,  and  it  was 
some  years  before  the  formation  of  the  Hudson  Light 
Guards,  afterward  known  as  the  Worth  Guards,  com- 
manded by  Captain   Edward   P.  Cowles. 

This  company  did  good  service  as  we  shall  see,  during 
the  Anti-rent  disturbance,  after  whicli  it  was  disbanded 
and  no  military  organization  followed  until  after  the 
Civil   War. 


Beside  her  local  military,  Hudson  has  cherished  with 
pride  the  memory  of  her  noble  sons,  who  won  their  laurels 
in  the  regular  service,  fighting  the  battles  of  their  coun- 
try. Among  the  earlier  of  these  heroes,  was  Lieut.  William 
Howard  Allen,  who  was  distinguished  as  an  officer  of 
the  United  States  Navy,  and  very  highly  esteemed  as  a 

Lieut.  Allen  was  bom  in  Hudson  on  July  8,  1790,  was 
appointed  a  midshipman  in  1808,  and  a  Lieutenant  in 

In  the  year  1813,  he  took  a  conspicuous  part  in  the 
engagement  between  the  "Argus"  and  the  "Pelican,"  and 
in  June,  1822,  was  given  the  command  of  the  "Alligator." 

On  the  9th  of  November  of  that  year,  he  was  killed 
while  boarding  a  piratical  vessel  on  the  coast  of  Cuba, 
whither  he  had  gone  to  rescue  some  merchantmen  who 
were  held  captive. 

The  intelligence  of  Lieut.  Allen's  death  cast  a  deep 
gloom  over  the  city. 

A  public  meeting  was  held  at  the  City  Hall,  at  which 
Alexander  Coffm,  Elisha  Williams,  Ambrose  L.  Jordan, 
and  Doctor  Samuel  White,  presided,  and  a  eulogy  was 
pronounced  by  the  Hon.  James  Strong. 

His  remains  were  interred  at  Matanzas,  but  after  some 
correspondence  between  Oliver  Wiswall,  then  Mayor  of 
Hudson,  and  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  they  were  sub- 
sequently removed  to  this  city. 

On  the  fifteenth  of  December,  1827,  the  schooner 
Grampus  arrived  at  New  York  bearing  the  body  of  our 
lamented  hero,  and  was  met  by  a  committee  deputed  by 
the  Common  Council,  headed  by  John  W.  Edmonds  and 
Rufus  Reed. 

Under  the  escort  of  the  marine  corps,  accompanied  by 
Commodore  Chauncey,  and  a  numerous  body  of  naval 
officers,  the  procession  left  the  Brooklyn  Navy  yard,  and 
were  joined  at  New  York,  "by  the  Common  Council  and 


prominent  citizens  of  that  city,  in  immense  numbers,  who 
attended  them  to  the  Hudson  steamboat  in  waiting." 

Here  a  salute  was  fired  by  a  detachment  of  artillery, 
and  by  the  marine  corps,  and  the  remains  were  delivered 
to  the  Hudson  deputation  by  Commodore  Chauncey. 

On  arriving  at  this  city,  the  funeral  cortege  moved  to 
the  cemetery,  amid  the  tolling  of  bells,  and  firing  of  can- 
non,  in  the  following  order: 

Hudson   City  Guards. 

Columbia   Plaids. 

Athens   Lafayette   Guards. 

The  Military  under  command  of  Col.   William  A.   Dean 

with    standards    furled    and    drums    muffled. 

The  Reverand  Clergy. 

The  Corpse, 

Borne  by   Lieuts.  Gregory,   Hollins,  Newman,  Coxe   and 

Mull,  the 

Midshipmen    Lynch   and   Nichols.     Mourners   including 

Messrs.   Bloodgood,   Schermerhorn,   Lawrence, 

Pinckney   of   the   United    States    Navy. 

Hudson    Military   Association. 

Brigadier   General    Whiting    and    his   suite. 

The  Mayor  and  Recorder 


Assistant    Aldermen 

Clerk   and    Marshal   of   the   City. 

Clerk  and  Sheriff  of  the  County. 

Committee   of  Arrangements. 

After  the  committal  of  Lieut.  Allen's  body  to  the  grave, 

near  that  of  his  mother,  the  funeral  service  was  read  by 

the   Rev.  Mr.   Stebbins,   and   a  volley  was   fired  over  his 

tomb  by  the  military.     The  procession   then   returned   to 

the  United  States  Hotel  where  it  was  dismissed. 

At  three  o'clock,  p.  m.,  the  Naval  Officers  sat  down 
to  a  public  dinner  in  company  with  about  one  hundred 
citizens  and  the  evening  was  spent  at  the  hospitable  man- 
sion  of  Col.   Livingston.     On   the   following  day  the  offi- 


cers  paid  their  respects  to  the  Mayor  and  departed  amid 
the  roar  of  cannon,  with  the  heartfelt  gratitude  of  the 
whole  city  for  their  generous  attention  on  this  occasion. 

The  correspondence  beween  the  Naval  Officers  and  the 
Committee  is  subjoined. 

Hudson,  December  21,  1827. 

The  officers  of  the  Navy  assembled  on  the  present  mel- 
ancholy occasion,  reciprocating  the  sentiments  expressed 
by  the  citizens  of  Hudson,  return  their  thanks  for  the 
imparalleled  tribute  paid  to  the  memory  of  their  late  gal- 
lant associate.  They  at  the  same  time  return  their  ac- 
knowledgments for  the  liberal  hospitality  which  has 
characterized  the  whole  proceeding;  and  in  departing,  beg 
leave  to  say,  that  whether  applied  to  the  individual  or 
professional  standing  of  their  departed  member,  the  con- 
duct of  the  citizens,  is  alike  honorable  to  their  feelings 
and  principles  as  men  and  patriots.  Laboring  under 
emotions  too  powerful  to  be  conveyed  in  adequate  lan- 
guage, they  tender  the  committee  a  grateful  and  affec- 
tionate farewell. 

Hudson,  December  21,  1827. 

The  committee  of  the  City  of  Hudson,  in  acknowledg- 
ing the  favor  of  the  officers  of  the  navy,  assembled  on 
this  occasion  of  paying  the  last  honors  to  the  memory  of 
the  lamented  Allen,  gladly  avail  themselves  of  this  op- 
portunity to  assure  those  gentlemen  of  the  high  sense 
entertained  by  this  whole  community  of  the  obligations 
conferred  upon  them,  by  the  attendance  of  individuals  de- 
servedly distinguished  for  their  public  and  private  worth; 
as  the  committee  cannot  entertain  a  doubt  that  the  lives 
of  those  officers  of  the  Navy  will  be  as  honorable,  so 
they  cannot  but  hope  that  their  deaths  will  be  as  glorious, 


and  their  memories  as  much  respected  as  that  of  the  gal- 
lant and  unfortunate  William  Howard  Allen. 

By  order  of  the  committee. 

David  West,  Chairman. 
William  A.   Dean,  Secretary. 

The  fine  marble  monument  which  marks  the  grave  of 
Lieut.  Allen  was  erected  to  his  memory  by  the  citizens  of 
his  native  place  in  1833,  and  on  the  extension  of  Federal 
street  to  Fifth,  two  years  later,  it  was  with  one  accord 
renamed  Allen  street  in  honor  of  Lieut.  Howard  Allen. 

Major  General  William  Jenkins  Worth  was  another  of 
those  early  heroes  whose  fame  adorns  the  annals  of  this 
city,  and  whose  remains  should  also  have  found  a  rest- 
ing place  among  his  kindred.  General  Worth  was  bom 
in  Hudson  in  the  fine  old  dwelling  number  21 1  Union  street 
on  March  first,  1794.  He  was  a  son  of  one  of  the  original 
proprietors,  and  entered  the  United  States  Army  during 
the  war  of  1812.  He  served  with  distinction,  and  at  its 
close  was  brevetted  Colonel,  and  appointed  Superintend- 
ent of  the  Military  Academy  at  West  Point.  He  rendered 
valuable  service  in  the  Seminole  War  in  1841-'42,  and 
was  given  a  command  with  rank  of  Brigadier  General  in 
the  war  with  Mexico.  Here  he  greatly  distinguished  him- 
self both  at  the  siege  of  Vera  Cruz  and  at  the  stomiing 
and  capture  of  Monterey,  in  recognition  of  which  he  was 
brevetted  Major  General  and  presented  a  sword  by  Con- 

General  Worth  visited  Hudson  in  1844  and  received 
from  his  fellow  citizens  a  warm  reception,  and  a  valuable 
sword  as  a  testimonial  of  honor  and  esteem.  This  sword 
and  several  others  presented  by  the  United  States  gov- 
ernment and  by  various  cities,  are  preserved  in  the  State 
Library  at  Albany. 

General  Worth  died  of  Cholera  at  San  Antonio  on  May 
7,   1849,  and  was  buried  in  New  York,  the  citizens  erect- 

1  1  0  HISTORY    OF    HUDSON 

ing  a  handsome  monument  to  his  memory,  on  Madison 
Square,  in  that  city. 

In  recounting  these  public  occasions  of  various  kinds, 
we  are  conscious  of  a  genuine  satisfaction  amounting  to 
a  pardonable  pride  in  noting  how  creditably  the  Hudson 
authorities  acquitted  themselves  on  them  all. 

The  dwelling  to  which  allusion  has  been  made  as  the 
birth-place  of  Major  General  Worth,  is  a  noteworthy  ex- 
ample of  the  survival  of  the  fittest,  as  applied  not  solely 
to  the  house,  but  in  an  especial  manner  to  the  owner,  who 
is  a  lineal  descendant  of  General  Worth.  The  building 
has  not  only  wonderfully  escaped  the  ravages  of  "times 
effacing  fingers,"  but  also  the  more  ruthless  rage  for 
improvement,  which  has  improved  beyond  recognition  so 
many  of  our  noblest  Colonial  structures. 

Under  the  wise  and  skillful  restoration  of  its  present 
occupant,  it  has  received  all  the  modern  accessories  to 
comfort  and  convenience,  and  still  has  retained,  and  even 
accentuated  the  style  of  the  period  of  its  erection.  Whether 
the  ancient  virtue  of  cordial  hospitality,  now  unhappily 
waning,  has  not  also  been  retained  and  accentuated,  is 
left  to  the  decision  of  those  who  are  its  fortunate  recipi- 

HISTORY   OF    HUDSON  1  1  1 

Public   Library — Early   Physicians — Post   Office. 

Notwithstanding  the  manifold  distractions  attending  the 
enterprise  on  which  the  proprietors  had  entered,  it  is 
pleasing  to  note  that  so  early  as  1786,  they  established  a 
circulating  library,  called  the  Hudson  Public  Library,  of 
which  Shubael  Worth,  one  of  their  number,  was  for  many 
years  the  Librarian.  The  books,  to  the  number  of  three 
hundred,  were  kept  in  the  store  of  Mr.  Worth,  which  he 
built  on  fhe  northwest  corner  of  Warren  and  Second 

Books  were  furnished  subscribers  on  the  following  ac- 
commodating  terms: 

Four  dollars  per  year,  one  dollar  and  twenty-five  cents 
per  quarter,  and  to  occasional  readers,  at  the  rate  of  two 
cents  per  day.  Subscribers  were  allowed  "to  keep  books 
as  long  as  desired,  except  books  new,  and  in  great  demand, 
which  must  be  returned  within  one  week;"  "for  the  use 
of  the  books,  persons  could  pay  either  in  money,  or 
desirable  books." 

Notice  was  given  that  persons  desiring  to  subscribe, 
could  do  so  by  leaving  their  names  at  the  printing  office 
of  the  Gazette. 

We  like  to  think  that  it  was  in  this  literary  pasture 
that  General  Worth  was  wont  to  brouse,  and  that  the 
taste  for  letters  here  cultivated  by  his  niece  Lydia  Worth, 
was  transmitted  to  her  son.  John  Worth  Edmonds,  and 
joined  to  his  native  talent,  led  him  eventually  to  the 
Bench  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

It  appears  also  in  her  later  descendant,  to  whom  we 
have  previously  alluded,  in  an  insatiable  love  for  books. 

Debating  societies  were  much  in  vogue  at  an  early  day. 

1  1  2  HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 

the  debates  being  so  popular  as  to  draw  large  audiences. 
A  small  library  collected  by  one  of  these  societies  named 
the  Franklin  Hall  Association  was  chartered  in  1837  as 
the  Franklin  Library  Association. 

It  occupied  a  room  which  was  fitted  up  especially  for 
its  use,  at  an  expense  of  four  hundred  dollars,  on  Union 
street  nearly  opposite  the  Episcopal  Church. 

From  this  small  beginning  grew  a  membership  of  two 
hundred  and  fifty,  possessing  about  twenty-five  hundred 
volumes,  sustaining  an  annual  course  of  lectures,  and 
with  an  income  of  nearly  fourteen  hundred  dollars. 

The  first  lecture  before  the  Association  was  delivered 
by  Prof.  Horatio  S.  Potter  of  Union  College,  in  1838,  in 
the  old  Episcopal  Church;  his  subject  was  "Truth."  The 
able  and  well-beloved  Bishop  may  have  recalled  that  early 
experience,  when  visiting  Hudson  in  later  years.  Horatio 
Potter  was  an  Uncle  of  Henry  C.  Potter,  both  of  whom 
were  Bishops  of  New  York. 

Before  leaving  the  period  of  the  Proprietors,  mention 
must  be  made  of  the  excellent  physicians  who  became 
residents  of  the  city,  immediately  after  its  incorporation. 
An  early  writer  says,  "Hudson  was  noted  for  its  eminent 
physicians,"  an  eminence  which  has  been  well  maintained 
to  the  present  time. 

Doctor  Wheaton,  who  also  kept  a  drug  store,  was  the 
first  who  came,  and  was  soon  followed  by  Doctors  Tallman, 
Malcolm  and  White,  all  of  whom  were  established  here 
before  the  close  of  the  18th  century. 

Doctor  Wheaton  is  spoken  of  as  a  careful  judicious 
practitioner.  His  first  residence  was  near  the  foot  of  War- 
ren street  on  the  southerly  side,  but  he  afterward  built 
the  large  brick  dwelling  number  243  Union  street,  which 
was  for  many  years  the  home  of  Mr.  Israel  Piatt,  and  still 
later  the  residence  of  Mr.  George  Gibson. 

In   1791,  Dr.  Wheaton   formed  a  partnership  with  Dr. 

HISTORY   OF    HUDSON  1  1  3 

Moses  Younglove,  who  was  celebrated  for  his  successful 
treatment  of  the  smallpox. 

Doctor  Younglove  had  a  most  thrilling  experience  in 
the  war  of  the  Revolution.  He  entered  the  army  from 
the  eastern  part  of  the  Country  as  Brigade  Surgeon  to 
General  Herkimer,  was  taken  prisoner  at  the  Battle  of 
Oriskany  by  the  infamous  Captain  Butler,  stripped  of 
clothing  and  valuables,  and  after  receiving  every  possible 
insult,  was  turned  over  to  the  Indian  allies,  to  be  killed. 

In  some  way  he  managed  to  escape,  but  he  never  re- 
covered from  the  effects  of  the  horrible  tortures  that  were 
inflicted  upon   him. 

Doctor  Younglove  died  on  Jan.  31,  1829,  and  his  ashes 
lie  beneath  a  handsome  monument  in  our  cemetery.  Not 
far  away  lie  the  remains  of  "Doctor  John  Milton  Mann, 
who  was  drowned  while  crossing  the  river  from  this  city 
to  Athens,  Aug.  24th,  1809,  aged  43  years."  It  is  said 
that  the  accident  which  thus  deprived  the  community  of 
a  most  valuable  life,  was  entirely  caused  by  the  clumsy 
mismanagement  of  the  scow  then  in  use. 

"Doctor  Mann  was  born  in  Attleborough,  Mass.,  he  was 
educated  at  Brown  University  in  Providence,  Rhode  Is- 
land, and  came  to  reside  in  Hudson  in  the  year  1800." 

This  city  is  indebted  to  him  for  the  introduction  of  vac- 
cination, "though  here  as  elsewhere  the  philanthropic 
enterprise  was  obliged  to  contend  with  prejudice,  and 

"The  Common  Council  of  Hudson,  of  which  body  he 
was  a  member,  voted  that  they  would  attend  his  funeral 
and  wear  crape  on  the  left  arm  thirty  days  on  account  of 
their  respect  for  his  character  and  their  regret  for  his 
loss."     The  city  also  erected  his  monument. 

No  member  of  the  medical  profession  in  Hudson's 
early  day,  attained  so  wide  a  reputation  for  ability  and 
skill  as  did  Doctor  Samuel  White.  His  superiority  as 
a  surgeon   as  well   as  a   general   practitioner,   aside   from 

1  1  4  HISTORY  OF   HUDSON 

his  remarkable  success  as  an  alienist,  made  him  known 
throughout  the  state,  and  gave  him  a  large  practice. 
In  1882,  he  established  an  institution  for  the  treatment 
of  the  insane  in  the  building  now  owned  and  occupied 
by  the  Hudson  Orphan  and  Relief  Association  on  State 
street.  Here  he  associated  with  him  his  son,  S.  Pomeroy 
White,  and  they  continued  this  humane  work  until  the 
opening  of  the  State  Asylum  at  Utica,  and  were  successful 
in  curing  a  large  proportion  of  the  hundreds  of  patients 

Dr.  S.  Pomeroy  White  was  born  in  Hudson  in  1801, 
and  died  in  New  York  City,  on  June  6,  1867.  He  like 
his  father  became  distinguished  both  as  a  medical  prac- 
titioner and  a  surgeon,  performing  operations  new  to  the 
profession  in  this  vicinity,  which  demanded  the  highest 
courage  and  skill.  He  removed  to  New  York  in  1833. 
Dr.  George  H.  White,  the  youngest  son  of  Dr.  Samuel 
"White,  was  also  a  well  known  and  successful  physician. 
His  health  failing,  he  went  south  but  received  little  benefit, 
and  returning  home,  died  in  his  51st  year.  Both  Dr. 
Samuel  White  and  Dr.  John  M.  Mann  were  charter  mem- 
bers of  'The  Columbia  County  Medical  Society,"  which 
was  founded  in  1806,  and  members  of  the  committee  ap- 
pointed to  prepare  its  Constitution  and  By-laws. 

Recurring  for  the  last  time  to  the  minutes  of  the  pro- 
prietors, we  find  them  making  a  final  disposition  of  their 
affairs  preparatory  to  terminating  their  existence,  as  a 
corporate  body. 

1795,  March  9th.  The  proprietors  deeded  to  the  Com- 
mon Council  "all  streets  and  lands  not  theretofore  appro- 
priated, to  be  opened  by  them  at  their  discretion,  when- 
ever it  would  benefit  the  public;  also  the  burial  ground 
presented  to  the  proprietors,  excepting  such  part  as  was 
enclosed  by  the  Society  of  Friends,  and  to  be  conveyed  to 

When  we  recall  the  fact  that  nearly  all  the  proprietors 

HISTORY   OF    HUDSON  1  1  5 

were  Quakers,  we  cannot  but  admire  the  generous  cor- 
diality with  which  they  responded  to  the  requests  of  every 
religious  denomination,  donating  grants  of  land  freely  to 
all  "without  money  and  without  price,"  and  thus  furnish- 
ing a  commendable  example  to  saints  of  a  later  day. 

It  is  with  great  reluctance  that  we  take  our  leave  of 
this  unique  and  picturesque  body  of  men,  with  the  fol- 
lowing closing  minute: 

1810,  May  23rd.  The  last  meeting  of  the  proprietors  was 
held;  being  duly  warned.  Stephen  Paddock  was  elected 
Moderator.  Erastus  Pratt,  Clerk.  It  was  announced  that 
provisions  had  been  made  for  the  delivery  of  the  pro- 
prietors' books,  plot  of  the  city,  etc.,  to  the  Clerk  of  the 
city,  and  for  the  passage  of  a  law  by  the  Legislature  for 
a  confirmation  of  all  the  divisions  made  by  them." 

We  have  before  alluded  to  the  violent  opposition  mani- 
fested by  Cotton  Gelston  to  the  surrender  of  the  books 
and  minutes  to  the  Common  Council,  and  we  may  imagine 
that  it  was  in  the  midst  of  great  excitement  and  commo- 
tion that  the  motion  was  made  and  carried  to  adjourn 
sine  die. 

Their  meetings  had  necessarily  been  more  frequent 
than  these  extracts  would  indicate,  but  the  proceedings 
related  principally  to  the  disposition  and  exchange  of  their 
lots,  or  "public  squares"  as  they  termed  them,  and  to  the 
laying  out  of  the  "public  roads"  or  streets. 

On  the  whole  the  proprietors  had  every  reason  to  feel 
satisfied  with  the  result  of  their  labors,  while  furnishing 
in  themselves  a  most  remarkable  instance  of  unselfishness 
and  fidelity. 

In  all  that  body  of  men,  associated  together  for  more 
than  a  quarter  of  a  century  in  a  common  business  enter- 
prise, not  a  single  individual  proved  faithless  to  the 
pledges  given,  or  recreant  to  the  trusts  imposed. 

Many  of  the  original  proprietors,  including  the  Jenkins 
brothers   had   passed   away   before   the   date   of   this   last 

1  1  6  HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 

meeting.  Seth  Jenkins  lived  but  ten  years  after  coming 
to  the  settlement,  and  Thomas  Jenkins  as  we  have  said, 
died  in  1808,  but  each  left  a  deep  and  lasting  impress  upon 
the  character  of  the  city.  The  last  survivor  of  the  pio- 
neers was  Captain  Alexander  Coffm  who  died  in  1839, 
in  the  ninety-ninth  year  of  his  age.  His  personal  char- 
acteristics have  been  previously  described,  but  his  life  was 
filled  with  incident  and  variety,  quite  worthy  of  mention. 

In  1774,  he  carried  back  to  London  as  passengers  on 
his  ship,  the  consignees  of  the  tea  which  had  recently 
served  to  furnish  forth  the  "Boston  tea-party."  He  was 
twice  captured  by  the  British  during  the  Revolution,  and 
was  bearer  of  dispatches  from  Benjamin  Franklin  in 
Paris  to  the  American  Congress. 

Captain  Coffm  was  elected  Mayor  of  Hudson  in  1821, 
serving  one  term,  and  held  the  office  of  postmaster  con- 
tinuously for  nearly  twenty-three  years.  The  office  was 
kept  in  his  house,  which  was  at  first  a  frame  building  on 
the  site  of  116  Warren  street,  afterward  he  resided  on  the 
south-west  corner  of  Warren  and  Second  streets. 

The  postoffice  of  Hudson  has  always  been  a  migratory 
institution,  each  successive  postmaster  finding  for  it  a 
new  place.  During  one  term  it  was  housed  at  No.  247 
Warren  street  and  in  1842  Justus  McKinstry  being  post- 
master, it  was  installed  in  the  dwelling  erected  and  oc- 
cupied by  him,  No.  311   on  that  street. 

The  office  was  then  located  for  some  years  in  the  Hirst 
building,  removing  to  the  City  Hall  in  1867  and  thence 
to  its  present  quarters  in  1886. 

The  money  order  system  was  introduced  in  1864  and 
the  Free  Delivery  on  October  1,  1887.  Mr.  Henry  R. 
Bryan  the  present  postmaster,  has  held  the  office  since 
April  1,  1899,  having  received  his  appointment  from  Pres- 
ident McKinley. 

Through  the  persevering  efforts  of  General  John  H. 
Ketcham,  who  was  for  many  years  our  faithful  Represen- 

HISTORY   OF    HUDSON  1  1  7 

tative,  an  appropriation  of  seventy-five  thousand  dollars 
was  made  by  the  59th  Congress,  in  the  spring  of  1907, 
"for  a  Post  Office  building  at  Hudson,  New  York." 

A  fine  site  was  purchased  in  February,  1908,  on  the 
corner  of  Fourth  and  Union  streets,  and  it  appears  to  be 
quite  certain  that  in  the  near  future  the  city  will  have  a 
convenient  and  permanent  home  for  the  mails. 

Returning  for  a  moment  to  the  house  of  Justus  McKin- 
istry,  it  is  perhaps  worthy  of  note  as  having  been  the 
first  dwelling  that  was  plumbed  in  Hudson. 

The  date  was  about  1S55,  and  the  innovation  was  con- 
sidered by  many  to  be  a  very  questionable,  if  not  dan- 
gerous improvement. 

Mr.  Theophilus  Beekman  and  his  wife  were  still  living 
in  the  Hathaway  (or  Beekman)  house  opposite,  at  that 
time.  Mr.  Beekman  was  a  very  fine  looking  old  gentle- 
man, in  a  gay  flowered  dressing  gown,  or  driving  a  high 
stepping  horse;  and  was  always  accompanied  by  two 

1  I  8  HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 


Churches — Clergy — Christian    Association, 

As  we  have  seen  a  larger  proportion  of  the  original 
Proprietors  were  adherents  of  the  Quaker  faith,  and  in 
1784,  the  year  following  their  arrival  at  Claverack  Land- 
ing, they  built  for  their  use  a  simple  and  convenient  house 
of  worship.  The  second  religious  organization  formed 
in  the  City  of  Hudson  was  that  of  a  Congregational  body. 

In  the  year  1790,  Marshall  Jenkins  applied  to  the 
Proprietors  "for  a  grant  of  land,  on  which  to  erect  a 
place  of  worship."  The  lot  deeded  to  them  was  on  the 
corner  of  Allen,  then  known  as  Federal  street  and  Second. 
On  this  was  erected  a  plain  brick  structure,  surmounted 
by  a  spire  of  considerable  height,  from  which  a  charming 
and  unbroken  view  of  mountains  and  river  was  to  be  had, 
while  it  was  itself  a  conspicuous  ornament  to  the  land- 

In  the  belfry  was  hung  the  bell  which  rung  by  Jemmy 
Eraser,  for  the  modest  stipend  of  16  pounds  per  year, 
(paid  by  the  city),  summoned  the  laborer  to  his  daily 
toil,  and  announced  at  noon  and  night,  the  welcome  hour 
of  rest. 

The  edifice  was  as  plain  within  as  without.  A  huge 
sounding  board  overhung  the  high  pulpit,  and  high-backed 
pews  and  green  blinds,  complete  the  picture.  The  walls 
were  kept  clean  with  whitewash  which,  with  candles  seem 
to  have  been  a  heavy  tax  upon  the  Trustees'  fund. 

The  church  applied  for  admission  to  the  Presbytery  at 
Albany  in  1794,  and  called  the  Rev.  Mr.  Thompson  as 
pastor,  at  a  salary  of   175  pounds  per  year. 

Among  the  early  supporters  of  the  church  were  Am- 
brose  Spencer,   Elisha  Williams  and  Martin  Van   Buren. 

HISTORY    OF    HUDSON  1  1  9 

In  1833  the  trustees  were  instructed  to  purchase  the  old 
Court  House  and  lots,  on  the  corner  of  Warren  and  Fourth 
streets,  "for  a  sum  not  exceeding  4,000  dollars."  On  this 
site  the  congregation  proceeded  to  erect  their  present 
church  building,  which  they  remodeled  in   1876. 

The  society  also  owns  the  building  439  Union  street, 
which  they  purchased  for  a  parsonage. 

Believing  that  there  was  room  for  another  church  or- 
ganization in  the  city,  a  few  members  of  the  Presbyterian 
church,  with  other  citizens  met  at  the  office  of  Joseph  D. 
Monell  for  consultation.  Being  desirous  that  the  new 
organization  should  be  of  the  Reformed  Dutch  order,  they 
made  application  to  the  classis  of  Rensselaer,  and  on  the 
20th  day  of  September,  1835,  a  society  was  organized  by 
a  committee  consisting  of  Rev.  Messrs.  Andrew  Kittle, 
Peter  S.  Wynkoop  and  Richard  Sluyter,  bearing  the  name 
of  The  First  Reformed  Protestant  Dutch  Church  of  Hud- 

Their  first  services  were  held  in  the  old  Court  House, 
and  the  first  sermon  was  preached  by  the  Rev.  John  B. 
Hardenburgh,  then  of  Rhinebeck,  later  of  New  York  City.. 

The  present  church  edifice  was  completed  in  the  follow- 
ing year,  and  was  dedicated  on  December  18,  1836.  The 
sermon  on  the  occasion  was  preached  by  the  Rev.  John 
H.  Van  Wagnen,  from  the  text  "And  it  was  at  Jerusalem 
the  feast  of  the  dedication  and  it  was  winter:"  John  10.22. 
The  church  building  was  enlarged  in  1866,  and  the  in- 
terior remodeled,  the  exterior  still  retains  its  early  Dutch 

A  commodious  and  pleasant  Parsonage  on  Allen  street 
was  purchased  at  an  early  date. 

in  179vS,  John  Tallman  and  John  Powell  presented  a 
petition  in  behalf  of  the  Fpiscopal  society  "for  a  grant 
of  land  on  which  to  build  a  house  of  worship."  The  War- 
dens finally  selected  a  lot  on  the  comer  of  State  and 
Second  streets.    The  buildiiir  was  commenced  immediately 


but  owing  to  pecuniary  embarrassments,  was  not  entirely 
completed  until  1823.  The  name  Christ  Church  was 
adopted  in  1802,  and  the  first  service  held  was  on  Christ- 
mas day  of  that  year. 

In  1803,  a  parochial  charity  school  was  established  in 
connection  with  the  church  which  numbered  forty  scholars. 
Their  first  organ  was  erected  in  1811  at  a  cost  of  four 
hundred  and  fifty  dollars. 

The  old  church  was  occupied,  until  the  year  1857,  when 
their  new  and  beautiful  edifice  on  Court  street  was  con- 
secrated by  Bishop  Horatio  S.  Potter. 

A  convenient  Chapel  and  rectory  have  been  added,  thus 
completing  a  most  attractive  and  commodious  church 

For  many  years  Christ  Church  sustained  the  Chapel 
of  All  Saints  in  the  suburbs  of  the  city,  besides  rendering 
substantial  assistance  to  churches  and  missions  in  other 
parts  of  the  country. 

All  Souls'  Church  had  its  inception  in  a  Sunday  School 
taught  by  Mrs.  E.  M.  Cookson  on  the  Academy  Hill.  The 
work  had  a  remarkable  growth  and  in  1861  was  orga- 
nized a  mission.  In  1864  a  Chapel  was  built  and  in 
1887,  it  became  a  separate  parish.  It  has  always  re- 
ceived the  fostering  care  and  assistance  of  Christ  Church. 

The  Baptist  Church  was  organized  at  the  house  of  H. 
P.  Skinner  in  1810.  They  worshipped  for  a  time  in  the 
Mayor's  court  room  in  the  Court  House.  In  1818  they 
removed  to  the  corner  of  State  and  Fourth  streets,  where 
they  remained  until  the  completion  of  their  present  church 
in  1861.  A  Sunday  School  was  founded  by  this  church 
in  1820,  which  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  organization 
for  the  religious  instruction  of  youth  in  the  country. 

The  Methodist  body  early  applied  through  Samuel  Wig- 
ton,  for  a  lot  on  which  to  build.  In  1790,  the  Proprietors 
gave  them  their  choice  of  any  lots  not  previously  granted, 


and  they  selected  one  on  the  corner  of  Diamond  and  Third 
streets  on  which  they  built  a  small  frame  building. 

This  was  followed  by  the  erection  of  a  brick  structure 
in  1825,  which  they  afterward  exchanged  for  lots  on  which 
their  present  commodious  church  was  erected  in    1853. 

They  also  own  a  pleasant  parsonage  on  North  Fifth 

The  organization  of  the  Universalist  Church  was  formed 
in  1817,  and  was  followed  by  the  erection  of  a  modest 
edifice  on  the  corner  of  Third  and  Allen  streets,  within 
the  year. 

The  society  continued  to  worship  there  until  1867  when 
the  building  now  occupied  by  them  was  completed. 

The  adjoining  house  has  been  acquired,  which  gives 
them  a  convenient  parsonage. 

There  are  three  Lutheran  Churches  in  Hudson,  the 
oldest  St.  John's  dating  from  1866,  was  organized  by 
the  Rev.  William  Hull,  and  worshipped  in  the  old  Uni- 
versalist Church  until  their  present  building  was  erected 
in  1869. 

St.  Matthews  German  Evangelical  Lutheran,  was  in- 
corporated in  1869,  and  Emanuel  Lutheran  was  formed 
from  a  division  in  St.  Matthew's  Society,  in   1893. 

All  have  church  edifices  that  are  adequate  and  con- 
venient for  their  requirements,  and  the  Emanuel  Society 
has  also  its  own  cosy  parsonage. 

St.  Mary's  Church  parish  was  organized  in  1841,  its 
members  worshiping  in  St.  John's  Hall  until  the  comple- 
tion of  their  present  church,  which  was  dedicated  in   1849. 

A  parochial  school  was  sustained  by  St.  Mar>''s  parish 
from  an  early  date,  and  in  1899  St.  Mary's  Academy  was 
built,  ^'iving  them  a  well  equipped  educational  structure. 

In  1907,  the  Italian  residents  of  the  city  purchased  a 
portion  of  the  site  of  the  first  "Market  House"  as  it  was 
called,  and  have  erected  thereon  a  Catholic  church  for 
their  use. 


A  small  body  of  Hungarians  were  granted  the  use  of 
the  First  Reformed  church  in  the  early  part  of  the  year 
1908  for  their  services,  which  presages  a  suitable  building 
for  them   at  some  future  time. 

These  facts  disclose  an  unsuspected  foreign  element  in 
the  population  of  the  city,  which  is  of  comparatively  re- 
cent growth. 

There  are  also  two  Jewish  organizations,  consisting 
of  the  Hebrew,  and  New  Hebrew  synagogues. 

Hudson  has  two  Afro-American  churches.  The  Zion 
Methodist  Episcopal,  dating  from  1855,  and  St.  John's 
Methodist,  which  was  organized  by  seceders  from  Zion 
church  in    1873. 

This  brief  review  of  the  churches  of  this  city,  although 
necessarily  incomplete,  brings  to  our  loving  remembrance 
the  faithful  ministers  of  the  gospel,  and  the  many  saintly 
men  and  women  who  have  prayed  and  labored  to  make 
these  churches  what  they  are;  who 

"Wrought  in   a  sad  sincerity; 
Themselves  from  God  they  could  not  free: 
They  builded  better  than  they  knew, — 
The  conscious  stone  to  beauty  grew." 

It  is  quite  impossible  to  treat  the  subject  of  the  clergy 
of  Hudson  in  detail,  only  a  few  of  the  names  that  have 
floated  down  through  the  generations  may  be  mentioned. 

That  of  the  Rev.  Bildad  Barney  is  quite  too  fascinating 
an  alliteration  to  be  passed  unnoticed.  His  parents  doubt- 
less wished  to  commemorate  Bildad  the  Shuhite  of 
Biblical  history.  His  pastorate  in  the  Presbyterian  church 
was  of  brief  duration. 

The  Rev.  John  Chester  (afterward  D.  D.)  was  a  tire- 
less worker,  whose  fame  has  been  familiar  to  our  fathers, 
and  thence  to  ourselves.  He  in  addition  to  his  pastoral 
work  edited  a  magazine  and  labored  for  the  resuscita- 
tion of  the  "African  School"  as  it  was  called. 


At  his  installation  the  customary  dinner  was  provided 
at  Messrs.  Nichols  and  Bements,  at  which  the  Mayor 
and  corporation  were  invited  to  dine  with  the  Presbytery. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  John  Gosman  was  one  of  the  profoundest 
theologians  of  his  day,  yet  so  simple  and  so  lovable  that 
he  was  greatly  successful  in  his  work.  He  was  especially 
effective  when  he  forgot  to  bring  his  sermon  from  home, 
and  as  he  said  "had  to  shake  it  out  of  his  sleeves." 

When  he  soared  too  high,  or  delved  too  deeply  for  his 
people  to  follow,  they  probably  thought  with  the  old  Scotch 
woman,  that  "it  had  a  heavenly  sound." 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Henry  Darling,  tall,  dignified,  the  quint- 
essence of  clerical  courtesy,  afterward  President  of  Ham- 
ilton College;  and  then  recurs  the  opposite  personality 
of  the  Rev.  Dr.  David  D.  Demarest,  small  of  stature,  but 
of  excellent  mental  gifts,  and  fine  scholarly  attainments. 
He  had  the  distinction  of  rearing  four  sons  for  the  min- 
istry, one  of  whom  is  now  the  President  of  Rutgers 
College  at  New  Brunswick.  The  Rev.  Dr.  David  D. 
Demarest  held  the  position  of  Professor  of  Pastoral 
Theology  in  The  Theological  Seminary  of  the  Reformed 
church,  during  a  period  of  thirty-three  years,  until  his 
death  in   1898. 

The  Rev.  Dr.  William  S.  Leavitt  is  still  warmly  cherished 
in  many  households,  who  anticipate  with  pleasure  his 
annual  visit  to  his  friends  here.  The  record  of  the 
Rev.  Dr.  William  Watson  is  one  of  long  and  faithful 
service,  and  of  excellent  results,  in  building  up  the  Epis- 
copal church  in  this  city.  He  was  followed  by  a  long 
line  of  able  and  devoted  rectors,  two  of  whom,  the  Rev. 
George  F.  Seymour,  and  the  Rev.  Sheldon  M.  Griswold. 
subsequently  became  Bishops,  the  former  of  Springfield. 
111.,  and  the  latter  of  Salina,  Kansas. 

A  spray  of  rosemary  "that's  for  remembrance"  is  laid 
upon  the  grave  of  that  saintly  man  of  God,  the  Rev.   Dr. 


William  Henry  Gleason,  and  with  his  name  we  will  close 
these  brief  sketches. 

There  are  a  hundred  others  who  have  labored  with 
equal  zeal  and  devotion  in  the  churches  of  Hudson, 
and  who  deserve  an  extended  recognition,  but  a  limited 
space  forbids. 

The  Hudson  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  was 
organized  in  May,  1866,  largely  through  the  influence  of 
Mr.  James  Gifford,  who  had  been  for  some  years  an  active 
member  of  the  Boston  Association. 

Temporary  rooms  were  secured  at  118  Warren  street, 
which,  becoming  too  small,  the  second  floor  of  the  build- 
ing number  403  Warren  street,  comer  of  Fourth  was 

These  commodious  rooms  were  handsomely  furnished 
by  'the  ladies  of  the  city,  and  were  thrown  open  to  the 
public  on   November  27,    1866. 

A  small  library  was  gathered  from  the  generous  gifts 
of  friends,  and  the  indefatigable  efforts  of  Dr.  John  C. 
DuBois,  who  voluntarily  served  as  librarian  for  several 

After  two  or  three  removals  the  Association  purchased 
its  present  permanent  home  at  435  Warren  street  on 
April   18,   1895,  at  a  cost  of  12,000  dollars. 

This  building  was  readily  adapted  to  the  purposes  of 
the  institution,  and  the  addition  of  a  well  fitted  gym- 
nasium in  1902,  at  an  expense  of  9,000  dollars,  com- 
pleted the  usual   appointments. 

It  is  centrally  located  and  with  its  ample  accommoda- 
tions, the  membership  of  two  hundred  would  seem  to  be 
pleasantly  housed. 

A  city  which,  from  the  proportion  of  saloons  to  the 
population  has  won  the  unenviable  distinction  of  stand- 
ing second  on  the  list  in  the  state,  should  sustain  "The 
Christian  Association"  in  self  defience.  Let  the  stranger 
who  invariably  comments  on   the  number  of  saloons  on 


our  pi^incipal  thoroughfare,  be  enabled  to  observe  at 
least  one  public  effort  to  provide  a  proper,  and  con- 
genial place  for  our  young  men  to  congregate. 

If  there  must  be  "cakes  and  ale"  it  is  regrettable  that 
they  should  be  so  numerously  and  so  blatantly  dispensed; 
and  also  that  the  appropriation  of  the  Sabbath,  for  the 
celebration  of  the  fetes  of  the  foreign  element,  should 
be  permitted.  It  is  a  privilege  which  is  rightfully  refused 
to  the  native  born  citizen,  even  in  the  case  of  his  one 
great   national   holiday,    the   Fourth   of  July. 

These  undesirable  features  of  the  continental  Sabbath, 
not  only  break  its  quiet  calm  with  noisy  explosives,  but 
fill  our  streets,  until  a  late  hour,  with  a  rollicking  crowd 
of  holiday-makers. 



Schools — Private  and  Public. 

The  Hudson  Academy  was  chartered  in  1807  and  the 
erection  of  a  building  was  commenced  at  once,  the  land 
for  that  purpose  having  been  donated  by  Capt.  Seth  G. 
Macy,  who  built  and  occupied  the  fine  residence  now 
owned  by  Capt.  Lathrop  in  Stockport — (then  a  part  of 
Hudson).  Capt.  Macy  established  the  works  afterward 
purchased  by  Joseph  Marshall,  and  so  widely  known  as 
Marshall's  Print  Works. 

The  site  on  which  the  Academy  stands  is  greatly  ad- 
mired for  its  beautiful  prospect.  The  hill  was  at  that 
time  covered  with  fine  forest  trees  which  extended  south 
beyond  Mr.  Ten  Broeck's  line,  and  west  to  the  Public 

The  first  teacher  employed  by  the  Trustees  was  Andrew 
Carshore,  a  man  noted  for  his  ability,  and  among  those 
who  subsequently  filled  the  position  were  the  Hon. 
Amasa  J.  Parker,  late  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of 
this  state,  and  Josiah  W.  Fairfield. 

Judge  Parker  writing  in  1885  of  his  early  acquaintance 
with  the  Academy,  first  as  a  pupil  and  afterward  as  Prin- 
cipal, a  period  extending  from  1819  to  1827,  says:  "The 
Academy  building  was  charmingly  located  on  Prospect  Hill, 
and  in  part  surrounded  by  a  beautiful  grove,  of  which 
classic  Greece  might  justly  have  been  proud,  a  grove 
where  the  muses  might  well  have  lingered.  Later  vandal- 
ism destroyed  it,  and  ("horresco  referens")  converted  it 
into  cord  wood!" 

A  school  for  Young  Ladies  was  opened  in  connection 
with  the  Academy. 

"Salary  of  the  Preceptress  was  one  hundred  dollars  per 


year,  tuition  four  dollars  per  quarter,  for  higher  English, 
languages  and  mathematics,  and  two  dollars  for  lower." 
''Rates  for  board  were  one  dollar  and  fifty  cents  per  week, 
and  persons  taking  pupils  to  board  became  responsible 
for  their  tuition."  "Conveyances  were  provided  for  Young 
Ladies  to  and  from  their  residences,  both  for  those  of 
the  city,  and  those  boarding  here  from  abroad,"  thus 
leaving  no  excuse  for  non-attendance  in  inclement 

Only  one  dividend  of  50  cents  a  share  was  paid  on 
'the  stock,  and  it  became  of  no  value,  but  the  returns 
from  the  Academy  in  the  form  of  educational  advantages 
have  never  been  computed.  As  nearly  every  man  of 
prominence  in  Hudson  and  vicinity,  was  at  some  time 
a  pupil  there,  they  must  have  been  considerable. 

The  Hudson  Select  Academy  in  South  Third  street 
was  built  in  1813,  by  an  association  of  which  Seth  Jenkins 
(who  was  a  son  of  the  original  proprietor),  was  President. 
It  was  not  very  successful,  and  Mr.  Jenkins  made  a 
great  effort  to  secure  the  passage  of  an  "Act  by  the 
Legislature  granting  to  the  Academy  the  fishing  grounds 
in  the  vicinity  of  Hudson,  with  the  right  to  impose  a  tax 
on  all  persons  fishing  upon  them,  the  income  to  go  to  the 
institution."  He  was  strongly  opposed,  and  failed  in  his 
attempt,  but  it  gave  to  the  building  the  name  of  the  "Shad 
Academy,"  by  which  it  was  known  until  its  final  dis- 
continuance  for  school  purposes. 

The  improved  Public  Schools,  which  are  more  con- 
veniently located  drew  the  patronage  from  the  older 
Academy  and  it  was  closed  for  a  time,  but  was  reopened 
in   l<Sf)7,  and  thoroughly  renovated. 

It  was  conducted  successfully  for  about  twenty  years, 
but  the  establishment  of  a  High  School,  furnishing  all  its 
advantages  free  of  cost,  proved  the  finishing  blow  to  its 

The    Academy    building    is    now    the    property    of    the 


Board  of  Education,  and  has  fallen  into  a  state  of  innocu- 
ous desuetude,  which  if  continued,  must  end  in  its  eventual 
disintegration.  This  is  deeply  regretted  by  many  who 
deprecate  the  obliteration  of  the  old  landmarks,  and  who 
hope  the  venerable  institution  may  again  become  of  use. 

The  first  house  erected  on  Prospect  Hill  was  the  resi- 
dence of  Captain  William  Ashley,  later  the  home  of  Mr. 
George  McKinstry,  and  still  known  as  the  McKinstry 
house.  The  privilege  of  naming  the  hill  was  to  be  given 
to  the  individual  who  should  first  erect  a  dwelling  there, 
and  Captain  Ashley  claimed  it.  After  some  disagreement 
with  others  interested,  he  declared  that  "he  named  that 
hill  Prospect  Hill,  and  Prospect  Hill  it  should  be."  A 
very  appropriate  name,  for  it  affords  a  prospect  which, 
for  extent,  beauty,  and  variety,  is  rarely  equalled. 

Prospect  Avenue  was  not  named  until  about  1863.  It 
was  a  wretched  country  road,  full  of  ruts  and  holes  until 
that  date,  when  the  residents  constructed  the  present 
well  built  street  at  their  own  expense,  and  kept  it  in 
order.  They  also  planted  the  trees  on  either  side,  thus 
making  it  one  of  the  most  attractive  approaches  to  the 

The  private  schools  of  Hudson  were  noted  in  early, 
as  well  as  later  years,  as  being  of  a  high  order  of  ex- 
cellence. Mention  is  made  of  a  Female  Seminary  in  the 
earliest  files  of  the  Gazette,  and  Classical  Schools  for 
boys  were  successfully  conducted  by  Andrew  Hunting- 
ton, Ebenezer  King  and  the  Rev.  J.  R.  Coe.  They  were 
succeeded  by  the  Rev.  E.  Bradbury,  whose  school  was  sit- 
uated on  the  corner  of  Union  and  Second  streets. 

It  is  perhaps  not  generally  known  that  Major  Marshal 
H.  Bright,  the  able  editor  of  the  "Christian  at  Work" 
was  born  in  the  house  just  alluded  to,  and  that  he  was 
buried  in  our  cemetery  in  1907. 

In  1848  the  Misses  Peake  established  a  "Young  Ladies 


Seminary,"  that  for  more  than  thirty  years  attracted  the 
patronage  of  the  best  people  of  the  city  and  vicinity. 

It  was  located  at  Number  216  Warren  street  with  a 
fine  schoolroom  in  the  adjoining  dwelling.  Miss  Eliza- 
beth Peake,  the  head  of  the  institution,  was  a  person 
of  superior  mind  and  culture,  and  was  the  author  of  two 
very  excellent  books,  one  "Pen  Pictures  of  Europe,"  and 
the  other  a  "History  of  the  German  Emperors,"  which 
necessitated  research  in  the  great  libraries  of  Germany, 
and  exhibited  great  ability. 

The  Hudson  Female  Academy  was  opened  in  1851,  in 
the  building  now  owned  and  occupied  by  the  Hudson 
Orphan  Asylum,  and  under  the  direction  of  the  Rev. 
John  B.  Hague  was  very  prosperous.  In  1865  it  was 
removed  to  number  31  Warren  street  and  was  soon  after- 
ward discontinued. 

The  Misses  Sarah  and  Cornelia  Skinner  established  a 
"School  for.  Young  Ladies"  in  1867  in  their  home  on 
Warren  street.  Their  accommodations  soon  became  in- 
adequate and  in  1870  they  built  the  convenient  school 
building  number  281  Union  street,  where  they  continued 
deservedly  popular  for  many  years. 

Private  kindergartens  prepared  successive  generations 
of  children  for  the  graded  schools,  and  both  invaded  the 
province  of  the  private  schools,  and  combined  to  greatly 
lessen   their  number. 

Although  a  number  of  grants  were  made  by  the  pro- 
prietors for  school  purposes,  no  provision  seems  to  have 
been   made   for  free  education   before    1816. 

In  September  of  that  year,  a  number  of  gentlemen 
met  at  the  "Library  room,"  to  consider  the  practicability 
of  establishing  a  Lancaster  School  in  this  city.  These 
schools  were  so  named  from  Joseph  Lancaster,  an  English 
educator  who  as  early  as  1808,  had  opened  schools  in 
various  towns  in  I^ngland,  for  the  partly  gratuitous  in- 
struction of  the   children   of  the  poor. 

1  30  HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 

Mr.  Lancaster  came  to  America  in  1818  and  was  quite 
as  successful  in  prosecuting  the  work  here,  as  he  had  been 
in  England  and  Canada.  He  opened  a  pay  school  in  New 
York  Cit)^  at  a  later  date,  which  was  a  complete  failure, 
and  he  died  in    1829,   in  straightened  circumstances. 

The  meeting  resulted  in  the  organization  of  the  "Hudson 
Lancaster  Society"  which  was  incorporated  by  an  act  of 
the  Legislature  passed  on  April  15th,  1817,  with  the 
following  Trustees: 

Elisha  Williams  Judah  Paddock 

James  Strong  Thomas  Jenkins 

Robert  Taylor  Prosper  Hosmer 

Daniel  Coffin  Josiah  Underbill 

Patrick  Fanning  Samuel   White 

Samuel  Plumb  Robert   Alsop 

Thomas  Bay. 

Subscriptions  to  the  amount  of  thirteen  hundred  dol- 
lars were  received  and  the  erection  of  a  brick  building 
was  at  once  commenced,  the  Common  Council  having 
granted  a  lot  for  the  purpose  on  the  south-west  comer 
of  Fourth  and  State  streets.  The  school  was  opened  on 
Oct.  13,  1817.  It  was  not  wholly  a  free  school,  one  hun- 
dred scholars  at  first  receiving  gratuitous  instruction,  the 
number  afterward  being  dependent  upon  the  financial 
condition  of  the  society.  For  its  support  it  received  from 
the  Common  Council  the  school  money,  the  excise  fund, 
and  that  from  lottery  licenses,  the  balance  being  raised 
by  individual  contributions.  A  committee  of  the  Trustees 
visited  the  school  monthly,  and  no  scholar  was  admitted 
without  the  inspection  of  a  physician,  if  requested  by  a 
teacher,  and  no  pupil  was  retained  in  the  school  who 
was  not  kept  clean  and  decently  clothed. 

The  first  teacher  employed  by  the  Trustees  was 
Josiah  Underbill.     He  received  five  dollars  per  year  for 


each  free  scholar,  and  those  who  were  able  to  pay  for 
tuition  were  charged  at  the  following  rates:  reading  and 
spelling,  one  dollar  per  quarter;  reading  and  writing,  one 
dollar  and  fifty  cents,  with  addition  of  arithmetic,  two 
dollars,  with  grammar  or  geography,  two  dollars  and 
twenty-five  cents,  if  both  those  branches  were  taught,  two 
dollars  and  fifty  cents.  Thus  was  the  mental  pabulum 
served  up,  a  Id  cartel 

Three  hundred  and  forty-one  pupils  were  admitted  dur- 
ing the  first  two  quarters.  In  1828  the  number  of  chil- 
dren in  the  compact  portion  of  the  city,  between  the  ages 
of  five  and  sixteen,  was  reported,   as  being   1,012. 

Steps  were  taken  in  the  same  year  1817,  for  the  sup- 
port of  an  "African  School"  in  connection  with  the  Lan- 

Annual  contributions,  varying  from  twelve  to  twenty- 
five  dollars,  were  promised  by  the  different  religious  so- 
cieties, and,  with  fifty  dollars  from  the  Council  and  twen- 
ty-five from  the  Lancaster  Society,  a  school  was  immedi- 
ately established  in  the  old  Methodist  church  on  Third 
street;  not  now  standing.  This  school  languished  for  want 
of  adequate  support,  and  was  finally  closed  in   1833. 

The  Lancaster  School  was  sustained  until  1841,  when 
the  Trustees  conveyed  their  property  to  the  Common 
Council   and   the   public  schools  were  organized. 

The  city  was  divided  into  three  districts,  sites  were 
selected  for  school-houses  in  the  upper  and  lower  dis- 
tricts, and  the  Lancaster  building  was  occupied  as  num- 
ber two,  or  the  middle  district  school. 

The  act  of  the  Legislature  incorporating  the  free  schools 
provided  for  three  superintendents,  and  the  first  persons 
appointed  by  the  Council,  were  Oliver  Bronson.  Josiah 
W.  Fairfield  and  Cyrus  Curtiss,  who  were  "authorized  to 
purchase  the  sites,  and  have  suitable  buildings  erected." 

The   High  School  was  organized   in    1879  and  was  fol- 


lowed  by  the  organization  of  the  Board  of  Education  in 

Application  having  been  made  in  1884  the  Hudson  High 
School  was  recognized  as  the  Academical  department,  and 
received  under  the  visitation  of  the  Regents  of  the  State 
of  New  York.  In  the  same  year  a  single  School  Su- 
perintendent was  substituted  for  the  three  previously  ap- 
pointed, and  William  P.  Snyder  was  the  first,  who  occu- 
pied the  position. 

Provision  was  made  for  the  High  School  in  1887  by  the 
erection  of  the  building  on  the  corner  of  Sixth  and  State 
streets,  now  used  for  the  Grammar  School.  This  proving 
insufficient,  in  1889,  the  Trustees  of  the  Hudson  Academy 
offered  the  cfty  the  free  use  of  the  Academy,  which  had 
been  closed  for  three  years,  and  also  made  all  necessary 

The  Common  Council  gladly  accepted  this  means  of 
temporary  relief,  and  the  High  School  was  placed  in 
possession  on  October  14,  1890,  with  ceremonies  befitting 
the  occasion.  In  the  winter  of  1892-3  "A  special  act  of 
the  Legislature  empowered  the  Board  of  Education  to 
build  a  High  School  building,  commensurate  with  the 
increasing  necessities  of  the  educational  system  of  Hud- 
son." The  centrally  located  site  of  the  old  Lancaster 
structure  was  used  for  this  purpose,  and  ample,  and 
convenient  accommodations  were  provided,  at  a  cost  of 
34,000  dollars,  to  which  may  be  added  the  sum  of  9,456.22 
expended  for  a  new  heater,  during  the  year  1908.  A 
simple  and  attractive  building  was  erected  in  1902  for 
the  use  of  the  Third  or  lower  district,  called  the  Allen 
street  school,  which  brings  the  amount  invested  in  school 
buildings  up  to  90,000  dollars.  The  number  enrolled  in 
all  grades  is  1,350.  Thirty-seven  teachers  are  employed, 
and  total  disbursement  for  year  ending  on  August  1,  1908, 
was  $37,849.86. 

A  serviceable  working  library  has  been  in  use  for  many 

HISTORY   OF    HUDSON  1  33 

years,  and  by  judicious  purchases  under  the  care  of  the 
Board  of  Education,  is  of  increased  value,  as  a  necessary 
adjunct  of  the  schools. 

The  addition  of  manual  training  about  six  years  ago, 
and  a  commercial  and  shorthand  department,  added  dur- 
ing the  past  year,  have  both  been  very  successful,  and 
are  of  great  advantage  to  the  pupils. 

There  seemed  to  be  a  manifest  unfairness  in  furnish- 
ing the  training  necessary  for  admission  to  college,  or 
technical  schools,  and  doing  nothing  in  the  way  of  special 
preparation  of  the  mass  of  scholars,  who  will  pursue  an 
ordinar)^  business  career. 

The  establishment  of  a  night  school  during  the  past 
winter,  was  also  a  step  in  the  right  direction,  and  with 
a  larger  appropriation,  many  of  its  difficulties  can  be 

The  effort  to  beautify  the  grounds  surrounding  the  Pub- 
lic School  buildings,  which  was  begun  in  1898-9,  was 
highly  commendable,  and  has  resulted  in  making  them 
not  only  an  ornament  to  the  city,  but  must  also  exert  a 
refining  influence  upon  the  children.  The  power  of  en- 
vironment cannot  well  be  overestimated,  and  the  addi- 
tion of  pictures  within  the  rooms,  to  the  beautiful  flowers 
growing  without,  cannot  fail  to  produce  a  most  beneficial 
effect  on  the  esthetic  development  of  youth. 

It  will  readily  be  seen  that  the  average  child  in  this  city 
possesses  all  the  needful  opportunities  for  obtaining  a 
thorough  education,  ^'ith  a  competent  superintendent,  a 
corps  of  faithful,  well  trained  teachers,  and  the  watchful 
services  of  the  ubiquitous  truant  officer,  it  is  difficult  to 
see  how  an  average  child  can  escape.  But  it  has  been 
aptly  said  "you  can  lead  a  young  man  to  the  Univcrsirv', 
but  you  cannot  make  him  think!" 

In  simple  justice  to  the  noble  men  and  women,  who 
have  devoted  the  best  years  of  their  lives  to  the  Public 
Schools  of  Hudson,   it  should   be   said   that  both   schools 


and  teachers,  have  always  ranked  with  the  best  in  the 
state,  in  places  of  this  size.  Many  of  our  teachers  have 
risen  to  high  positions  as  educators,  notably  Edward  P. 
Waterbury,  who  was  at  the  time  of  his  death,  and  for 
many  years  previously,  the  President  of  the  State  Normal 
School  at  Albany. 

Hudson  has  shown  a  strong  desire  to  possess  the  best 
advantages  for  the  education  of  her  children,  since  an 
early  date.  She  was  among  the  first  to  organize  a  Lan- 
caster School,  the  forerunner  of  the  Public  Schools,  which 
she  was  also  quick  to  adopt  as  soon  as  they  came  in 

Her  private  schools  were  of  so  superior  an  order,  and  so 
universally  patronized,  that  the  free  schools  were  possibly 
not  fostered  to  the  extent  they  otherwise  would  have  been^ 
and  doubtless  the  reopening  of  the  Academy  in  1867-8, 
had  a  deterrent  effect  upon  the  establishment  of  a  High 
School.  But  the  initial  movement  for  that  event,  eman- 
ated from  the  Principal  and  Trustees  of  the  Academy, 
with  the  full  knowledge  that  here,  as  elsewhere,  it  would 
probably  supercede  that  institution,  and  that  the  occupa- 
tion of  the  Principal,  like  Othello's,  would  be  gone! 

Happy  is  it  for  Hudson  that  she  felt  and  responded 
to  the  grand  wave  of  educational  progress,  which  during 
the  past  twenty-five  years  has  swept  over  our  land.  It 
argues  hopefully  for  her  future  development  in  every 
respect,  and  on  the  highest  lines. 


The    Hudson    Bar. 

A  consideration  of  the  legal  luminaries  of  Hudson  is 
now  in  order. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  19th  century  the  local  bar  was 
conspicuous  for  its  brilliancy,  and  it  seems  probable  that 
in  no  place  of  its  size  were  there  congregated  so  large  a 
number  of  remarkable  men.  Drawn  thither  by  the  rapid 
growth,  and  prospective  enlargement  of  the  city,  they  took 
up  their  residence  here,  and  Hudson  became  noted  for 
the  eminence  of  its  legal  talent.  This  reputation  has  been 
well  sustained  throughout  the  intervening  years,  and 
there  has  been  no  time,  when  Hudson  has  not  been  ably 
represented   in   the  highest  courts  of  the   state. 

Foremost  in  this  galaxy  of  talent  was  Ambrose  Spencer, 
who  was  born  in  Salisbury,  Conn.,  in  1765,  was  graduated 
from  Harvard  in  1783  and  entered  the  office  of  Mr.  John 
Bay  in  the  Village  of  Claverack,  in   1785. 

Mr.  Bay  was  a  lawyer  of  high  standing  and  wide  rep- 
utation in  his  profession,  and  was  at  that  time  Clerk  of  the 
City  of  Hudson. 

This  office  he  relinquished  in  favor  of  Mr.  Spencer,  who 
then   removed  to  this  city. 

Mr.  Spencer  pursued  his  legal  studies  with  such  en- 
thusiasm, that  when  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  his  abil- 
ity and  acquirements  were  already  recognized,  and  he  was 
soon  employed  in  cases  of  the  gravest  importance. 

Offices  of  trust  were  showered  upon  him  and  he  be- 
came in  quick  succession.  Attorney  General  of  the  state, 
a  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  Chief  Justice,  from 
which  office  he  retired  in    1S23. 

Mr.  Spencer's  wife,  with  whom  he  had  eloped  soon  after 


his  18th  birthday,  "was  a  woman  of  a  lovely  nature  and 
a  fine  mind."  She  was  the  mother  of  six  sons,  all  of 
whom  were  born  in  Hudson,  and  two  daughters,  who 
were  born  after  their  removal  to  Albany.  Mr.  Spencer 
was  a  potent  factor  in  the  policies  of  the  day,  and  im- 
pressed everyone  with  the  depth  and  sincerity  of  his  con- 
victions. Strength  seems  to  have  been  his  most  striking 
characteristic,  strength   mental,  moral,   and  physical. 

He  was  a  man  of  deeply  religious  temperament,  and 
became  a  member  of  the  Episcopal  church  some  years 
before  his  death,  which  occurred  in  1848,  in  the  eighty- 
third  year  of  his  age. 

John  Canfield  Spencer,  the  eldest  son  of  Judge  Am- 
brose Spencer,  also  rose  to  high  distinction,  and  was  the 
recipient  of  a  variety  of  honors,  of  which  mention  can  be 
made,  of  only  the  most  important. 

John  C.  Spencer  was  bom  in  Hudson  in  1788,  and 
after  finishing  his  college  course,  studied  law  in  Albany, 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1809.  He  was  appointed 
Secretary  of  State  in  1839,  was  made  Secretary  of  War 
in  1841  and  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  in  President  Tyler's 
Cabinet,  in  1843.  Mr.  Spencer  formed  an  intimate 
friendship  with  M.  de  Tocqueville  during  his  visit  to  this 
country  in  1838  and  annotated  his  great  work  on  "The 
American  Democracy."  Mr.  Spencer  died  in  Albany  in 

Martin  Van  Buren  was  the  only  President  of  the  United 
States  that  Columbia  countv  has  produced,  if  we  except 
the  Hon.  Samuel  J.  Tilden.  Every  unprejudiced  person, 
whatever  his  party  affiliations  may  be,  will  now  admit 
that  Mr.  Tilden  was  rightfully  elected  to  the  Presidency. 
He  was  prevented  from  taking  his  seat  by  measures 
familiar  to  all,  but  it  is  certain  that  old  Columbia  was 
entitled  to  the  honor  of  having  a  second  son  in  that  dis- 
tinguished  office. 

Martin  Van  Buren  was  born  in  the  Village  of  Kinder- 


hook  in  1782,  and  was  educated  at  the  Kinderhook  Aca- 
demy. At  the  age  of  fourteen  he  entered  the  office  of 
Francis  Silvester  to  pursue  his  legal  studies,  and  in  1803, 
was  admitted  to  the  bar.  Mr.  Van  Buren  married  Miss 
Harriet  Hoes,  who  died  in  1819,  leaving  four  sons;  he 
never  remarried.  Early  in  1809  he  removed  to  Hudson 
and  formed  a  partnership  with  Cornelius  Miller  the  father 
of  the  late  Hon.  Theodore  Miller. 

Mr.  Van  Buren's  advancement  was  rapid.  In  1812  he 
was  elected  a  State  Senator;  in  1815,  Attorney  General 
of  the  state,  and  in  1828,  upon  the  death  of  Governor 
De  Witt  Clinton,  he  succeeded  him  as  Governor.  This 
office  Mr.  Van  Buren  resigned  soon  after,  to  become 
Secretary  of  State  in  the  Cabinet  of  President  Andrew 

In  1831  Jackson  appointed  him  Minister  to  England 
and  while  there  he  evinced  great  ability  as  a  Statesman 
and  diplomat,  imprlsssing  everyone  by  his  grace  and 
charm  of  manner. 

The  Senate  failed  to  confirm  his  appointment  and  on  his 
return  in  1832,  Mr.  Van  Buren  was  elected  Vice  President 
on  the  ticket  with  President  Jackson,  by  a  large  majority. 

In  1836  he  was  elected  President  of  the  United  States, 
and  was  the  first  person  of  Holland  descent,  to  hold  that 
office,  Mr.  Theodore  Roosevelt  being  the  second. 

Mr.  Van  Buren  was  a  candidate  for  re-election  in  1840, 
and  also  in   1848,  but  was  defeated. 

In  1841,  he  purchased  the  Van  Ness  place  in  Kinder- 
hook,  called  Lindenwald,  and  to  this  he  now  retired,  and, 
as  he  Says  in  his  will,  "passed  the  last  and  the  happiest 
years  of  my  life  as  a  Farmer  in   my  native  town." 

Mr.  Van  Buren  passed  away  in  I8G2,  deeply  lamented 
by  all  who  knew  him. 

Washington  Irvine  lived  at  Lindenwald  for  a  time  as 
tutor  to  the  children  of  Peter  Van  Ness,  and  while  there 
wrote  some  of  his  well  known  Sketches. 

1  38  HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 

John  Van  Buren,  a  son  of  Martin  Van  Buren,  was 
born  in  Hudson,  in  the  brick  house,  opposite  the  McKin- 
istry  place,  in  1810.  He  was  graduated  from  Yale  in  1828 
and  studied  law  with  Benjamin  F.  Butler,  his  father's 
former  partner. 

After  his  admission  to  the  bar  in  1831,  Mr.  Van  Buren 
accompanied  his  father  as  Secretary  of  Legation  on  his 
mission  to  England,  and  on  his  return  six  months  later, 
he  opened  an  office  in  Albany,  for  the  practice  of  his 

In  1845,  Mr.  Van  Buren  was  elected  Attorney  General 
of  the  state,  and  assisted  District  Attorney  Theodore 
Miller,  in  the  prosecution  of  the  Anti-rent  leader.  Smith 
A.  Boughton,  known  as  "Big  Thunder." 

The  case  came  to  trial  in  March,  1845,  before  Judge 
Amasa  J.  Parker,  and  resulted  in  the  disagreement  of  the 
jury.  The  second  trial  in  the  following  September,  will 
be  found  at  length  in  the  sketch  of  Judge  John  W.  Ed- 

Mr.  Van  Buren  visited  England  and  Ireland  in  the  year 
1838,  on  professional  business,  and  was  received  with  the 
most  marked  attentions.  It  was  from  dancing  with  the 
Princess  Victoria  during  this  visit,  that  he  was  called 
"Prince  John." 

Mr.  Van  Buren  was  a  man  of  undoubted  talent,  and  of 
unusually  attractive  personal  appearance.  He  died  on 
the  Steamship  Scotia,  while  returning  from  Europe  in 

William  W.  Van  Ness  was  born  in  Claverack  and  com- 
menced his  legal  studies  in  the  office  of  John  Bay  at 
the  age  of  fourteen,  which  he  completed  in  the  office  of 
Chancellor  Livingston   in   New  York. 

Mr.  Van  Ness  married  the  daughter  of  Mr.  John  Bay 
and  after  his  marriage  removed  his  office  to  Hudson. 
Governor  Morgan  Lewis,  appointed  him  a  Judge  of  the 
Supreme  Court  in  1807,  and  he  remained  upon  the  bench 

HISTORY   OF    HUDSON  1  39 

fifteen  years,  after  which  he  opened  an  office  in  New 
York.  He  was  an  ornament  to  his  profession  and  his 
judicial  career  was  a  most  briUiant  one. 

He  died  in  Charleston,  South  Carolina  in    1823. 

Benjamin  F.  Butler  was  born  at  Kinderhook  Landing, 
now  Stuyvesant,  in  the  year  1795.  After  careful  prepar- 
ation he  entered  the  law  office  of  Van  Buren  and  Miller, 
in  Hudson  in  1811.  He  accompanied  Mr.  Van  Buren  to 
Albany  and  after  his  admission  to  the  bar  they  formed 
a  partnership  which  continued  until  Mr.  Van  Buren  re- 
tired in  1828,  leaving  Mr.  Butler  with  a  very  large  and 
lucrative  practice.  He  was  appointed  to  the  office  of  At- 
torney General  in  Jackson's  and  Van  Buren's  Cabinets, 
but  he  is  especially  noted  as  one  of  the  Revisers  of  the 
Statutes,  having  been  associated  with  John  C.  Spencer 
in  this  work  in  1824.  For  this  duty  Mr.  Butler  was 
peculiarly  fitted  by  his  previous  training  and  by  his  ability, 
enthusiasm  and  endurance. 

Mr.  Butler  should  not  be  confused  with  General  Ben- 
jamin F.  Butler  of  Massachusetts,  who  became  notorious 
during  the  Civil  War,  and  who  was  a  man  of  entirely 
different,  and  inferior  qualities. 

In  the  year  1818,  Mr.  Butler  married  Miss  Harriet 
Allen,  a  sister  of  Mrs.  Nathan  Chamberlain,  well-known 
to  the  older  residents  of  Hudson,  and  of  Lieut.  William 
H.  Allen,  whose  tragic  fate  has  been  related  in  a  former 
portion   of   this   history. 

Mr.  Butler  died  in  Paris,  in  1858. 

Among  the  famous  lawyers  of  his  time  none  was  ac- 
corded a  more  prominent  place,  as  an  orator  and  publicist, 
than  Flisha  Wilh'ams.  He  was  born  in  Pomfret,  Conn., 
in    1773,  and  was  of  a  noted   family. 

After  a  rather  limited  preparatory  training  he  studied 
law  with  Fx-Chief  Justice  Tapping  Reed  of  Litchfield. 
Conn.  When  not  quite  twenty  years  of  age.  he  started 
out  to  seek  his  fortune,  and  opened  an  office  in  Spencer- 


town,  Columbia  county,  then  an  important  and  promising 

Two  years  later  he  married  Miss  Lucia  Grosvenor,  the 
daughter  of  his  guardian,  and  in  1799,  removed  to  Hud- 
son, where  he  spent  the  subsequent  years  of  his  life. 

Like  all  great  orators  he  was  the  idol  of  his  immediate 
locality,  but  his  great  talent  soon  won  for  him  a  reputa- 
tion, and  a  practice  not  limited  even  to  the  state. 

Mr.  Williams  is  described  as  a  man  of  imposing  figure, 
with  a  countenance  of  manly  beauty,  beaming  with  intelli- 
gence, a  voice  of  soul-subduing  sweetness,  and  a  brilliant 

As  the  leader  of  the  Federal  party  many  offices  were 
pressed  upon  him,  but  he  declined  them  all,  except  that 
of  Member  of  Assembly,  and  of  the  Constitutional  Con- 
vention of  1812. 

Mr.  Williams  was  President  of  the  Bank  of  Columbia, 
in  this  city  for  some  time  and  resided  for  many  years  on 
the  place  now  owned  by  Richard  Aitken. 

Early  records  of  the  Presbyterian  church  mention  Am- 
brose Spencer  and  Elisha  Williams  among  the  attendants 
at  those  services. 

Elisha  Williams  died  in  New  York,   in    1833. 

Closely  associated  with  the  name  of  Elisha  Williams 
is  that  of  his  great  rival  Ambrose  L.  Jordan,  who  was  bom 
in  the  Town  of  Hillsdale,  in  this  county  in  1787.  After 
his  admission  to  the  bar,  he  removed  to  Cooperstown, 
where  he  quickly  rose  to  a  high  rank  as  a  lawyer.  In 
1820,  he  came  to  Hudson  and  here  continued  the  practice 
of  his  profession.  Mr.  Jordan  is  said  to  have  been  the 
perfection  of  intellectual  and  physical  manhood.  Tall, 
erect,  of  a  commanding  presence,  with  a  most  expressive 
face,  and  an  eye  which  in  moments  of  excitement  flashed 
like  an  eagle's." 

His  oratory  was  of  the  highest  order  of  forensic  elo- 
quence, his  voice  soft  and  musical  as  a  flute,  and  our 

HISTORY   OF    HUDSON      '  141 

family  annals  glow  with  the  brightness  of  his  wit.  Mr. 
Jordan's  quickness  at  repartee  and  also  the  amenities  of 
the  bar  in  those  days,  are  illustrated  by  the  well  known 
anecdote,  of  his  verbal  encounter  with  Elisha  Williams. 
In  the  course  of  an  exciting  trial,  in  which  they  were  the 
opposing  counsel,  Mr.  Williams  took  occasion  to  remark — 
"You,  sir,  have  brass  enough  to  make  a  brass  kettle," 
"and  you,  sir,"  quickly  retorted  Jordan,  "have  sap  enough 
to  fill  it." 

In  1824,  Mr.  Jordan  purchased  the  Columbia  Republican, 
changed  its  politics  from  Democratic  to  Republican,  and 
with  his  brother,  Allen  Jordan,  and  later  one  or  two  others, 
published  it  successfully  until  1834. 

Many  important  offices  were  proffered  Mr.  Jordan,  but 
he  seems  to  have  preferred  the  professional  to  the  official 
life,  although  after  his  removal  to  New  York  in  1838, 
he  became  a  member  of  the  constitutional  convention 
from  this  county,  and  succeeded  John  Van  Buren  as  At- 
torney General  of  the  State  of  New  York. 

Mr.  Jordan  was  a  man  of  untiring  industry  and  his  con- 
scientious devotion  to  the  interests  of  his  clients,  coupled 
with  his  great  ability,  procured  him  an  immense  practice. 

He  was  employed  as  counsel  for  the  Anti-rent  leaders, 
whose  trial  will  be  a  part  of  the  succeeding  sketch.  Dur- 
ing Mr.  Jordan's  residence  in  New  York,  his  professional 
business  became  so  large,  that  he  associated  with  him 
his  son-in-law,  Edward  Clark,  and  among  their  clients 
was  Singer,  the  inventor  of  the  sewing  machine  that  bears 
his  name,  who  had  become  involved  in  expensive  litiga- 
tion to  protect  his  patents. 

Through  the  sound  advice,  and  sagacity  of  his  lawyers, 
he  was  extricated  from  his  difficulties,  and  enabled  to 
exploit  his  invention  successfully. 

After  Mr.  Jordan's  retirement  from  practice,  Edward 
Clark  purchased  an  interest  in  the  Singer  Company,  [he 
stock  of  which  became   immensely  valuable. 

142  '    HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 

Mr.  Jordan's  death  occurred  in  1865,  and  he  is  buried 
on  the  brow  of  the  hill,  in  our  beautiful  cemetery,  near 
the  flower-bordered  grave  of  Alfred  Coming  Clark,  whose 
widow  became  the  wife  of  Bishop  Henry  C.  Potter,  lately 

In  this  "City  of  the  Dead,"  a  crowd  of  well-remembered 
forms,  and  dear  familiar  faces,  throng  the  halls  of  mem- 
ory, and  so  instinct  with  life  were  they,  it  would  seem 

"E'en  in  their  ashes  live  their  wonted  fires." 



The  Hudson  Bar — Continued — Anti-rent  War. 

At  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War  a  young  com- 
missioned officer  named  Samuel  Edmonds,  who  had  left 
college  in  Rhode  Island,  when  a  mere  lad  to  join  the 
patriot  army,  found  himself  on  his  discharge,  with  only 
his  horse  and  equipments  and  a  small  amount  of  continen- 
tal money  as  his  sole  possessions. 

He  came  to  Claverack  Landing  and  was  given  employ- 
ment by  Colonel  John  Van  Alen,  with  whom  he  remained 
until  his  death.  Young  Edmonds  then  started  in  busi- 
ness for  himself,  in  which  he  was  successful,  and  became 
one  of  the  most  prominent  citizens  of  the  new  City  of 
Hudson.  He  married  Lydia,  daughter  of  Thomas  Worth, 
a  son  of  Shubael  Worth,  one  of  the  original  proprietors, 
and  an  uncle  of  the  renowned  General  William  J.  Worth. 

John  W.  Edmonds,  the  son  of  Samuel  and  Lydia,  was 
born  in  Hudson  March  13,  1799,  was  prepared  for  college 
at  the  Hudson  Academy,  and  was  graduated  from  Union 
College   in    1816. 

He  entered  the  office  of  Van  Buren  and  Miller,  and 
after  his  admission  to  the  bar  commenced  the  practice 
of  law  in  this  city. 

In  1824,  the  Hudson  Gazette  was  purchased  by  Oliver 
Wiswall  and  some  other  leading  Democrats,  and  young 
Edmonds  was  engaged  as  editor  at  a  salary  of  three  dol- 
lars a  week. 

Mr.  Edmonds  removed  to  New  York  in  18v^7  and  was 
soon  immersed  in  an  extensive  and  lucrative  practice. 
He  attained  a  high  position  among  the  legal  lights  of  the 
day,  and  in  1845,  after  holding  various  offices,  was  ap- 
pointed a  Judge  of  the  First  Circuit  Court,  and   in  Sep- 


tember  of  the  same  year  presided  at  the  second  trial  of 
the  Anti-rent  leader  Smith  A.  Boughton,  known  as  "Big 

The  Anti-rent  war  as  it  was  called,  grew  out  of 
the  wide-spread  discontent  of  the  tenants  of  manorial 
leases,  by  the  terms  of  which  they  bound  themselves  to 
perform  certain  services,  and  deliver  annually  certain 
products  of  the  soil  to  the  landlord,  in  payment  for  the 
use  of  the  land. 

These  leases  were  dependent  on  a  life  or  lives,  at  the 
close  of  which  the  land  reverted  to  the  landlord,  and  the 
tenant  was  compelled  to  seek  a  home  in  some  other  lo- 
cality. Naturally  this  destroyed  any  spirit  of  enterprise, 
or  desire  for  improvements,  and  houses  and  farms  plainly 
showed  the  result.  In  sections  where  tenants  had  been 
allowed  to  purchase  their  farms,  the  buildings  were  of 
the  most  approved  pattern  and  the  land  was  cultivated 
with  care,  showing  thrift  and  prosperity.  Emissaries  from 
these  more  favored  localities  came  to  stir  up  the  discon- 
tented tenants,  and  fan  their  irritation  into  open  resist- 

Bands  of  armed  men,  masked  and  disguised  as  Indians, 
paraded  through  the  towns  and  speeches  of  the  most  in- 
flammatory character  were  made,  especially  inculcating 
their  war  cry  "down  with  the  rent."  Some  years  earlier 
the  grandfather  of  Judge  Henry  Hogeboom,  Cornelius 
Hogeboom  had  been  killed  by  the  rioters,  while  dis- 
charging his  duty  as  sheriff,  and  his  wife  had  passed  away 
soon  after  from  grief  and  shock. 

It  can  readily  be  seen  that  the  office  of  sheriff  of  this 
county,  was  neither  safe  or  desirable  at  that  particular 
time,  but  Henry  C.  Miller,  the  father  of  Stephen  B. 
Miller,  author  of  Historical  Sketches  of  Hudson,  was  not 
a  man  who  would  flinch  in  the  performance  of  his  duty. 
In  attempting  to  serve  some  writs  on  December  12,  1844, 
he  had  been  overpowered  by  the  Anti-renters,  who  with 


loaded  pistols  had  taken  them  from  him  and  burned  them. 
On  December  18,  during  one  of  their  lawless  meetings 
at  Smoky  Hollow,  now  Hollowville,  a  young  man  named 
W.  H.  Rifenburgh  was  shot  and  killed. 

Sheriff  Miller  now  determined  upon  the  capture  of  the 
ring  leaders  and  accompanied  by  Joseph  D.  Monell  drove 
at  once  to  the  village,  which  is  about  six  miles  out.  The 
crowd  had  largely  dispersed  before  their  arrival,  being 
doubtless  somewhat  frightened  at  the  tragic  result  of  the 
meeting,  and  they  found  the  leader.  Smith  A.  Boughton, 
alias  "Big  Thunder,"  and  his  principal  accomplice  Mor- 
timer C.  Belding,  known  as  "Little  Thunder,"  sitting  quiet- 
ly in  a  back  room  of  the  tavern,  divested  of  masks  and 

The  Anti-renters  made  but  slight  resistance  and  were 
speedily  placed  under  arrest. 

Their  followers  around  the  door  put  up  a  fierce  fight 
to  rescue  them,  but  with  the  assistance  of  his  aids,  the 
sheriff  hustled  them  into  a  carriage  and  soon  had  them 
safely  lodged  in  the  Hudson  jail. 

The  city  was  wild  with  excitement.  Rumors  of  a  res- 
cue and  threats  to  burn   the  jail   were   rife. 

Armed  patrols  of  twenty  citizens  in  each  ward  were 
established;  and  the  Hudson  Light  Guard,  Captain  E.  P. 
Cowles,  was  ordered  to  be  in  readiness  at  a  moment's 
notice.  A  large  number  volunteered  their  aid  from  Cats- 
kill  and  a  smaller  force  came  from  Athens. 

The  whole  county  was  aroused  in  behalf  of  the  pris- 
oners who  after  a  preliminary  examination  had  been  re- 
manded for  trial  at  the  spring  term  of  court. 

Meetings  were  held  at  which  the  most  violent  speeches 
were  made,  and  men  and  money  were  freely  offered  for 
their  release. 

A  proclamation  was  issued  by  the  Mayor,  Cyrus  Curtiss, 
calling  for  the  enrollment  of  five  hundred  minute  men, 
and  a  company  of  one  hundred  were  enlisted  for  thirty 


days,  under  Captain  Henry  Whiting,  late  of  the  United 
States  Army,  and  stationed  at  the  Court  House  with  four 
pieces  of  artillery.  An  attempted  rescue  was  frustrated 
by  this  precautionary  measure.  These  bodies  of  citizen 
troops  were  placed  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Charles 
Darling,  and  were  ordered  to  "rendezvous  at  Davis's  City 
Hall  in  case  of  alarm." 

*-  "Arrangements  were  made  by  which  the  approach  of  a 
hostile  force  would  be  known  and  reported  long  before 
its  arrival,  and  notice  given  the  citizens  by  ringing  the 
bell  of  the  Presbyterian  Church." 

At  the  request  of  the  Common  Council  the  Albany 
Burgesses  Corp,  under  Major  Franklin  Townsend,  came 
down,  but  the  unrest  increasing  rather  than  diminishing, 
Governor  Bouck  was  finally  appealed  to,  and  four  com- 
panies of  infantry  from  Albany,  and  one  of  cavalry  from 
New  YorK,  were  ordered  here. 

These  were  quartered  at  the  various  hotels  and  upon 
the  boats  then  wintering  at  the  wharves. 

"Hudson  presented  the  appearance  of  an  armed  en- 
campment. Sentinels  walked  their  lonely  round  night 
and  day,  and  the  streets  resounded  with  martial  music, 
and  the  tramp  of  soldiery."  After  the  first  apprehension 
of  danger  had  passed,  the  bright  uniforms  lent  an  aspect 
of  gayety  to  the  city,  and  an  additional  attraction  to  the 
dancing  Assemblies. 

Bands  of  disguised  men  continued  to  fire  upon  officers 
of  the  law  and  destroy  their  papers,  but  with  the  pro- 
tection of  small  detachments  of  soldiers  many  arrests 
were  made,  and  comparative  quiet  was  restored.  Aside 
from  these  excursions  the  stay  of  the  Military  here  was 
a  lengthened  holiday,  the  monotony  of  which  the  grateful 
Hudsonians  did  all  in  their  power  to  relieve. 

The  officers  of  the  various  companies  were  lavishly  en- 
tertained by  the  Mayor  and  other  prominent  citizens,  and 


the  Light  Guard  gave  a  ball  at  the  Hudson  House  in  their 

uheir  ranks  were  not  thinned  by  the  enemy  they  came 
to  meet,  and  the  only  hair  breadth  escape  recorded  was 
the  firing  on  a  sentry  of  the  Emmet  Guards  stationed  at 
the  Hudson  House,  (The  Worth)  "by  a  solitary  horse- 
man at  the  midnight  hour."  One  of  the  columns  on  the 
front  portico  received  the  bullet,  the  mark  of  which  is 
still  plainly  visible.  Not  the  slightest  clue  to  the  in- 
dividual who  fired  it,  was  ever  obtained.  '  * 

The  Anti-rent  leaders  were  captured  on  the  18th  of 
December,  1844,  and  it  was  not  until  the  end  of  January, 
that  the  troops  were  gradually  withdrawn,  having  been 
here  over  a  month. 

A  grand  review  of  the  whole  force,  including  Light 
Guard,  Home  Guard,  and  Volunteers,  was  held  by  the 
Mayor,  followed  by  a  parade  furnishing  a  military  dis- 
play, probably  never  since  equalled  in  Hudson. 

As  has  been  stated  the  case  of  Boughton  was  tried 
at  the  March  term,  1845,  before  Judge  Amasa  J.  Parker, 
and  resulted  in  a  disagreement  of  the  jury,  this  was  owing 
to  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  witnesses  for  the  prosecution. 

A  second  trial  was  set  down  for  the  following  Sep- 
tember, and  in  the  intervening  months  District  Attorney 
Theodore  Miller,  labored  assiduously  to  procure  testi- 
mony. The  county  was  filled  with  those  who  sympathized 
with  the  tenants — whose  grievances  were  unmistakable,  un- 
American  and  indefensible,  a  struggling  remnant  of  feudal- 
ism in  a  free  country.  But  nevertheless  they  must  be 
taught  that  a  resort  to  violence  and  bloodshed,  would 
not  be  tolerated,  and  that  the  sanctity  of  the  law  must 
be  uphold. 

The  case  came  on  at  the  time  set.  Judge  John  W.  Ed- 
monds presiding.  As  in  the  previous  trial  Attorney  Gen- 
eral John  Van   Burcn  assisted  District  Attorney  Theodore 


Miller,  and  Ambrose  L.  Jordan  and  James  Storm  were 
employed  for  the  defense. 

The  trial  lasted  over  four  weeks  and  attracted  the 
widest  attention.  It  ended  in  the  conviction  of  Smith  A. 
Boughton  and  a  sentence  of  imprisonment  for  life,  but 
he  was  pardoned  by  Governor  Young,  after  serving  only 
a  short  time. 

The  ends  of  justice  however  were  attained,  the  con- 
viction of  the  leader  put  an  end  to  Anti-rentism  in  this 
county  forever.  His  accomplice  Mortimer  Belding  was 
allowed  to  go  free. 

The  Landlords  became  dissatisfied  with  the  returns 
from  their  investments,  and  the  sale  of  the  lands  to  the 
tenants,  solved  the  whole  difficulty,  and  farms  and  build- 
ings took  on  a  different  aspect. 

During  the  heated  debate  of  the  second  trial,  the  learned 
counsel,  John  Van  Buren  and  Ambrose  L.  Jordan,  became 
involved  in  a  personal  encounter.  Judge  Edmonds  after 
administering  a  calm  and  dignified  rebuke,  committed 
them  both  to  jail  for  twenty-four  hours,  for  contempt  of 
court.  The  imprisonment  was  not  very  severe,  the  par- 
lor and  office  of  the  sheriff  being  assigned  to  them  re- 
spectively, and  both  within  the  limits  of  the  Court  House. 
Profuse  apologies  were  made  on  the  following  morning, 
and  the  case  proceeded  as  though  nothing  had  happened. 

Judge  Edmonds  was  elected  a  Justice  of  the  Supreme 
Court  in   1847,  which  office  he  resigned  six  years  later. 

After  the  death  of  his  wife  in  1850,  he  became  a 
stanch  believer  in  Spiritualism,  and  until  his  death  in 
1874,  was  active  in  the  advocacy  of  that  doctrine. 

Judge  Edmonds  left  minute  directions  for  his  funeral 
and  interment  in  the  grave  with  his  wife.  The  bar  of 
New  York   had   erected    a   handsome   monument   to   the 


memory  of  Mrs.  Edmonds  in  the  Hudson  cemetery,  and 
on  a  space  left  for  the  purpose  is  engraved: 

John  Worth  Edmonds 

Born    in    Hudson    March    13th    1799 

Died   in    New   York   April    5th    1874 

Death    joins    the   ties   that   death    destroys. 



The  Hudson  Bar — Continued. 

Hon.  Theodore  Miller,  who  as  District  Attorney  was 
largely  instrumental  in  procuring  the  conviction  of  the 
Anti-rent  leader,  was  bom  in  the  City  of  Hudson  in 

He  was  the  son  of  Cornelius  Miller,  whose  brilliant 
career  was  terminated  by  his  early  death,  and  of  Beulah, 
a  daughter  of  John  Hathaway,  one  of  the  early  settlers 
of  Hudson. 

Mr.  Miller  was  educated  at  the  Hudson  Academy,  and 
pursued  his  legal  studies  in  the  office  of  Campbell  Bush- 
nell,  at  that  time  one  of  the  leading  lawyers  of  the  city. 
After  his  admission  to  the  bar,  he  threw  himself  at  once 
into  the  politics  of  the  day,  and  was  soon  known  as  a 
forcible  and  eloquent  speaker.  In  1843,  Mr.  Miller  was 
appointed  District  Attorney  for  Columbia  county  and  the 
following  year  the  Anti-rent  troubles  broke  out,  and  his 
admirable  discharge  of  the  arduous  duties  of  the  office, 
paved  the  way  to  the  higher  rewards  of  his  profession. 
Mr.  Miller  was  elected  a  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court 
in  1861,  and  at  the  expiration  of  his  term  was  re-elected 
without  opposition. 

This  was  followed  in  1874,  by  his  election  as  an  Asso- 
ciate Judge  of  the  Court  of  Appeals. 

Mr.  Miller's  many  years  of  practice  at  the  bar,  and 
his  wide  experience  both  at  Circuit  and  General  Term, 
together  with  his  habits  of  industry  and  research,  enabled 
him  to  achieve  distinguished  success  as  a  jurist.  On 
May  16,  1886,  having  reached  the  age  of  seventy  years, 
Judge  Miller  was  retired  under  the  limitation  as  to  age. 

After  his  retirement  he   passed  most   of  his   time    at 


his  old  home  in  Hudson,  surrounded  by  his  friends  and 
family,  until  August  18,   1895,  when  the  end  came. 

The  kindliness  and  sincerity  of  Judge  Miller's  nature 
endeared  him  to  a  wide  circle  of  friends,  and  his  brave 
and  cheerful  endurance  of  the  sad  affliction  of  the  loss 
of  his  sight,  evoked  the  deepest  sympathy  from  them  all. 
"He  endured  as  seeing  the  invisible." 

The  name  of  Joseph  D.  Monell  stands  out  prominently 
in  the  annals  of  Hudson  during  the  Anti-rent  period. 
He  was  born  in  Claverack  in  1781,  and  was  educated  at 
the  school  of  Andrew  Carshore,  a  teacher  of  wide  re- 
pute in  that  day. 

Mr.  Monell  practiced  law  in  Cherry  Valley  and  in 
Claverack,  removing  to  Hudson  in  1806,  after  it  became 
the  County  Seat. 

He  held  various  positions  of  trust  in  both  City  and 
County,  and  was  most  highly  esteemed  for  his  strict  in- 
tegrity and  excellent  abilities.  • 

His  son,  Claudius  L.  Monell  after  practicing  his  pro- 
fession in  Hudson  for  a  time  removed  to  New  York,  where 
he  became  a  judge  of  the  Superior  Court  of  that  city. 

Hon.  Edward  Pitkin  Cowles,  was  born  in  Connecticut, 
and  was  graduated  from  Yale  College.  He  came  to 
Hudson  soon  afterward  and  studied  law  with  Ambrose 
L.  Jordan. 

On  his  admission  to  the  bar  he  opened  an  office  in  this 
city,  in  1840,  and  associated  with  him,  his  brother,  David 
Smith   Cowles. 

Judge  Cowles  removed  to  New  York,  in  1852,  and  was 
appointed  a  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  this  state, 
in  1855.  After  his  retirement  from  the  bench  he  con- 
tinued the  practice  of  his  profession  until  his  death,  which 
occurred   in    1874. 

Durini;  the  residence  of  Judge  Cowles  in  Hudson,  he 
formed  a  military  company,  named  the  Hudson  Light 
Guards,    afterward    the    Worth    Guards,    whicli    has    been 


mentioned,  as  being  the  only  military  organization  in  the 
city,  when  the  Anti-rent  war  broke  out,  and  as  rendering 
excellent  service  in  the  emergency. 

Their  uniform,  which  was  a  very  handsome  one,  was 
gray  with  red  stripes  and  facings  and  large  bear  skin 

The  company  was  disbanded  soon  after  the  removal 
of  Captain  Cowles  to  New  York. 

Hon.  Josiah  Sutherland,  who  rose  to  high  distinction 
in  the  legal  profession,  was  bom  at  Stamford,  New  York, 
was  graduated  from  Union  College  in  1825,  and  finished 
his  law  studies  in  the  office  of  Bushnell  and  Stebbins  in 
this  city. 

Mr.  Sutherland  began  the  practice  of  law  in  the  town 
of  Livingston,  and  in  1831,  was  elected  District  Attorney 
of  Columbia  county,  an  office  which  he  held  twelve 

In  1838,  he  removed  to  Hudson,  and  formed  a  partner- 
ship with  his  brother-in-law,  Robert  McClellan.  With  the 
exception  of  two  years  spent  in  Washington  as  a  Repre- 
sentative in  Congress,  Mr.  Sutherland  continued  to  reside 
in  this  city  until  his  removal  to  New  York,  in  1851. 

Judge  Sutherland  served  two  terms  as  a  Justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court,  declining  the  office  of  United  States  Dis- 
trict Attorney,  proffered  him   by   President  Buchanan. 

He  was  elected  City  Judge  of  the  Court  of  General 
Sessions,  which  office  he  retained  until  his  retirement 
from  public  life. 

He  died  in  1887,  deservedly  esteemed  and  regretted 
by  all  who  knew  him. 

The  so-called  round  dances  were  first  seen  at  a  large 
and  brilliant  party  given  by  Judge  Sutherland,  during  his 
residence  at  115  Warren  street,  which  was  purchased 
soon  after  by  the  Hon.  John  Stanton  Gould. 

Hudson  society  hardly  knew  whether  to  be  shocked  or 
amused,  so  it  decided  to  be  both! 


The  Comtesse  de  Boigne  in  her  delightful  Memoirs, 
tells  an  amusing  anecdote  of  the  reception  accorded  these 
undignified  successors  of  the  stately  minuet,  in  England. 
"No  English  lady  ventured  to  waltz  until  the  young  Duke 
of  Devonshire  on  his  return  from  the  Continent  praised 
its  grace  and  beauty,  observing  that  a  woman  was  never 
seen  to  better  advantage  than  when  waltzing.  This  asser- 
tion was  passed  from  mouth  to  mouth,  and  at  the  next 
ball,  all  the  young  ladies  were  waltzing  The  Duke  ad- 
mired them  greatly,  but  added  carelessly  that  "he  at  any 
rate  had  decided  never  to  marry  a  lady  who  waltzed." 

The  Dutchess  of  Richmond,  the  most  clumsy  of  match- 
making Mammas,  with  three  marriageable  daughters,  to 
whom  the  Duke  made  this  revelation  nearly  fell  off  her 
chair  with  horror.  She  repeated  the  statement  and  con- 
sternation spread  from  seat  to  seat.  Before  the  end  of 
the  evening  the  good  Dutchess  was  able  to  announce,  that 
"her  daughters  felt  an  objection  to  waltzing,  that  no  per- 
suasions of  hers  could  ever  overcome."  Some  pretty  girls 
of  more  independence  continued  to  waltz,  but  the  major- 
ity ceased  at  once. 

Hon.  Henry  Hogeboom,  the  distinguished  jurist,  was 
born  in  the  Town  of  Ghent,  in  1809.  He  was  prepared 
for  Yale  College  at  the  Hudson  Academy,  and  after  his 
admission  to  the  bar  in  1830,  made  Hudson  his  perman- 
ent home. 

Judge  Hogeboom  was  a  profound  thinker,  skilful  in 
analysis,  and  felicitous  in  application.  He  was  a  man  of 
most  imposing  appearance,  and  of  extreme  deliberate- 
ness  of  speech  and  manner,  which  on  occasion  rose  to 
the   height  of   impassioned   eloquence. 

His  unselfish  kindliness  endeared  him  to  all,  who  knew 
him,  especially  the  younger  nienibers  of  the  bar,  to  whom 
he  was  ever  readv  to  extend  a  helping  hand.  He  was 
elected  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  in  1857,  by  a 
nattering  majorit>',   and  re-elected   in    1SI)5.  remaining  an 


ornament  to  the  bench  until  his  death,  which  occurred  on 
Sept   12,   1872. 

Judge  Hogeboom's  house  which  was  formerly  the  Bank 
of  Hudson,  No.  116  Warren  street,  was  a  social  centre 
for  many  years;  Mrs.  Hogeboom  possessing  remarkable 
powers  of  attractiveness  and  vivacity,  and  both  being 
exceedingly  fond  of  society. 

Hon.  Samuel  Edwards,  of  whom  Hudson  is  justly  proud, 
was  bom  in  Glenville,  Schenectady  county.  New  York. 

He  was  graduated  from  Union  College  in  1862,  and 
soon  after  took  up  his  residence  in  Hudson. 

In  January,  1887,  he  was  appointed  by  Gov.  David  B. 
Hill,  a  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  State  of  New 
York,  and  in  November  of  the  same  year,  was  elected 
to  that  office,  for  the  term  of  fourteen  years. 

In  April,  1890,  Judge  Edwards  was  designated  by  Gov. 
Roosevelt,  as  Associate  Justice  of  the  Appellate  Division 
of  the  Supreme  Court  of  New  York,  and  served  until  the 
expiration   of  term,   on   December  31st,    1901. 

Judge  Edwards  spends  much  time  in  travel,  visiting 
the  different  countries  in  a  leisurely  and  delightful  fashion, 
that  is  so  conducive  to  perfect  enjoyment.  But  one  may 
be  permitted  to  doubt,  whether  the  Judge  sees  many  finer 
views,  than  that  from  his  study  windows. 

Hon.  Aaron  Van  Schaick  Cochrane,  was  born  in  Cox- 
sackie.  New  York,  in  1858,  of  Scotch,  Irish  and  Dutch 

He  was  graduated  from  Yale  College  with  the  class 
of  1879,  and  in  the  same  year  entered  the  office  of  An- 
drews and  Edwards,  as  a  law  student. 

In  1881,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  served  three  years 
as  District  Attorney  of  the  county,  and  in  1896,  was  elected 
our  Representative   in   Congress. 

Judge  Cochrane  held  this  position  for  two  terms,  and 
in  1901,  was  elected  a  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of 
the  State  of  New  York.     He  was  appointed  by  Governor 


Higgins  to  the  Appellate  Division  of  that  Court  in   1906. 

Judge  Cochrane's  progress  has  been  rapid,  sure,  and 
steadfast,  partaking  strongly  of  the  characteristics  of  his 
ancestors.  He  is  still  so  young  that  he  bids  fair  to  ex- 
haust the  honors,  and  like  Alexander,  will  sigh  for  more 
worlds  to  conquer. 

A  continuance  of  these  biographical  sketches,  which 
have  so  imperfectly  described  the  few  personages  selected, 
is  unnecessary  even  if  space  would  permit.  Other  mem- 
bers of  the  modern  bar  to  whom  it  would  be  a  delight 
to  refer,  are  all  too  well-known  to  require  description. 

Included  in  these  is  the  Hon.  Casper  P.  Collier,  who  has 
been  so  fitly  characterized  as  the  "connecting  link  be- 
tween the  bar  of  our  county  and  the  legal  'giants'  of 
former  days."  We  need  add  nothing  to  this  praise.  A 
cloud  of  witnesses  attest  his  worth  as  a  sound  and  able 
lawyer,  and  a  conscientious  man,  possessing  one  possibly 
rare  trait,  that  of  always  advising  a  client  to  settle,  and 
thus  be  enabled  to  dispense  with  his  services! 

We  recall  the  impressive  personality  of  Mr.  John  Gaul, 
the  flowing  locks  and  clear  cut  features  of  Mr.  Robert 
E.  Andrews,  the  genial  smile  of  Judge  John  C.  Newkirk, 
and  the  introspective  gaze  of  Judge  Darius  Peck,  all 
eminently  worthy  of  extended  mention. 

We  commend  them,  and  all  others  so  regretfully  omitted, 
to  our  well  equipped  Hudson  biographer,  with  the  hope 
of  a  second  "Group  of  Great  Lawyers." 


Court  House — Crimes — Civil  War. 

We  will  now  turn  our  attention  to  the  evolution  of  our 
present  ornate  Court  House,  which  with  calm  effrontery 
mars  the  graceful  contour  of  the  ancient  park. 

The  first  building  occupied  by  the  courts  in  Hudson 
it  will  be  recalled,  was  the  old  re-modeled  City  Hall, 
which  remained  in  use  for  more  than  a  quarter  of  a 
century.  Complaints  of  the  condition  of  the  building, 
and  of  the  insecurity  of  the  jail  were  constant,  a  grave 
indictment  of  the  latter  being  found  in  the  records,  and  in 
1829,  the  repairs  amounted  to  the  sum  of  seventy-five 

In  1833,  the  subject  of  erecting  a  new  Court  House 
was  considered,  and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  as- 
certain what  Hudson  would  be  willing  to  contribute  toward 
the  expense.  The  Common  Council  offered  "to  take  the 
old  county  buildings  and  lots,  for  7,000  dollars  and  ap- 
propriate $3,000  toward  new  buildings."  They  would 
"also  procure  warranty  deeds  for  four  acres  situate  at  the 
southerly  termination  of  Fourth  street,  and  guarantee  the 
title  to  the  county,  reserving  to  the  corporation  the  same 
privileges  as  in  the  old  building." 

Lots  being  secured,  John  P.  Mesick,  John  W.  Edmonds 
and  James  Mellen  were  appointed  a  building  committee, 
plans  were  selected  and  the  Court  House  was  built,  and 
ready  for  occupancy  in  1835.  Total  cost  including  the 
site  was  $26,211.51. 

It  was  of  simple  Grecian  architecture,  two  stories  in 
height  surmounted  by  a  dome,  and  a  triangular  pedi- 
ment supported  by  six  Ionic  columns,  formed  an   impos- 

HISTORY   OF    HUDSON  1  5  7 

ing  entrance.  For  nearly  three  score  years  and  ten,  it 
was  the  pride  of  both  city  and  county,  but  it  became 
too  small  for  the  requirements  of  the  larger  city,  and  was 
torn  down  to  make  room  for  a  more  commodious  struc- 

A  much  larger  building,  of  a  similar  style,  was  erected 
in  1900,  at  a  cost  of  about  $100,000,  and  a  jail  and  sheriff's 
house,  costing  respectively  $22,000,  and  $9,000,  were  built 
in  the  same  year. 

This  Court  House  was  destroyed  by  fire  on  January 
27,  1907,  and  the  comer  stone  of  its  successor  was  laid 
on  the  14th  of  the  following  September.  Work  is  pro- 
ceeding rapidly  and  it  is  expected  to  be  ready  for  occu- 
pancy in  October,  1908.  Cost  of  building  will  be  about 
$200,000.  The  jail  and  house  of  the  sheriff,  fortunately 
escaped  the  flames,  so  will  not  have  to  be  replaced. 

The  first  trial  for  murder  after  the  removal  of  the 
Courts  to  Hudson,  was  that  of  Margaret  (alias  Peggy) 
Houghtaling,  for  killing  her  child,  and  resulted  in  her 
conviction  and  execution,  on  October  17,  1817.  This 
is  the  only  case  of  the  hanging  of  a  woman,  recorded  in 
Columbia  county.  There  was  afterward  some  doubts  en- 
tertained as  to  her  guilt. 

The  next  trial  of  importance  was  that  of  the  Anti- 
rent  leader  Smith  A.  Boughton,  in  1845,  which  has  been  de- 
scribed at  length  in  the  sketch  of  the  Hon.  John  W.  Ed- 
monds. The  case  of  Joseph  Brown,  who  was  indicted  for 
the  murder  of  Angeline  Stewart,  (alias  Angie  Brown),  on 
the  15th  of  January,  1868,  attracted  considerable  atten- 

The  means  used  for  her  destruction,  being  the  burning 
down  of  the  house  in  which  she  was  securely  confined, 
added  to  the  horror  of  the  crime.  Brown  was  convicted 
and  hanged  on  May  30,  1808,  just  four  months  after 
his  arrest. 

Another   most  atrocious  crime,   was   that   of  Oscar   F. 


Beckwith,  who  murdered  Simon  A.  Vandercook,  in  Aus- 
terlitz,  Columbia  county,  on  January  10,  1882.  After 
having  two  trials  each  resulting  in  his  conviction,  and 
appeals  which  only  affirmed  them,  he  was  hanged  in  the 
yard  of  the  jail  in  this  city,  in   1888. 

The  next  case  on  this  criminal  calendar,  is  that  of  John 
Schmidt,  a  native  of  Prussian  Poland,  who  was  indicted 
on  September  12,  1893,  for  the  murder  of  his  step-son, 
William  Hildebrant,  a  lad  of  only  19  or  20  years  of  age. 

The  crime  was  committed  near  the  Town  of  Philmont. 
The  defendant  admitted  his  guilt  but  maintained  that  the 
act  was  committed  during  a  heated  quarrel. 

Schmidt  was  found  guilty  of  murder  in  the  first  degree 
on  June  1,  1899.  An  appeal  was  taken  and  on  Novem- 
ber 26,    1901,  the   conviction  was  affirmed. 

Circumstances  attending  the  homicide  gave  rise  to 
doubts  of  his  sanity,  and  expert  alienists  appointed  by 
the  Governor,  confirmed  this  view  of  the  case.  He  is 
now  confined  in  the  prison  of  Dannemora,  as  an  insane 
criminal  under  sentence  of  death. 

The  last  case  on  record,  and  one  that  created  not  only 
the  deepest  interest  in  this  city,  but  also  wide-spread  at- 
tention throughout  the  state,  was  that  resulting  in  the 
conviction  of  three  young  men,  scarcely  more  than  boys, 
ranging  in  age  from  20  to  26  years. 

Having  conceived  a  fancied  grudge  against  their  uncle, 
Peter  A.  Hallenbeck,  a  respectable  farmer  of  Greenport, 
Willis,  Burton  and  Frederick  M.  Van  Wormer,  accom- 
panied by  their  cousin  Harvey  Bruce,  drove  to  his  house, 
on  Christmas  Eve,  December  24,  1901,  and  knocked  for 
admission.  On  Mr.  Hallenbeck's  opening  the  door  they 
all  fired  simultaneously  and  he  fell,  riddled  with  bullets. 
No  less  than  eight  or  nine  wounds  being  found  upon  his 

They  were  jointly  indicted,  and  the  trial  was  the  absorb- 


ing   theme    of    discussion    during   the    remainder    of   the 

On  April  18,  1902,  the  jury  rendered  a  verdict  of 
guilty,  and  sentence  of  death  was  immediately  pronounced. 

Harvey  Bruce  having  made  a  confession  was  used  as 
a  witness  for  the  State. 

An  appeal  was  taken,  and  a  decision  unanimously  sus- 
taining the  judgment  of  the  Court  was  handed  down  on 
May  22,   1903. 

All  three  of  the  Van  Wormer  boys  were  subsequently 
electrocuted  at  Dannemora.  They  are  said  to  have  been 
good  looking  boys,  and  Frederick  exceptionally  handsome, 
but  in  the  opinion  of  those  who  studied  them  closely, 
they  were  degenerates,  whose  characters  furnished  no 
foundation    for   reform. 

Harvey  Bruce  demanded  a  separate  trial,  and  received 
a  sentence  of  twenty  years'   imprisonment. 

He  was  taken  first  to  Dannemora,  but  later  was  trans- 
ferred to  Sing  Sing,  where  he  now  is. 

The  opinion  of  the  Court  of  Appeals  complimented  the 
District  Attorney,  upon  the  degree  of  care,  which  had 
marked  the  trial  of  the  case  on  behalf  of  the  people. 

In  closing  this  brief  resume  of  capital  crimes,  it  is 
worthy  of  note  that  not  one  of  them  was  committed  in 
Hudson,  or  by  a  resident  of  Hudson.  The  city  has  fur- 
nished her  quota  of  criminals,  but  none  have  incurred 
the  death  penalty. 

There  have  been  many  cases  of  interest,  of  less  serious 
import,  notably  a  suit  for  breach  of  promise,  in  the  third 
decade  of  the  past  century,  which  filled  the  columns  of 
the  local  press  with  the  loving  effusions  of  both  parties, 
to  the   infinite  amusement  of  the  public. 

It  is  said  to  have  proved  an  effectual  deterrent,  to  the 
expression  of  sentiment  in  correspondence,  for  a  long 
time  afterward. 


The  series  of  exciting  events  that  culminated  in  the 
Civil  War  are  too  familiar  to  require  recital  here.  Al- 
though more  than  a  generation  has  passed  away  since  its 
close,  some  desolate  hearts  are  left,  to  sigh  "for  the  touch 
of  a  vanished  hand,  and  the  sound  of  a  voice  that  is 
still!"  In  response  to  the  demand  for  troops  a  call  for 
volunteers  was  issued  on  July  23,  1862,  by  John  V.  Whit- 
beck,  Granville  P.  Hawes  and  Edward  Gifford,  of  this 

The  ranks  of  "Company  A."  were  filled  in  a  few  days, 
and  others  were  rapidly  recruited.  These  companies 
formed  a  part  of  the  128th  Regiment,  under  the  command 
of  that  gallant  Officer  Colonel  David  S.  Cowles. 

The  Regiment  was  quartered  and  drilled  on  the  Fair 
Grounds,  and  "Camp  Kelly"  attracted  daily  crowds  of 

On  the  30th  of  August,  a  handsome  stand  of  colors 
was  presented  to  them  by  the  patriotic  ladies  of  Hudson, 
with  appropriate  ceremonies,  and  on  September  5,  1862, 
the  whole  city  turned  out  with  hearts  bursting  with  pride, 
but  with  tear-dimmed  eyes  to  witness  their  departure  for 

Colonel  Cowles  was  a  tall,  handsome  man  of  soldierly 
appearance,  and  rode  at  the  head  of  his  Regiment  with  per- 
fect grace.  There  are  still  many,  who  can  recall  his 
knightly  form  as  he  passed  through  our  streets  for  the 
last  time. 

On  the  27th  of  May,  1863,  Col.  Cowles  fell  mortally 
wounded,  while  leading  an  assault  on  the  fortifications  at 
Port  Hudson.  He  refused  to  be  carried  to  the  rear,  and 
allowing  but  one  Sergeant  to  remain  with  him,  he  calmly 
faced  the  end.  With  perfect  composure  he  handed  his 
watch  to  his  attendant,  asking  that  it  should  be  returned 
to  his  mother,  who  had  presented  it  to  him  in  his  boyhood, 
and  saying,  "Tell  my  mother,  I  died  with  my  face  to  the^ 
enemy."     With    full    consciousness    of   the    approach    of 


death  he  closed  his  eyes,  murmuring  "Christ  Jesus  receive 
my  spirit." 

The  body  of  Colonel  Cowles  was  brought  home  and 
buried  with  military  and  civic  honors,  Masonic  bodies 
from  eleven  towns  participating.  Every  tribute  was  paid 
to  his  memory,  but  none  more  worthy  than  the  sincere, 
but  unspoken  grief  of  his  fellow  citizens. 

Around  his  monument  gather  the  Memorial  Day  throngs 
to  listen  to  the  praise  of  our  heroes,  but  they  are 

"Beyond  the   parting  and  the  meeting, 
Beyond  the  farewell  and  the  greeting." 

Colonel  David  Smith  Cowles  was  born  in  Canaan,  Conn., 
February  26,  1817.  He  was  graduated  from  Yale  College, 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Columbia  county,  in  1843, 
after  which  he  entered  upon  the  practice  of  law  in 
Hudson,  as  a  partner  of  his  brother,  Edward  P.  Cowles, 
and  was  elected  District  Attorney  in  1856.  When  the 
Civil  War  broke  out  he  was  in  the  enjoyment  of  a  fine 
practice,  which  he  gave  up  at  once  at  the  call  of  his 
country,  and  entered  with  ardor  upon  the  work  of  saving 
the  Union. 

Major  Edward  Gifford,  also  of  the  128th  Regiment, 
was  captured  by  the  enemy  on  the  day  preceding  the 
attack  on  Port  Hudson,  and  after  an  imprisonment 
of  thirty-nine  days,  made  his  escape  on  July  4,  1863, 
by  swimming  the  Mississippi  River.  He  was  in  the 
water  four  hours,  and  the  hardship  and  exposure, 
in  his  already  weakened  condition,  were  too  great 
for  his  strength.  He  passed  away  in  New  Orleans  on 
August  8,  1863,  and  his  remains  are  interred  among  his 
kindred   in  his  native  city. 

These  cases  selected  for  special  mention  are  only  two 
among  thousands  of  brave  men  and  true,  who  laid  them- 
selves on  the  altar  of  patriotism,  a  willing  sacrifice,  and 


to  whom  a  happy,  re-united  country  owes  perpetual  grati- 

The  citizens  of  Hudson  and  the  county  were  swift  to 
prove  their  loyalty  to  the  Union,  in   every  possible  way. 

Previous  to  raising  the  four  companies  for  the  128th 
Regiment,  they  had  furnished  a  full  company  for  the 
14th,  besides  contributing  largely  to  the  159th.  In  addi- 
tion to  these,  many  enlisted  in  Regiments  of  Cavalry  and 
in  the  regular  army  and  navy. 

The  128th  Regiment  returned  with  400  men  out  of  the 
960,  who  went  out,  and  173  added  by  recruits.  The  county 
had  a  population  of  44,905  at  the  close  of  the  war,  a  de- 
crease from  47,172  at  its  beginning,  in  1860,  showing  the 
inroads  made  in  every  hamlet,  by  the  casualties  of  the 
great  conflict  for  National  existence. 

Hudson  was  well  represented  for  forty-one  years  in  the 
regular  army  of  the  United  States,  by  Colonel  Clermont 
Livingston  Best,  who  was  undoubtedly  one  of  the  ablest 
Artillery  Officers  in  the  service. 

Col.  Best  was  born  at  Tivoli,  New  York,  on  April  25, 
1824,  but  removed  to  Hudson  when  quite  young  and  al- 
ways considered  it  his  legal  residence. 

He  was  graduated  from  West  Point  in  the  class  of 
1847,  and  was  attached  to  the  Fourth  Artillery  until  his 
appointment  as  Major  in    1867. 

The  summary  of  his  early  experiences  by  his  biographer, 
Brig.  General  D.  W.  Flagler,  shows  that  the  young 
Lieutenant  was  well  prepared  for  the  promotions  incident 
to  the  Civil  War,  by  his  varied  and  faithful  service  as 
a  subordinate.  Beginning  with  the  Mexican  War,  he  says 
"whether  participating  in  operations  against  the  bandits 
of  the  Rio  Grande,  the  Seminoles  of  Florida,  the  Bor- 
der Ruffians  of  Kansas,  or  the  Mormans  of  Utah,"  he  was 
obtaining  invaluable  experience.  The  Civil  War  was  the 
epoch  of  great  armies  and  arduous  field  duty,  and  through- 
out its  continuance  Captain  Best  was  actively  engaged. 


At  the  Battle  of  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  he  commanded 
not  only  his  own  battery,  but  performed  the  duties  of 
Chief  of  Artillery  of  the  Fifth  Corps,  and  so  efficient  was 
the  artillery  that,  according  to  Confederate  accounts,  "it 
prevented  'Stonewall  Jackson'  from  making  his  victory 

The  Fifth  Corps  becoming  merged  in  the  Twelfth  Corps, 
Captain  Best  still  continued  its  efficient  Chief  of  Artillery, 
and  at  Antietam,  "it  was  the  powerful  group  of  artillery 
gathered  under  the  direction  of  Captain  Best,"  that  "Stone- 
wall Jackson"  said  "stayed  his  farther  advance." 

At  Chancellorsville,  it  was  similarly  effective  in  check- 
ing the  advance  of  Gen.  A.  P.  Hill,  after  a  day's  hard 
fighting  in  which  the  Union  Army  had  been  repulsed.  A 
new  formation  was  made,  and  it  was  here  (if  the  digres- 
sion may  be  permitted),  that  Stonewall  Jackson,  not  ob- 
serving closely,  rode  in  front  of  the  Twelfth  Corps,  and 
was  fired  upon  by  our  skirmishers,  but  was  not  hit.  Turn- 
ing quickly,  he  rode  rapidly  toward  his  own  forces,  when 
they,  mistaking  him  for  a  Union  Officer,  fired,  and  he  fell, 
mortally  wounded  by  his  own  troops. 

We  cannot  follow  in  detail  the  distinguished  services 
of  Captain  Best  at  Gettysburg,  and  in  the  west.  It  is 
said  that  he  made  such  modest  reports,  that  they  were  al- 
most overshadowed  by  those  of  officers,  who  were  per- 
fectly willing  to  claim   the  glory! 

At  the  close  of  the  war,  Major  Best  was  honored  with 
a  Brevet  Colonelcy  in  addition  to  his  two  previous  promo- 
tions for  specific  battles,  and  in  1883,  he  was  appointed 
Colonel  of  the  Fourth,  his  old  Regiment,  and  stationed  at 
Fort  Adams,   Newport,  R.   I. 

This  position  Colonel  Best  held  until  1888,  when  hav- 
ing reached  the  age  limit  for  active  service,  he  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  retired  list,  making  New  York  city  his 
home,  until  his  death,  which  occurred  on  April  7,  1807, 
aged  7v3. 


Well  did  he  deserve  the  not  too  eulogistic  epitaph^ 
upon  his  impressive  monument  in  our  cemetery. 

The  name  of  Lieut.  Commander  John  Van  Ness  Philip 
fitly  closes  this  roll  of  honor. 

Although  a  native  of  Claverack,  some  of  his  closest 
friendships  were  formed  with  residents  of  this  city,  but 
he  gave  himself  to  his  country,  and  held  it  above  all  ties 
of  locality  and  kindred.  John  Van  Ness  Philip  was  bom 
in  Claverack,  in  1823,  and  after  finishing  his  studies  at 
the  Van  Rensselaer  Institute  at  Troy,  he  entered  the 
United  States  Navy. 

He  served  during  the  war  with  Mexico,  receiving  the 
rank  of  Lieut.  Commander,  after  which  he  received  the 
appointment  of  Assistant  Professor  of  Mathematics  at 
Annapolis.  After  a  service  of  five  years  in  this  position, 
he  resigned  his  commission,  and  retired  to  the  scenes  of 
his  boyhood. 

When  the  firing  on  Fort  Sumter  announced  that  the 
struggle  with  the  South  had  commenced,  Lieut  Philip 
hastened  to  Washington,  and  offered  his  services  to  the 
Government  in  any  capacity  they  might  select.  His  offer 
was  gladly  accepted,  his  rank  restored  and  he  was  as- 
signed to  duty  with  the  blockading  squadron,  in  May, 
1861,  which  position  he  held  until  his  death  from  yellow 
fever,   in    September,    1862. 

Lieut.  Philip  was  a  brave  officer,  a  public  spirited  citi- 
zen, and  a  faithful  frien  1. 

He  had  evinced  the  liveliest  interest  in  the  affairs  of 
the  county,  and  was  the  founder  of  the  Hudson  and  Col- 
umbia County  Agricultural  and  Horticultural  Association, 
of  which  he  was  the  first  President. 

This  company  was  formed  by  a  few  gentlemen  for  the 
purpose  of  encouraging  an  improvement  in  stock,  and 
farm  products,  by  the  usual  premiums,  and  the  annual 
fairs   are   exceedingly   popular.     The    Fair   Grounds    ad- 


jacent  to   the    city    are    conveniently    situated    and   are 
thronged  with  visitors  from  all  the  county  towns. 

The  greatest  attraction  that  can  be  offered  at  these 
fairs  is  the  presence  of  the  Governor  of  the  State,  and 
on  this  occasion,  September  16,  1908,  which  is  the  299th 
anniversary  of  the  landing  of  Henry  Hudson  on  these 
shores,  a  hearty  welcome  is  being  extended  to  Governor 
Charles  E.  Hughes,  who  was  yesterday  nominated  for 
a  second  term. 

Governor  Hughes  is  a  man  whom  the  people  delighteth 
to  honor,  and  his  re-nomination  is  a  signal  victory  over 
machine-made  politics  and  politicians. 

Returning  for  a  moment  to  our  local  military  organiza- 
tion, we  find  that  the  "Cowles  Guard,"  so  named  in  honor 
of  the  lamented  Colonel  David  S.  Cowles,  was  organized 
in  April,  1878,  and  was  mustered  into  the  New  York 
State  Militia,  as  the  23rd  Separate  Company,  on  May 
24,   1878. 

They  immediately  received  their  arms  and  equipments 
and  in  the  autumn  of  that  year  their  Armory  was  com- 
pleted. This  was  located  in  the  rear  of  the  Court  House 
and  is  now  a  part  of  the  new  jail.  The  company  was 
ordered  out  for  service  during  the  Spanish  War,  and  left 
Hudson  on  July  26,  1898.  After  remaining  at  Camp 
Black,  on  Long  Island,  for  a  time,  they  were  sent  to  Green- 
ville, South  Carolina,  where  they  remained  until  mustered 
out  of  the  United  States  service,  on  March  25,  of  the 
same  year. 

When  the  Separate  Companies  were  organized  as 
Regiments,  the  23rd  became  Company  "D."  Fir^t 
Regiment  on  March  15,  1899,  and  on  May  1,  1905, 
Company  F.,  Tenth  Regiment.  They  were  on  dut>'  dur- 
ing the  switchman's  strike  at  Buffalo  in  August.  1892, 
and  also  at  Stockport  in  June,  1901,  to  enforce  quaran- 

The    corner   stone    of     their     new     Armory     was    laid 


on  September  4,  1897,  and  it  was  occupied  by  the  Com- 
pany in  December,  1898.  Contract  price  for  the  build- 
ing, was  29,288  dollars,  exclusive  of  the  site.  It  is  of 
appropriate  architecture,  and  is  rightly  considered  an  or- 
nament to  the  city.  Company  "F"  are  a  well  drilled,  finely 
set-up  body  of  men,  and  our  citizens  have  good  reason 
to  feel  proud  of  them.  We  have  also  a  Company  F.^ 
Tenth  Regiment  Drum  Corps,  numbering  fourteen 

Hudson  abounds  in  fraternal  societies  whose  aims  are 
beneficent,  or  social,  all  of  whom  seem  to  be  flourishing 
like  "the  green  bay  tree"  of  the  Psalmist.  Of  these  the 
more  prominent  are  the  Elks,  Knights  of  Pythias,  Wood- 
men, and  Maccabees. 

The  Hudson  Lodge,  No.  787,  B.  P.  O.  E.  was  chartered 
June  23,  1902,  with  a  membership  of  82,  which  in  1908, 
had   increased   to    193. 

Their  beautiful  new  Club  House  was  opened  on  March 
7,  1908,  with  a  public  reception  which  was  a  very 
successful  occasion,  and  on  the  9th,  the  lodge  held  their 
first  session  in  their  new  house.  It  will  be  highly  en- 
joyed and  appreciated  by  the  members  of  the  lodge,  who 
had  previously  met  in  rooms  in  the  Opera  House. 



City    Hall — Free    Library — Chapter    House — Some    Early  ' 


The  erection  of  a  new  City  Hall  in  1855,  was  greeted 
with  great  satisfaction  by  the  residents  of  Hudson,  for 
there  had  been  previously  no  suitable  place  for  public 

On  the  completion  of  a  new  Court  House  and  jail 
in  1835,  the  old  jail  on  the  corner  of  Fourth  aad  Warren 
streets,  was  leased  and  remodeled  by  John  Davis,  and 
under  the  name  of  "Davis's  City  Hall,"  was  used  for 
this  purpose  during  the  ensuing  twenty  years.  There  was 
also  a  room  at  the  top  of  the  Van  VIeck  building,  which 
served  for  small  assemblies,  but  neither  of  these  met  the 
requirements  of  the  city. 

The  Hall,  which  cost  27,000  dollars,  contained  an 
auditorium  of  fair  size  with  a  semi  circular  gallery  at 
one  end,  and  when  first  completed,  a  lecture  platform 
and  desk  at  the  other.  It  was  furnished  with  plain  settees 
in  the  style  of  the  Lyceums  of  the  day. 

The  building  was  opened  with  addresses  of  felicitation 
by  Mayor  Dormandy  and  prominent  citizens,  and  later 
a  grand  Bachelors'  Ball  was  given,  being  the  first,  anJ 
doubtless,  one  of  the  finest  of  its  kind  ever  hold  in  Mud- 

One  of  the  social  leaders  at  the  time  was  Mr.  Stephen 
A.  Du  Bois,  and  it  is  safe  to  affirm  that  he  not  only  headed 
the  affair,  but  was  extremely  useful  at  its  close.  It  was 
quite  characteristic  of  Mr.  Du  Bois  to  meet  any  little 
deficits    from    his   own    plethoric    pocket. 

He  was  a  man  without  business,  except  a   directorship 


in  the  Hudson  River  Bank,  and  its  President  from  1865, 
until  his  death,  which  occurred  in  1869,  and  he  found 
his  greatest  enjoyment  in  making  others  happy.  It  is 
not  strange  that  he  was  universally  popular  with  all  ages, 
from  the  youngest  debutante,  to  the  grave  and  reverend 
seigneurs,  who  were  his  contemporaries. 

The  "Bachelors"  were  not  permitted  to  pay  all  the 
expenses,  nor  indeed  to  reap  all  the  pleasure  of  that 
occasion,  for  the  gallery  of  the  Hall  was  filled  with  the 
older,  non-dancing  members  of  society.  The  admixture 
of  the  older  element,  even  unto  the  third  generation,  with 
the  younger  set,  has  not  been  uncommon  in  Hudson,  and 
has  formed  one  of  the  chiefest  charms  of  its  social 

The  city  offices  were  immediately  installed  in  the  City 
Hall,  and  the  Post  Office  was  located  in  the  eastern  cor- 
ner of  the  building,  from  1867  to  1886.  The  First  Na- 
tional Bank  occupied  its  present  banking  rooms  in  1869. 
The  auditorium  was  remodeled  later,  and  furnished  with 
folding  chairs,  drop  curtain,  and  other  accessories  of  the 
stage,  after  which  it  was  called  the  Opera  House.  Its 
name  has  since  been  changed  by  each  succeeding  lessee. 

The  Franklin  Library  Association  was  assigned  excellent 
accommodations,  while  in  the  auditorium  above,  was  held 
the  Course  of  Lectures,  the  proceeds  from  which,  over 
and  above  expenses,  together  with  annual  subscriptions, 
amply  met  all  expenditures  for  librarian,  and  additional 

These  lectures  had  been  held  in  the  different  churches, 
or  the  Court  House,  since  1837,  but  not  with  the  regular- 
ity and  frequency  which  now  characterized  them. 

It  was  a  liberal  education  to  listen  to  such  men  as 
Ralph  Waldo  Emerson,  Wendell  Phillips,  Edward  Everett, 
Henry  Ward  Beecher  and  others  of  equal  merit.  They 
drew  immense  audiences,  people  coming  from  neighbor- 


ing  towns   within   a   radius  of  more  than   twenty   miles, 
regularly  throughout  the  season. 

Then  too  we  occasionally  had  an  opportunity  of  meet- 
ing the  celebrities  in  a  social  way,  at  supper  or  recep- 
tion— but  the  day  of  the  Lecture  Bureau  closed,  rather 
suddenly  as  it  seemed.  Prices  for  such  lecturers  as  we 
had  been  accustomed  to  hear  advanced  enormously,  and 
the   aftermath   was  not  attractive. 

The  annual  subscriptions  were  mostly  continued,  and 
the  Library  was  kept  open  as  usual  until  1874;  but  with 
a  limited  number  of  new  books,  and  those  selected,  of 
an  undesirable  order,  many  declined  to  renew  their  sub- 
scriptions, and  the  books,  numbering  between  four  and 
five  thousand,  were  removed  to  No.  171  Warren  street, 
and  thence  to  the  Fourth  Street  Public  School  building, 
and  given  to  the  city. 

In  1898,  the  Hendrick  Hudson  Chapter  of  the  Daugh- 
ters of  the  American  Revolution  decided  to  establish  a 
"Free  Library,"  having  collected  quite  a  number  of  his* 
torical  works,  to  which  was  added  the  use  of  the  books 
formerly  owned   by   "The   Franklin   Library   Association." 

This  Library  was  opened  to  the  public  on  April  25, 
1898,  in  the  Fourth  street  school  building,  which  had 
become   "The   Hudson   High   School." 

After  the  Hendrick  Hudson  Chapter  received  its  beau- 
tiful Chapter  House  they  purchased  from  the  Board  of 
Education  about  1600  of  the  most  serviceable  books  of 
The  Franklin  Association  Library  and  installed  them  in 
their  present  commodious  quarters. 

In  addition  to  the  books  continually  added  by  the  com- 
mittee of  the  "D.  A.  R.  Free  Library,"  it  has  been  the 
recipient  of  many  valuable  presents,  and  now  numbers 
about  6,500  volumes.  Circulation  in  1907  amounted  to 

Its  present  usefulness  and  success  is  largely  due  to  the 

1  70  HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 

interest    and    generosity    manifested    by    Mrs.    Marcellus 
Hartley,  who,  in  1903,  liberally  endowed  the  institution. 

A  marble  tablet  placed  in  the  Library  bears  the  in- 


Free  Library 

Of  Hendrick  Hudson  Chapter  D.  A.   R. 

is  endowed  in  the  name  of 

Robert  Jenkins 


Frances  Chester  White  Hartley 

his   granddaughter 


Hudson  is  to  be  sincerely  congratulated  upon  having 
so  good  a  collection  of  books  placed  freely  at  the  dis- 
posal of  her  citizens  and  of  the  stranger  within  her  gates, 
by  both  of  whom  it  seems  to  be  highly  appreciated,  as 
is  also  the  unfailing  patience  and  courtesy  of  the  librarian 
in  charge. 

The  Hendrick  Hudson  Chapter  of  the  Daughters  of 
the  American  Revolution  was  organized  on  December  26, 
1895,  and  incorporated  under  the  laws  of  the  State  of 
New  York  on  July  9,  1898.  It  has  a  membership  of  112. 
September  16  was  selected  as  "Chapter  Day"  in  com- 
memoration of  Henry  Hudson's  first  anchorage  opposite 
the  site  of  the  City  of  Hudson. 

In  addition  to  the  establishment  of  the  Free  Library, 
which  has  been  dwelt  upon  at  length,  the  Chapter  is 
active  and  influential  in  the  affairs  of  the  organization  in 
the  state  and  nation,  while  it  furnishes  an  additional  local 
centre  of  social  life,  encourages  the  study  of  American 
history,  the  observance  of  patriotic  days,  and  has  given 
prizes  in  the  Public  Schools  for  essays  on  those  subjects. 

The  Chapter  has  gathered  in  its  museum,  which  is  open 
to  the  public,  over  three  hundred  articles  of  both  ancient 
and  modem  times,  and  has  held  a  Loan   Exhibition   full 

HISTORY    OF    HUDSON  1  7 1 

of  historic  interest.  In  giving  occasional  free  lectures, 
and  in  lending  the  building  for  charitable  purposes,  be- 
side other  works  of  mercy  and  kindness,  the  Chapter  has 
shown  itself  mindful  that  "the  greatest  of  these  is  char- 

But  the  chapter  has  itself  been  favored  far  above  other 
chapters  in  being  presented  with  a  fine  old  colonial  man- 
sion for  their  Chapter  House.  This  was  fitted  up  with 
every  convenience  for  their  use,  including  beside  library 
and  reading  room,  a  parlor,  museum  and  charming 
auditorium,  which  together  with  many  beautiful  things, 
was  given  to  the  chapter  by  Mrs.  Marcellus  Hartley  of 
New  York,  who  added  to  her  generous  gift,  the  con- 
siderate munificence,  of  a  fund  for  its  maintenance. 

Mrs.  Hartley,  who  is  a  life  member  of  the  chapter,  be- 
came interested  in  its  welfare  through  the  efforts  of  its 
members  to  procure  a  building  fund,  by  the  sale  of  a  book, 
called  "Mary  and  I  go  to  Europe,"  the  manuscript  of 
which  had  been  presented  to  them  for  that  purpose,  by 
its  author,  Doctor  H.  Lyle  Smith  of  this  city. 

In  the  foyer  facing  the  entrance  is  placed  an  artistic 
bronze  memorial  tablet,  whose  inscription  tells  the  sim- 
ple  story  of  a  loving   remembrance. 

This  Tablet  is  erected  to  the  memory  of 
Seth  Jenkins 
who  with  his  brother  Thomas  founded  the  City  of  Hudson. 
He   was   appointed   its   first   Mayor   by   Governor   Clinton 
which  distinction  he  enjoyed  from  April  1785  to  his  death 

Also  to  his  son 

Robert  Jenkins 

who  was  appointed  the  third  Mayor  by  Governor  Daniel 

D.  Tompkins,  serving  a   period   of  ten  years,   from    1808 

to   1813,  and    1815  to    1819. 

Robert  built  this  house  in  the  year  1811,  where  he 
resided   until  his  death   Nov.    11,    1819. 

1  72  HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 

Presented  by  his  granddaughter  to  the  Hendrick  Hudson 

Chapter  D.  A.   R. 

Frances  Chester  White  Hartley 

A.   D.    1900. 

The  fifteenth  of  May,  1900,  was  the  notable  date  of 
the  most  noteworthy  event  in  the  history  of  the  D.  A.  R. 
of  Hudson. 

Flowers,  music  and  light  were  lavishly  used  to  deco- 
rate and  render  still  more  attractive  their  beautiful  Chap- 
ter House  and  the  choicest  of  the  elite  were  gathered 
to  greet  Mrs.  Marcellus  Hartley,  and  to  receive  formally 
from  her  the  gift,  so  generously  proffered.  Addresses 
were  made  by  Doctor  H.  Lyle  Smith,  the  Chapter's  faith- 
ful friend,  in  his  own  inimitable  way — by  the  Mayor  of 
the  City — and  then,  in  simple,  well  chosen  words,  Mrs. 
Hartley  conveyed  her  splendid  gift.  A  fitting,  grateful 
response  of  acceptance  by  Madame  Regent  was  followed 
by  the  presentation  to  Mrs.  Hartley,  of  appropriate  reso- 
lutions previously  adopted.  A  fine  portrait  of  the  donor 
adorns  the  wall  of  the  home-like  parlor,  which  was  pre- 
sented in  response  to  the  ardent,  and  oft-expressed  de- 
sire of  the  Chapter. 

Mention  has  been  made  of  Seth  Jenkins,  Jr.,  a  brother 
of  Robert  Jenkins,  who  resided  at  No.  115  Warren  street, 
adjoining  the  Chapter  House.  A  more  distant  relative, 
Oliver  Wiswall,  became  an  important  factor  in  the  de- 
velopment of  this  city. 

Mr.  Wiswall  was  bom  on  the  island  of  Martha's  Vine- 
yard, where  his  father,  Samuel  Wiswall,  died,  and  he, 
with  his  mother,  removed  to  Hudson  when  he  was  nine 
years  old. 

After  a  brief  period  spent  at  "Marm  Wilson's"  school, 
at  the  age  of  thirteen,  Mr.  Wiswall  entered  the  store  of 
his  uncle,  Marshall  Jenkins,  then  doing  business  in  the 

HISTORY    OF    HUDSON  1  73 

building  on  the  corner  of  Front  and  Warren  streets,  later 
the  residence  of  Mr.  Ebenezer  Gifford. 

In  1801,  he  formed  a  partnership  with  Captain  Beriah 
Pease,  who  came  here  soon  after  the  Proprietors,  and 
had  been  employed  in  the  Merchant  Marine  service. 
They  occupied  a  small  frame  structure  No.  114  Warren 
street  until  1804,  when  they  erected  the  large  brick  build- 
ing No.  118  on  the  same  street,  that  being  the  "business 
centre"  of  the  city  at  that  time.  This  sufficed  until  1820, 
when  Mr.  Wiswall  entered  into  the  freighting  business 
under  the  firm  of  Wiswall,  Smith  and  Jenkins,  in  which 
he  continued  until  his  retirement  from  active  life.  Mr. 
Wiswall's  purchase  with  others  of  the  Hudson  Gazette 
and  his  connection  with  the  Hudson  River  Bank  as  its 
first  president  have  been  noted. 

He  served  the  city  as  Mayor,  and  was  also  a  Super- 
visor and  Member  of  Assembly.  He  was  full  of  interest- 
ing reminiscences,  and  contributed  much  of  the  material 
of  Mr.  Stephen  B.  Miller's  "Historical  Sketches  of  Hud- 
son." Mr.  Wiswall  died  at  his  home  on  Mt.  Merino  on 
January  27,   1863. 

A  valued  friend  and  contemporary  of  Mr.  Wiswall  was 
Judge   Barnard. 

Robert  A.  Barnard  was  bom  in  1787,  in  the  dwelling 
on  the  corner  of  Warren  and  First  streets,  which  his 
grandfather  built  in  1784,  and  in  which  the  three  genera- 
tions of  the  family  lived  and  died.  Judge  Barnard  men- 
tioned the  fact  of  his  residence  in  this  house  during  a 
visit  to  England  and  Scotland,  in  reply  to  the  charge 
that  "the  American  people  were  so  fond  of  change  that 
it  could  not  be  told  one  year,  where  they  would  be  the 
next."  The  Judge  remarked  that  he  was  an  exception, 
and  his  statement  could  hardly  be  credited. 

The  very  few  years  of  schooling  which  in  common  with 
most  of  the  boys  of  that  day,  were  allotted  to  him,  were 
passed  under  "Marni   Wilson's"  guidance,  and  the  Judge 

1  74  HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 

was  launched  on  his  future  career.  This  was  that  of  an 
active  business  man,  and  particularly  devoted  to  the  whale 
fishery  during  its  revival   in    1829. 

Judge  Barnard  did  much  to  promote  the  prosperity  of 
the  city  that  his  ancestors  helped  to  found. 

He  succeeded  Oliver  Wiswall  as  President  of  the  Hud- 
son River  Bank,  and  filled  a  variety  of  positions,  includ- 
ing that  of  Postmaster,  Senator,  Member  of  Assembly, 
Associate  Judge  and  Presidential  Elector. 

Possessing  a  retentive  memory.  Judge  Barnard  also 
furnished  a  store  of  valuable  and  interesting  matter  to 
the  "Historical  Sketches." 

Judge  Barnard  passed  away  in  the  house  his  grand- 
sire  built,  on  January  20,  1872,  at  the  age  of  85  years. 

Mr.  Henry  Harder,  or  "Doctor,"  as  he  was  familiarly 
called,  was  another  whose  recollections  though  somewhat 
dim,  were  of  assistance  to  the  author  of  the  "Sketches." 
He  was  a  boy  of  about  seven  years  of  age  when  the 
Proprietors  came  here,  and  was  living  with  his  uncle, 
Justus  Van  Hoesan,  who  must  have  been  a  descendant 
of  that  Justus  Van  Hoesan,  who  with  his  wife,  met  a 
sudden  and  tragical  death  from  accidental  poisoning, 
nearly  a  century  before  Mr.  Harder's  birth.  All  of  which 
has  been  duly  set  down  in  order,  in  the  early  portion  of 
this  work. 

The  Justus  Van  Hoesan  house  was  on  the  site  of  the 
residence  of  Mr.  Daniel  Limbrick,  near  the  South  Bay, 
which  was  destroyed  by  fire  some  years  ago. 

Mr.  Harder  dimly  remembered  the  coming  of  the  Pro- 
prietors, but  very  little  connected  with  it,  and  with  his 
passing  away,  the  last  link  bet^^^een  the  city  of  today,  and 
the  "Claverack  Landing"  of   1783  was  broken. 

Mr.  Henry  P.  Skinner  belonged  to  a  class  of  early 
merchants,  who  were  actively  identified  with  the  business 
interests  of  the  city. 

His  quiet  tastes  and  somewhat  retiring  disposition,  led 


him  to  decline  public  offices,  but  he  well  sustained  the 
character  of  a  useful,  benevolent  and  enterprising  citizen. 
For  more  than  four  score  years  he  retained  his  wonderful 
vitality,  attending  daily  to  his  business,  and  never  failing 
to  take  his  accustomed  walk  of  miles,  before  breakfast. 

Except  the  closing  sentence,  how  fitly  and  admirably, 
every  word  here  written  of  Mr.  Henry  P.  Skinner,  applies 
to  our  respected  and  valued  fellow  townsman,  Mr.  Lorenzo 
G.  Guernsey,  who  happily  is  still  with  us. 

In  his  departure  from  the  city,  which  he  has  known, 
and  where  he  has  dwelt  for  upwards  of  half  a  century, 
will  pass  away  the  last  living  representative  of  its  earlier 
business  men  and  interests. 

1  76  HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 

The  Press — Industries. 

The  newspapers  now  published  in  Hudson  fitly  illus- 
trate the  doctrine  of  the  survival  of  the  fittest.  Launched 
afresh  in  the  year  1824,  by  Ambrose  L.  Jordan  and 
Oliver  Wiswall,  both  have  had  an  unbrpken  success  up 
to  the  present  time. 

In  1845,  the  Columbia  Republican  was  purchased  by 
William  Bryan  and  John  Moores,  the  latter  retiring  in 
1851,  leaving  Mr.  Bryan  sole  owner  until  1862,  when 
Frank  H.  Webb,  recently  deceased,  acquired  a  half  in- 
terest, and  the  firm  of  Bryan  and  Webb  continued  its 
publication   during  the  ensuing  fourteen  years. 

Mr.  William  Bryan  was  a  prominent  citizen,  and  for 
eight  years  was  Postmaster  of  Hudson,  combining  the 
duties  of  the  office  with  those  of  a  successful  publisher, 
an  example  since  followed  by  his  son. 

Mr.  Frank  H.  Webb  was  a  native  of  Claverack  and  a 
descendant  of  one  of  its  oldest  families.  He  wielded  a 
fluent  pen,  as  is  shown  in  his  little  brochure  called 
"Claverack,  Old  and  New,"  and  in  various  other  writings. 

The  Hudson  Daily  Star,  which  was  the  first  daily  paper 
published  in  Hudson,  was  established  by  Alexander  N. 
Webb  in  1848.  It  was  very  popular  and  on  August  18 
of  that  year  it  gave  so  vivid  an  account  of  a  conflagration 
in  Albany  on  the  day  previous,  when  500  buildings  were 
burned,  that  it  roused  the  citizens  of  Hudson  to  the  im- 
portance of  re-organizing  and  enlarging  the  local  fire 
department.  A  call  was  issued  for  a  meeting  at  Rogers' 
Columbia  Hotel  on  the  evening  of  the  19th,  which  re- 
sulted in  the  organization  of  the  "First  Volunteer  Fire 
Company"  with  foreman,  assistant  foreman,  secretary  and 


Steward,    also    a   committee   to    draft   a   constitution    and 

In  1850,  Mr.  A.  N.  Webb  published  'The  Weekly  Star," 
and  in  1873  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Herbert  N.  Webb, 
who  sold  them  both  to  Louis  Goeltz,  with  whom  Mr. 
Bryan  formed  a  partnership  in  1876,  and  they  were 
merged  respectively  in  "The  Weekly"  and  "Daily  Re- 

After  the  death  of  Mr.  Goeltz  in  1877,  Mr.  Bryan  con- 
tinued the  publication  of  both  papers  until  May  5,  1881, 
when  he  associated  with  him  his  son,  Henry  R.  Bryan. 
This  partnership  was  severed  by  the  death  of  Mr.  William 
Bryan  on  September  11,  1897,  since  which  time  Mr. 
Henry  R.  Bryan  has  been  the  sole  proprietor  and  editor 
of  both  journals.  They  continue  to  be  the  consistent 
organs  of  the  Republican  party,  and  both  weekly  and 
daily  editions  are  ably  and  judiciously  conducted. 

"The  Weekly  Gazette"  was  resuscitated  by  Oliver 
Wiswall  and  a  few  leading  Democrats  in  1824,  who  pur- 
chased the  plant  at  a  cost  of  $500. 

It  was  published  by  Hiram  Wilbur — Mr.  John  W.  Ed- 
monds' duties  being  limited  to  the  editorship.  The  print- 
ing office  was  in  the  upper  story  of  the  store  of  Reuben 
Folger,  on  the  northeast  corner  of  Warren  and  Second 

In  1834,  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  P.  Dean  Carrique, 
who  continued  its  publication  for  nearly  a  quarter  of 
a  century. 

In  1857,  it  was  acquired  by  the  Messrs.  R.  F.  and  M.  P. 
Williams.  R.  F.  Williams  entered  the  army  on  the  break- 
ing out  of  the  Civil  War  in  1861,  leaving  M.  P.  Williams, 
now  deceased,  the  sole  editor  and  proprietor,  a  position 
which  he  filled  with  great  ability,  for  thirty-five  years. 

Mr.  Williams  commenced  the  publication  of  "The 
Hudson     Evening    Register"    in     connection    with     "The 


Weekly  Gazette,"  in  1866,  and  both  have  had  a  successful 
and  prosperous  career. 

Becoming  incapacitated  for  business  by  continued  ill 
health,  Mr.  Williams  sold  the  journals  to  a  syndicate,  and 
retired  in   1896.     His  death  occurred  in  April,   1906. 

Both  "The  Weekly  Gazette"  and  "The  Evening  Regis- 
ter" are,  as  they  have  always  been,  the  exponents  of 
the  Democratic  party,  or  some  one  of  its  divisions. 

Many  of  the  early  industries  of  this  city  were  discon- 
tinued after  the  decline  of  shipbuilding,  but  others  took 
their  place  and  Hudson  has  a  variety  of  manufactures  in 
successful  operation  at  this  date. 

The  last  flouring  and  grist  mill,  the  successor  of  that 
owned  by  one  of  our  earliest  settlers,  Peter  Hogeboom, 
Jr.,  was  demolished  in  1874  to  clear  the  site  for  the  pump- 
ing house  of  the  water  works. 

Soon  after  the  war  of  1812,  the  manufacture  of  woolen 
cloth,  principally  satinets,  was  begun  by  William  Van 
Hoesan  and  others,  among  whom  was  Jonathan  Stott. 
"The  Northern  Whig"  of  January  10th,  1826,  advertised 
"for  sale  by  Jonathan  Stott  at  the  Wool  Warehouse,  a 
few  doors  below  the  Post  Office,  on  Warren  street,  1,000 
Jenny  spindles,  from  the  Sheffield  Manufactory,  England, 
a  first  rate  article.  Also  Wool  of  all  qualities,  satinet 
warps,  and  Indigo.  Cash  paid  for  all  kinds  of  Wool 
as  usual." 

Mr.  Stott's  factory  was  burned  in  one  of  the  large  fires 
that  devastated  that  part  of  the  city,  and  he  removed 
soon  after  to  the  site  of  Stottville,  where  he  could  avail 
himself  of  the  water  power  of  the  Claverack  Creek. 

Two  of  the  fires  alluded  to  occurred  in  quick  suc- 
cession, one  in  1838,  with  a  loss  of  $150,000  and  in 
1839,  loss  $175,000;  insurance  amounting  to  only  about 
one-third  in  each  case. 

The   tavern  of  Samuel   Bryan  was  burned  in   August, 


1838,  and  was  replaced  by  the  building  that  is  now  *'The 
Worth."     About    seventy    buildings    were    destroyed    in 

1839,  including  factories,  warehouses,  four  wharves  and 
a  vessel  loaded  with  flour.  The  fire  started  in  the  large 
wool  warehouse  of  Samuel  Plumb,  and  was  directly  trace- 
able, as  was  also  the  previous  one,  to  sparks  from  the 
steamboats   Legislator   and   Congress. 

Mr.  Samuel  Plumb,  who  is  often  referred  to  at  this 
stage  of  the  city's  growth,  built  the  fine  residence  now 
owned  by  the  Mclntyre  family,  and  also  set  out  the 
magnificent  Norway  spruce  that  graces  the  lawn  on  the 
approach  to  the  dwelling. 

To  return  to  our  industries.  A  fulling  mill  and  flannel 
factory  was  built  by  Josiah  Underbill,  on  the  hill  below 
Underbill's  pond,  which  thus  obtained  its  name. 

A  hot  air  furnace  was  started  in  1816,  which  passed 
into  the  hands  of  Starbuck  and  Gifford  in  the  same  year, 
and  is  still  successfully  conducted. 

The  Hudson  Iron  Company  was  formed  in  1848,  and 
extensive  works  were  built  which  produced  annually 
22,000  tons  of  pig  iron.  Long  continued  depression  in 
the  iron  industry,  and  the  necessity  of  substituting  im- 
proved machinery,  caused  the  works  to  be  closed,  and 
they  were  afterward  demolished. 

The  Columbia  Iron  Company  was  incorporated  in  1857, 
and  turned  out  18,000  tons  of  iron  per  year  for  a  num- 
ber of  years.     This  furnace  was  destroyed  by  fire. 

The  Allen  Paper  Car  Wheel  Company,  so  named  for 
the  inventor,  afterward  The  American  Paper  Car  Wheel 
Company  was  organized  in  1874,  and  established  its 
plant  in  this  city.  In  1897,  it  was  purchased  by  The 
Railway  Steel  Spring  Company  and  consolidated  with 
other  car  wheel  manufactories,  this  branch  being  enlarged 
and   improved. 

The  business  of  manufacturing  knit  goods  is  one  of 
the  most  thriving  in  Hudson.     The  first  knitting  mill  was 


erected  in  1872,  and  was  followed  by  others  in  1881,  1882 
and   1900. 

To  these  must  be  added  the  Hudson  Fibre  Company 
for  the  manufacture  of  cotton  batting,  a  planing  mill, 
cigar  factories,  and  various  other  industries  too  numerous 
to  mention.  All  are  exceedingly  prosperous,  furnishing 
employment  to  large  numbers  of  our  inhabitants,  as  does 
also  the  gathering  of  ice   during  the  winter  season. 

Extensive  cement  works,  and  brick  yards  are  success- 
fully conducted,  employing  almost  exclusively  foreign  or 
colored  labor. 

The  general  business  of  Hudson  is  carried  on  in  a  safe, 
conservative  manner  rarely  resulting  in  failure.  Possibly 
some  lines  have  been  too  restricted,  forcing  people  to 
go  elsewhere  for  articles  they  would  prefer  to  find  more 
conveniently  at  home.  Some  of  the  firms  date  from  a 
half  to  three-quarters  of  a  century  ago,  and  in  a  few  in- 
stances are  conducted  by  the  descendants  of  the  founders. 

The  frequent  fires  which  have  inflicted  such  severe 
losses,  have  in  almost  every  case  proved  a  blessing  in 
a  fiery  guise.  The  streets  have  been  vastly  improved  by 
the  attractive  buildings  which  have  replaced  those  that 
were  burned  and  which  possess  all  the  modem  and  de- 
sirable  facilities   for  doing   business. 

Hudson  has  been  sometimes  called  (rather  unwisely 
it  would  seem)  by  its  own  residents,  "a  finished  city," 
and  if  it  be  true,  as  we  were  recently  informed,  "that 
there  was  but  one  manufacturing  site  left  in  Hudson," 
the  situation  is  rather  alarming,  though  there  has  been 
another  purchased  since,  that  seemed  to  be  quite  eligible. 

But  the  fact  is  plain  that  the  city  cannot  expand  to 
any  great  extent  within  its  present  limits,  and  it  is  hard 
to  understand  why  our  forefathers  in  1837  allowed  the 
town  of  Greenport  to  encircle  us,  almost  to  our  very 
doors.  A  census  in  1840,  gives  the  population  of  Hudson 
as  5672,  "after  about   1800  had  been  taken  off"  during 


the  previous  decade  by  the  formation  of  the  towns  of 
Stockport  and  Greenport.  The  idea  of  a  re-union  in 
the  form  of  a  "Greater  Hudson"  suggests  itself,  but  can- 
not be  hopefully  entertained,  as  we  can  offer  them  little 
inducement  as  an  offset  to  our  tax  budget. 

The  accounts  of  the  procedure  in  locating  the  Hudson 
and  Berkshire  Railroad  are  interesting.  In  1827,  the 
Common  Council  appointed  a  committee  of  "Five  Per- 
sons for  the  purpose  of  meeting  the  exploring  committee 
from  the  State  of  Massachusetts,  in  relation  to  the  con- 
templated railroad  from  Boston  to  the  North  River." 

A  development  from  this  proceeding  a  few  years  later, 
was  the  loaning  by  the  City  of  $50,000  in  aid  of  the 
Hudson  and  Berkshire  Railroad  on  bond  and  mortgage. 

In  1835,  the  road  was  commenced,  and  as  it  was  ex- 
pected to  promote  the  business  prosperity  of  Hudson  the 
stock  was  subscribed  to  the  amount  of  $250,000  by  our 
citizens.  The  road  was  opened  in  October,  1841,  but  it 
did  not  prosper  and  the  stockholders  lost  their  investment. 

Steam  power  had  not  been  considered  on  this  road  up 
to  this  time.  "It  was  believed  that  animal  power  was 
better  adapted  for  the  transportation  of  the  endless  load- 
ing, such  a  dense  and  industrious  population  required!" 

We  learn  from  records  of  the  Common  Council,  that 
the  disastrous  fires  still  occurring  at  intervals  led  to  the 
thorough  reorganization  of  the  Fire  Department,  and  the 
purchase  of  additional  apparatus.  John  W.  Edmonds, 
afterward  Judge  Edmonds,  was  appointed  the  first  Chief 
Engineer,  and  served  until  his  removal  to  New  York  in 
1837.  His  name  is  perpetuated  in  Edmonds  Hose  Com- 
pany No.   1. 

Steam  fire  engines  were  provided  by  the  city  in  the 
months  of  April  and  August,  1868,  and  when  the  in- 
creased water  supply  in  1874,  rendered  hand  engines  use- 
less, the  companies  were  transformed  into  Hose  and  Hook 
and  Ladder  Companies. 


Suitable  engine  houses  were  built  for  their  use,  in  1887 
and  1889,  and  thus  the  new  appurtenances  were  provided, 
but  the  willing  and  unselfish  service  still  continues  to  be 
of  the  voluntary  order. 

It  has  been  stated  that  two  at  least  of  the  large  fires 
that  devastated  this  city  at  an  early  period,  were  caused 
by  the  showers  of  sparks  thrown  off  by  the  steamboats. 
These  were  produced  by  the  use  of  wood  as  fuel,  and  it 
was  not  until  1835,  that  coal  was  substituted.  It  is 
worthy  of  note  that  the  first  blower  and  furnace  adapted 
for  its  use  were  the  invention  of  Daniel  Dunbar  of  Hud- 

The  name  of  Power  has  been  closely  connected  with 
improved  facilities  for  transportation,  from  the  earliest 
Hudson  Steamboat  Co.,  in    1808,  to  the  present  time. 

Captain  George  H.  Powers,  who  built  and  owned  sev- 
eral boats,  and  who  controlled  the  Hudson  Steam  Ferry 
from  1880  until  his  death,  was  perhaps  the  most  actively 
engaged  in  this  line  of  business. 



Water   Supply — Civic    Improvements. 

In  1835,  the  Legislature  was  petitioned  "to  allow  the 
Hudson  Aqueduct  Company  to  enlarge  its  capital  and 
thus  enable  it  to  substitute  iron  pipes  for  the  wooden 
ones  then  in  use." 

This  was  granted,  and  eked  out  by  cisterns  and  water 
tanks  was  made  to  suffice  until   1871. 

In  that  year  the  question  of  an  addition  to  the  water 
supply  became  acute,  and  an  Act  was  passed  by  the 
Legislature  authorizing  the  expenditure  of  $250,000  for 
that  purpose.  A  commission  was  appointed  to  have  sur- 
veys prepared,  and  estimates  made.  The  conclusion  was 
reached  that  the  appropriation  would  not  be  sufficient,  and 
in  1873,  a  new  law  provided  the  sum  of  $350,000. 

A  special  election  was  held  to  give  the  people  an  op- 
portunity to  vote  on  a  choice  between  the  Hudson  river 
and  Lake  Charlotte,  a  body  of  pure  water,  that  sparkles 
like  a  huge  solitaire,  in  its  setting  of  living  green.  A 
very  small  niajority  were  found  to  be  in  favor  of  the 
river.  They  did  not  recall  that  little  rhyme  of  Cole- 
ridge's, so  applicable  to  our  noble  Hudson,  and  the  cities, 
which  it  is  compelled  to  wash. 

"The  river  Rhine  it  is  well  known 

Doth  wash  your  City  of  Cologne, 
But  tell   me  nymphs!  what  power  divine 

Shall   henceforth   wash   the   river   Rhine?" 

Construction  was  commenced  in  March,  1874,  and  the 
work  was  prosecuted  with  such  energy  that  water  was 
flowing  through  the  system  on  the  first  of  the  following 

The  cost  of  the  Water  Works  was  kept  within  the  ap- 


propriation  and  the  whole  undertaking  was  successfully  ac- 
complished under  the  Commission  of  which  Mr.  Frederick 
Fitch  Folger  was  Chairman. 

The  increase  in  the  consumption  of  water  was  rapid. 
In  1876,  430,014  gallons  were  consumed;  in  1880,  827,475; 
in  1887,  436,221,664;  and  in  1903,  it  was  estimated  that 
1,400,000  gallons  were  consumed  on  an  average  per  day. 

The  street  which  was  opened  to  reach  the  reservoirs 
led  through  private  grounds,  but  the  Commission  was 
given  the  amount  of  land  required,  and  was  urged  to 
make  the  street  its  present  width  of  fifty  feet.  When 
they  demurred  at  the  expense  of  making  it  more  than 
thirty-five  feet,  the  owner  offered  to  pay  the  difference 
rather  than  have  it  any  less.  He  also  had  the  trees 
set  out  on  either  side  of  the  street,  in  the  year  1876,  and 
there  were  just  76  trees.  A  coincidence  of  the  Cen- 
tennial year. 

The  Hudson  river,  although  not  attractive  as  a  source 
of  water  supply,  was  ideal  in  its  volume,  there  being 
no  fear  of  a  shortage  from  any  possible  cause,  but  after 
some  years,  fears  began  to  be  seriously  entertained  in 
regard  to  its  health  fulness. 

While  the  filter  beds  were  under  the  watchful  care  of 
Keeper  Stevens,  they  were  kept  as  clean  as  it  was  possible 
to  keep  them,  and  the  danger  was  held  in  abeyance,  but 
later  the  typhoid  bacillii  took  possession,  and  turned 
one  of  life's  priceless  blessings  into  a  deadly  poison. 

In  March,  1900,  the  press  of  the  city  began  a  cam- 
paign of  education  and  appeal,  backed  by  the  physicians, 
with  full  statistics  proving  the  alarming  increase  in  the 
number  of  cases  of  typhoid  fever.  People  resorted  to 
mineral  water,  or  to  the  Aqueduct  water,  except  those 
who  refused  to  believe  either  the  Board  of  Health  or  the 
press,  and  manifested  a  senseless  opposition  to  every 
form  of  relief. 

The   advocates   of   pure   water  continued   to   urge    the 


matter,  the  press  well  in  the  van,  through  the  years  1900 
and  1901.  The  Board  of  Public  Works  had  preliminary 
surveys  made  of  all  sources  of  supply,  by  Superintend- 
ent Bishop  and  C.  C.  Vermeule,  a  noted  engineer,  both  re- 
porting in  favor  of  a  gravity  system.  In  February,  1902, 
a  bill  providing  for  the  expenditure  of  $270,000  and  the 
appointment  of  a  special  Water  Commission  with  power 
to  decide  on  the  best  plan,  and  execute  it,  was  passed 
by  the  Legislature.  It  was  also  passed  by  a  majority 
vote  of  the  Common  Council,  after  a  public  hearing  which 
was  unanimously  in  favor  of  such  action. 

The  Mayor  returned  the  bill  with  his  disapproval,  and 
thus  destroyed  all  hope  of  relief  for  that  year. 

Fortunately  a  new  Mayor  succeeded,  who,  when  the 
bill  was  passed  a  second  time,  heartily  approved,  and  it 
was  signed  by  Governor  Odell  on  April  4th,  1903. 

On  April  18th,  the  Mayor  appointed  a  Water  Commis- 
sion whose  members  were  highly  satisfactory  to  all  citi- 
zens. They  at  once  elected  Mr.  Arthur  Gifford,  Presi- 
dent, and  proceeded  to  have  the  streams  under  considera- 
tion analyzed  by  the  State  Board  of  Health.  On  a  favor- 
able report  being  received,  it  was  decided  to  have  a  grav- 
ity plant  from  New  Forge,  via  Churchtown,  and  Cornelius 
C.  Vermeule  was  engaged  as  consulting  engineer,  and 
Hubert  K.  Bishop  as  Chief  engineer,  to  have  charge  of 
the  work. 

The  resolution  as  adopted  provided  for  "taking  of  the 
water  from  Taghkanic  Creek  at  New  Forge,  for  the  erec- 
tion of  a  reservoir  and  settling  basin  at  Churchtown, 
and  for  the  distribution  of  3,000,000  gallons  of  water 
daily.  The  pipe  line  to  be  taken  through  Claverack  to 
the  Hudson  reservoirs."  Bids  for  contracts  were  given 
out,  and  on  May  30.  1903,  were  awarded.  Rights  of  way 
were  secured  where  possible,  and  a  condemnation  commis- 
sion was  finally  appointed  to  whom  all  disputed  cases 
were   submitted.      It  was   considered   quite   a   victor\'    for 


the  city  when  their  awards  for  riparian  rights  were  found 
to  be  less  than  $1,000  more  than  the  cit)^  had  offered. 

The  work  was  pressed  as  rapidly  as  possible,  and  not- 
withstanding the  many  annoying  delays  and  difficulties 
experienced,  water  was  flowing  into  the  reservoirs  at  Hud- 
son on  the  19th  of  February,   1905. 

The  pipe  line  is  twelve  and  a  half  miles  long,  the  dam 
contains  8,000  cubic  yards  of  masonry,  weighing  about 
12,000  tons.  Storage  capacity  82,000,000  gallons,  the 
water  covering  fifteen  acres. 

The  Hudson  reservoirs  were  not  only  thoroughly 
cleansed,  but  were  practically  made  into  new  basins,  to 
avoid  any  possibility  of  contamination.  A  deplorable  ac- 
cident, by  which  three  men  were  killed,  and  one  injured, 
occurred  during  this  part  of  the  work,  on  October  3,  1905. 
A  small  engine  used  to  furnish  steam  to  the  gravel  wash- 
ing machinery,  being  insufficiently  provided  with  water, 
exploded  with  terrific  force. 

The  cost  of  the  whole  plant  was  within  the  amount 
appropriated,  which  speaks  volumes  for  the  business  abil- 
ity and  prudent  management  of  the  Water  Commission. 
Public  spirited,  they  gave  freely  of  their  time  and  energies, 
and  honest — in  these  days  of  graft  it  is  refreshing  to 
witness  the  expenditure  of  a  fortune,  and  know  that  the 
city  received  dollar  for  dollar. 

The  number  of  deaths  from  typhoid  fever  was  reduced 
from  152,  in  1904,  to  only  2,  in  1906.  These  figures  re- 
quire no  comment. 

The  passing  during  the  present  year  of  the  old  Hud- 
son Aqueduct  Company  is  noteworthy,  and  its  final  dis- 
solution should  be  chronicled.  The  company  was  char- 
tered in  1790,  a  petition  having  been  presented  to  the 
Legislature  in  1789,  stating  that  they  had  "at  considerable 
expense  brought  water  into  the  city  by  an  aqueduct,  from 
a  spring  two  miles  distant,  and  felt  the  need  of  a  regular 


system   to  compel  shareholders  to  bear  their  equal  por- 
tion of  expenses  for  repairs,  etc." 

The  Act  then  passed  seemed  to  meet  their  every  re- 
quirement and  has  been  given  at  length  in  an  earlier  por- 
tion of  this  work. 

In  1793,  the  Aqueduct  Company  purchased  the  "Huyck 
Spring,"  later  known  as  the  "Fountain,"  water  having 
been  previously  brought  through  pipes  from  the  "Ten 
Broeck  Spring,"  which  is  situated  on  the  old  Heermance 

And  now,  no  more  shall  we  behold  the  unsightly 
pumps  at  too  frequent  intervals  along  our  streets,  and 
while  they  will  be  missed,  they  cannot  well  be  mourned. 
It  is  said  that  a  very  near-sighted  lady  once  shook  hands 
with  one  of  the  long-armed  pump  handles,  thinking  she 
was  greeting  a  dear  friend,  but  for  the  truth  of  this 
statement  we  do  not  vouch. 

The  "Fountain"  furnished  pure  sparkling  water,  which 
gushed  with  perennial  freshness  from  its  rocky  bed,  and 
the  Aqueduct  Company  deserved  the  grateful  thanks  of 
the  whole  population  of  Hudson,  in  addition  to  the  prompt 
payment  of  water  rates. 

Another  organization  of  equal  antiquity  has  been  re- 
cently dissolved;  "The  Columbia  Turnpike  Company," 
which  was  the  third  chartered  in  the  State  of  New  York, 
dating  from   1799. 

It  was  composed  entirely  of  Hudson  men,  and  the  capi- 
tal stock  was  25,000  dollars.  It  ran  to  the  Massachusetts 
line,  and  began  taking  toll  in  1800.  For  more  than  a 
century  the  toll  gate  stood,  and  it  still  seems  as  if  the 
ghost  of  the  departed  toll-gatherer  would  rise,  and  with 
shadowy   hand  extended,  challenge  our  advance! 

In  1828,  we  find  that  a  petition  to  the  Common  Council 
resulted  in  the  appointment  of  a  comiiiittee,  who  "re- 
ported in  favor  of  putting  fifty  poles  with  lamps,  not  more, 
and  that  they  be  located  at  the  most  convenient   places. 


To  be  lighted  only  on  the  moonless  nights."  These  lamps 
burned  sperm  oil,  and  nothing  else  was  used  until  about 
the  middle  of  the  century,  when  a  substitute  was  found 
in  the  form  of  etherial  oil,  or  burning  fluid.  This  being 
of  a  volatile  and  inflammable  nature,  was  considered  very 
dangerous,  but  the  Hudson  Gas  Company  came  to  the 
rescue  in  1850,  and  in  the  fall  of  that  year  the  streets 
were  first  lighted  with  gas,  and  its  use  soon  became  gen- 
eral throughout  the  city. 

This  company  was  absorbed  by  the  Hudson  Electric 
Light  and  Power  Company  which  was  incorporated  in 
1888,  and  was  consolidated  with  the  Albany  and  Hudson 
Railway  and  Power  Company  in   1899. 

This  organization  supplies  the  city  with  Electric  Light 
and  operates  the  Hudson  Electric  Street  Railway,  which  it 
built  in  1890.  It  also  acquired  the  steam  railroad  to 
Albany,  via  Stottville  and  Kinderhook,  which  was  built 
in  1889,  substituted  electric  power,  and  opened  it  for  traffic 
in   1900.. 

Between  1824,  and  1830,  considerable  advance  was 
made  in  re-paving,  and  in  paving  additional  streets,  also 
a  number  of  sewers  were  laid,  but  after  this  effort  only 
necessary  repairs  seem  to  have  been  made  from  time  to 
time,  for  many  years. 

"The  improvement  of  the  Public  Square,"  is  alluded 
to.  This  as  we  have  seen  was  intended  for  a  pub- 
lic park  by  the  donor,  but  for  some  inscrutable  rea- 
son it  was  denuded  of  its  fine  old  forest  trees,  and 
paved  with  cobblestones.  To  complete  the  devasta- 
tion, the  Hudson  and  Berkshire  Railroad  was  al- 
lowed to  cross  it,  and  thus  it  remained  until  1878,  when 
the  matter  was  taken  up  by  a  resident  on  the  upper 
side  of  the  Square.  Subscriptions  were  solicited  and  a 
sufficient  sum  was  raised,  together  with  the  gifts  of  the 
coping  and  trees  from  individuals,  to  transform  the  treeless 
desert  into  a  refreshing  little  oasis.     The  Boston  and  Al- 


bany  Railroad  Company  atoned  in  a  measure  for  its  pres- 
ence, by  generously  furnishing  sufficient  gravel  to  fill 
in  the  whole  surface  of  the  Park. 

In  the  same  year,  1878,  the  authorities  took  measures 
to  improve  the  Promenade  Hill,  by  the  erection  of  an 
ornamental  iron  fence  along  the  full  length  of  its  dan- 
gerous frontage,  and  by  increased  attention  to  its  walks 
and  lawn. 

Mr.  Miller  tells  us  that  this  Park  was  the  favorite  re- 
sort for  lovers  in  early  times,  and  doubtless  many  a  pretty 
Quakeress  has  here  murmured  her  coy  "yes,"  from  the 
depths  of  her  fetching  Quaker  bonnet,  as  also  later, 
"the  girl  of  the  period"  may  have  done,  since  there  are 
some   customs  that  never  become   obsolete! 

But  the  Hill  has  witnessed  other  scenes  of  momentous 
importance,  as  when  in  1609,  Henry  Hudson  was  ban- 
queted there  by  his  courteous  Indian  hosts,  and  when,  two 
centuries  later,  it  was  thronged  with  people  to  witness 
the  passage  of  the  Steamboat  "Clermont,"  and  to  marvel 
at  a  craft,  "propelled  by  neither  sails  or  oars."  Still  an- 
other occasion  that  drew  people  to  the  hill  was  the  wreck 
of  the  Steamboat  "Swallow"  commanded  by  Captain  A. 
H.  Squires.  It  was  on  April  7,  1845,  at  nine  o'clock  of 
a  dark  and  stormy  night,  that  the  boat  driven  far  out  of 
her  course,  ran  upon  a  large  rock  in  the  western  channel, 
and  was  broken  in  two.  The  accident  happened  just  above 
the  Village  of  Athens,  and  small  boats  speedily  went  to 
the  rescue,  and  succeeded  in  saving  many  lives,  but  about 
forty  were  drowned.  In  this  city  the  church  bells  were 
rung,  citizens  were  aroused,  and  every  effort  was  made 
to  succor  the  poor  sufferers,  whose  cries  could  be  dis- 
tinctly heard,  but  in  vain.  In  less  than  twenty  minutes 
the  boat   disappeared   and   all  was  still. 

It  is  said  that  she  was  afterward  raised,  re-built,  and 
plied  for  some  years  on  the  Connecticut  river. 

The  custom  of  ringing  the  church  bells  to  call  the  peo- 


pie  together  prevailed,  for  secular  as  well  as  for  sacred 
purposes  for  many  years.  It  was  not  until  after  the 
middle  of  the  last  century  that  they  were  dispensed  with, 
and  a  tall  tower  with  heavy  fire-bell  was  substituted,  to 
call  the  firemen  to  their  duties. 

The  city  was  then  districted  and  numbered,  and  the  fire 
alarm  now  signifies  the  location  of  fires  by  ringing  a 
corresponding  number. 

A  syren  whistle  has  also  been  placed  on  the  Public 
Square,  which  gives  most  ear-piercing  information  to  the 
residents  of  that  section  of  the  city. 

To  return  once  more  to  the  Promenade  Hill,  which  was 
selected  as  a  proper  and  desirable  site  for  the  statue  of 
St.  Winifred,  "Presented  to  the  City  of  Hudson  by  Gen. 
John  Watts  de  Peyster,  1896,"  and  which  was  unveiled 
with  suitable  ceremonies,  and  an  address  of  acceptance 
by  the  City,  delivered  by  the  Hon.  Casper  P.  Collier. 

The  familiar  legend  of  St.  Winifred  runs  thus: 

St.  Winifred  was  a  noble  British  maiden,  who  was 
beheaded  by  Prince  Caradoc  for  repelling  his  persistent 

The  head  rolled  down  a  hill,  and  where  it  stopped  a 
spring  gushed  forth,  which  is  Holywell,  in  Flintshire, 
Wales,  famous  still  as  a  place  of  pilgrimage.  She  is  the 
patron  saint  of  virgins.  Caradoc  was  called  by  the 
Romans  Caractacus. 

General  de  Peyster  remarked  when  giving  the  statue, 
that  "he  knew  there  were  many  saints  in  Hudson,  but  he 
hoped  there  was  room  for  one  more." 

The  stranger  re-visiting  Hudson  after  an  interval  of 
about  twenty  years  could  not  fail  to  note  a  great  improve- 
ment in  our  shopping  district.  It  would  perhaps  be  more 
noticeable  than  in  the  residential  part  of  the  city,  although 
several  handsome  dwellings  have  been  erected  within  that 


But  anyone  who  can  recall  the  impression  our  former 
low  buildings  made  upon  them  after  an  extended  sojourn 
in  larger  cities,  (as  though  a  whirlwind  had  removed  the 
upper  stories),  cannot  fail  to  contrast  their  inferior  ap- 
pearance with  the  places  of  business  on  our  principal 
thoroughfare  today. 

These  are  really  creditable  structures,  a  few  having 
glass  fronts,  and  all  with  fine  large  show  windows,  in  which 
their  wares  are  effectively  displayed. 

Within  these  alluring  exteriors  are  to  be  found  in 
many  cases,  the  usual  appointments  and  appurtenances 
of  the  regulation  department  store. 

During  the  last  decade  of  the  19th  century  a  deter- 
mined effort  was  made  in  the  very  necessary,  as  well  as 
desirable  direction  of  civic  betterments,  and  excellent 
progress  and  good  results  were  accomplished. 

Warren  street,  from  the  Park  to  the  river,  was  re-paved 
with  asphalt  blocks  in  1890.  Additional  and  enlarged 
sewers  were  laid.  A  number  of  streets  were  macadam- 
ized, and  the  upper  part  of  Warren  street  and  Worth 
avenue   also   received   needed  attention. 

All  these  public  benefactions  in  their  preservation  and 
extension  will  continue  to  require  the  expenditure  of 
money  and  energy — and  still  there's  more  to  follow! 

A  new  charter  was  procured  for  the  City  of  Hudson 
in  1895,  which  provided  additional  commissions  for  every 
possible  contingency. 

One  of  the  most  important  of  these,  and  one  whose 
efficient  handiwork  is  to  be  seen  in  many  civic  improve- 
ments, is  the  Board  and  Superintendent  of  Public  Works. 
To  this  and  to  the  still  more  necessary  Board  of  Health, 
Hudson  stands  deeply  indebted.  The  creation  of  a  City 
Court  and  the  office  of  City  Judge;  clearly  defining  the 
duties  and  powers  of  the  Board  of  Education,  and  the 
formation  of  Public  Charities,  Cemetery,  and  Police  Com- 
missions have  all  been  productive  of  good  results. 


The  public  parks  and  grounds  surrounding  the  school 
buildings  were  first  improved  in  1898-9,  and  the  sums 
expended  in  clipped  lawns  and  beds  of  flowers  have  made 
most  gratifying  returns  in  the  increased  attractiveness  of 
the  city. 

Our  early  forefathers  adhered  to  their  custom  of  de- 
pending on  night-watchmen  for  many  years,  adding  to 
their  number  until  there  were  fourteen  on  duty  every 
night!  The  day  seems  to  have  been  left  without  any 
guardians  of  the  peace.  Like  the  little  boy,  who  only 
prayed  to  be  taken  care  of  at  night,  saying  he  could  take 
care  of  himself  in  the  daytime ! 

But  at  length  two  constables  were  appointed,  and  these 
were  succeeded  by  a  limited  number  of  policemen. 

In  1873,  the  police  department  was  re-organized  and 
consists  of  a  Chief  and  six  men,  to  whom  a  sergeant  was 
added  in  1895,  and  the  whole  force  was  placed  under 
the  direction  of  a  Police  Commission  of  three,  as  pro- 
vided by  the  new  Charter. 

For  more  than  half  of  the  last  century  the  cemetery 
received  but  little  attention,  and  until  1855,  nothing  was 
done,  as  we  learn  from  the  records,  except  to  "place  a 
fence  around  it,   and  clear  away  the   bushes." 

In  that  year  some  attempts  were  made  to  improve  it, 
but  with  only  partial  success,  and  it  was  not  until  1872, 
that  the  work  was  taken  resolutely  in  hand.  A  few  per- 
sons formed  themselves  into  a  "Cemetery  Association," 
raised  a  fund  of  about  three  thousand  dollars,  to  eke 
out  the  small  amount  appropriated  by  the  City,  and  the 
grounds  gradually  assumed  their  present  improved  ap- 

In  order  to  insure  a  permanent  income  a  number  of 
annual  subscriptions  were  secured  in  payment  of  personal 
attention  to  lots,  from  year  to  year,  and  a  system  of  per- 
petual care  was  also  later  adopted  by  the  Cemetery  Com- 


On  June  18,  1895,  the  city  purchased  the  adjacent  prop- 
erty of  Mr.  Brockbanks,  which  furnishes  the  convenient 
and  ample  enlargement  that  had  become  necessary,  while 
the  dwelling  can  be  used  as  a  much  needed  mortuary 
chapel,  and  also  contains  the  office  of  the  superintendent. 
The  whole  was  enclosed  with  a  neat  iron  fence,  finished 
with  ornamental  gates  at  the  principal  entrance,  which 
were  presented  to  the  city  in  1896,  and  the  grounds  then 
received  the  name  of  "Cedar  Park  Cemetery,"  Seldom 
has  the  expenditure  of  time,  effort  and  money,  been  more 
richly  repaid,  for  nature  has  done  her  best  to  make  the 
views  surpassingly  beautiful,  and  asks  but  little  help 
from  man. 



Medical  Profession — Charitable  Institutions. 

That  "peace  hath  her  victories  no  less  renowned  than 
war"  is  well  exemplified  in  the  triumphs  of  modern  thera- 
peutics, and  antiseptic  surgery,  but  the  residents*  of  Hud- 
son have  been  always  highly  favored  in  having  physicians 
who  kept  well  abreast  of  the  discoveries  in  medical  science, 
and  who  were  able  and  skillful  practitioners. 

Among  the  first  of  these  was  Doctor  Robert  G.  Frary, 
who  was  bom  in  1793,  and  was  licensed  to  practice  medi- 
cine in  1815.  He  soon  obtained  recognition  and  became 
a  member  of  the  County  Medical  Society  in  1818,  and 
of  the  New  York  State  Medical  Society  in   1836. 

Doctor  Frary  was  elected  Vice-President  of  The  $tate 
Medical  Society  in  1845  and  its  President  in   1851. 

In  addition  to  the  active  duties  of  his  profession,  Doc- 
tor Frary  took  a  deep  interest  in  municipal  affairs,  and 
served  as  Mayor  of  Hudson  from  1836  to  1846,  beside 
holding  minor  offices. 

His  death  which  occurred  on  Dec.  29,  1862,  was  deeply 
regretted,  and  in  recognition  of  his  valuable  services  to 
this  city,  the  grateful  citizens  erected  a  monument  to  his 

Another  of  our  most  prominent  and  greatly  beloved 
physicians  was  Doctor  Abijah  Perkins  Cook,  who 
was  born  at  Hyde  Park,  New  York,  in  1808.  He  was 
graduated  from  the  Hudson  Academy  in  1831,  and  pur- 
sued his  medical  studies  with  his  brother.  Doctor  George 
W.  Cook.  After  receiving  his  degree  from  the  College 
of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  Doctor  Cook  began  the  prac- 
tice  of   medicine   in    Chatham,   removing   to    Hudson    in 


1840,  where  he  was   actively  engaged  in   the   duties   of 
his  profession,  until  his  death  in   1884.  • 

Doctor  Cook  early  became  a  convert  of  Homeopathy, 
and  was  elected  a  member  of  the  American  Institute  of 
Homeopathy  in  1847,  he  was  chosen  President  of  the 
Homeopathic  Medical  Society  of  this  state  in  1865,  and 
was  elected  a  permanent  member  of  that  body  in  the 
following  year. 

He  was  emphatically  a  professional  man,  and  he  de- 
sired only  the  honor  of  being  a  successful  physician.  In 
this  he  was  surely  gratified,  for  his  extensive  practice 
was  a  sufficient  proof  of  his  skill  and  devotion,  while 
he  had,  in  an  eminent  degree,  the  faculty  of  inspiring 
confidence.  Doctor  Cook  came  of  a  family  of  noted 
physicians  on  both  his  father's  and  mother's  side,  and  his 
son,  Doctor  Charles  P.  Cook,  who  succeeded  him,  well 
sustains  the  traditions  of  his  sires.  He  is  now  the  oldest 
and  most  prominent  Homeopathic  physician  in  this  city, 
and  one  of  the  very  few  whom  we  can  recall,  that  was 
born  here,  so  large  a  proportion  of  Hudson's  public  men 
having  been  born   elsewhere! 

Perhaps  however  it  may  be  a  higher  compliment  to  the 
city  to  have  been  selected  as  a  place  of  residence  after 
their  arrival  at  years  of  discretion.  It  may  also  have 
been  observed  that  many  of  those,  of  whom  mention  has 
been  made,  have  passed  away,  and  lest  some  irreverent 
person  should  dare  to  suggest  that,  like  the  succulent 
tuber,  the  best  part  of  Hudson  seems  to  be  under  the 
ground,  we  hasten  to  explain,  that  on  the  contrary,  the 
impartial  historian  is  surrounded  with  a  veritable  em- 
barrassment of  riches,  on  which  the  inexorable  limits  of 
space  forbid  an  entrance. 

To  return  to  our  physicians,  the  name  of  Doctor 
Elbridge  Simpson  will  suggest  itself  to  many  of  the 
older  citizens.  He  was  born  at  Ashfield,  Mass.,  in 
1812,    and    soon    after    the    completion    of    his    medical 


Studies,  came  to  this  city,  where  he  passed  the  whole 
of  his  professional  life.  Failing  health  compelled  Doctor 
Simpson  to  seek  rest  and  restoration  in  travel  but  he 
returned  to  Hudson,  before  his  death,  in  1880.  Doctor 
Simpson  possessed  in  a  large  degree  the  family  trait^ 
which  was  so  marked  in  his  brother,  Mr.  Joel  T.  Simpson, 
of  always  extending  a  helping  hand  to  those  who  were  at- 
tempting to  obtain  a  foothold  in  this  workaday  world. 
More  than  one  struggling  young  physician  was  cheered 
and  encouraged  by  Doctor  Simpson,  and  enabled  to  prove 
that  'everything  (even  patients)  comes  to  him  who  waits.* 
Doctor  John  C.  Benham  was  also  a  successful  prac- 
titioner in  this  city  for  many  years. 

He  was  born  in  Catskill,  New  York,  in  1816,  studied 
anatomy  and  surgery  under  Doctor  March  of  Albany,  and 
was  graduated  from  the  Medical  Academy  at  Woodstock, 
Vt.,   in    1837. 

Doctor  Benham  removed  to  Hudson  in  1847,  and  made 
it  his  permanent  home,  pursuing  his  profession  here  dur- 
ing the  remainder  of  his  long  life.  He  was  a  man  of 
high  character,  and  generous,  not  only  of  his  means,  but 
of  his  time  and  skill,  in  his  ministrations  to  the  poor. 
A  noble  Christian  gentleman. 

Doctor  John  P.  Wheeler,  who  was  a  contemporary  of 
Doctor  Benham,  naturally  next  recurs  to  memory. 

Doctor  Wheeler  was  a  native  of  Red  Hook,  New  York, 
and  was  born  in  1817.  He  studied  medicine  with  his 
father,  and  commenced  practice  in  this  city,  becoming 
a  member  of  the  County  Medical  Society  in  1843. 

Doctor  Wheeler  was  eminently  successful  as  a  prac- 
titioner, and  was  also  a  man  of  wide  reading,  and  fine 
culture.     He  died   in   Hudson   on   June  28,    1901. 

Doctor  William  H.  Pitcher,  although  a  resident  of  this 
city  for  only  seventeen  years,  greatly  endeared  himself  to 
all  who  knew   him. 

He   was  bom   in    1825,   and  was   graduated   from   the 


Woodstock,  Vermont,  Medical  Academy,  in  1853.  Three 
years  later  he  commenced  the  practice  of  medicine  in 
Hudson,  and  resided  here  until  his  death  in  June,   1872. 

Doctor  Pitcher  was  active  in  both  the  State  and  County 
Medical  Societies,  and  was  highly  esteemed  as  a  physician, 
and  as  a  man.  The  citizens  of  this  city  erected  a  monu- 
ment to  his  memory,  as  an  evidence  of  love  and  esteem. 

Doctor  Henry  Lyle  Smith  was  born  in  New  York  City 
in  1843,  was  prepared  for  college  at  Williston,  Mass., 
and  pursued  his  medical  studies  with  Doctor  John  P. 
Wheeler,   in   this   city. 

Doctor  Smith  was  graduated  from  the  New  York  College 
of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  1867  and  after  two  years' 
practice  at  Bellevue  and  Blackwell's  Island,  he  took  up 
his  residence  in  Hudson,  and  acquired  a  large  practice. 
Doctor  Smith  was  an  unusually  versatile  man  possessing 
a  variety  of  talents. 

He  wrote  on  both  musical  and  medical  topics  and  also 
a  humerous  account  of  a  European  trip,  the  manuscript 
of  which  he  donated  to  the  local  chapter  of  the  D.  A.  R., 
proceeds  of  publication  to  be  used  toward  a  building  fund. 

Doctor  Smith  passed  away  on  February  11,  1904,  sin- 
cerely mourned  by  a  host  of  friends. 

The  whole  community  was  also  deeply  moved  by  the 
death  of  Doctor  Crawford  Ellsworth  Fritts,  at  so  early 
an  age — when  in  only  his  46th  year.  Doctor  Fritts  was 
born  in  the  Town  of  Livingston  in  1850,  and  after  his 
graduation  from  the  Hudson  Academy,  he  became  a  stu- 
dent with  Doctor  H.  Lyle  Smith  in  this  city.  He  was 
graduated  from  the  New  York  College  of  Physicians  and 
Surgeons  in  1875,  and  became  resident  physician  of  the 
Kings  County  Hospital.  In  1877,  Doctor  Fritts  located 
in  Hudson,  and  soon  acquired  an  immense  practice.  His 
office  was  one  of  the  best  equipped  for  his  profession 
in  the  state,  and  it  was  daily  thronged  with  patients. 

Doctor  Fritts  was  a  member  of  both  the  County  and 


State  Medical  Societies,  and  also  of  The  New  York  State 
Medical  Association. 

He  was  consulting  physician  and  surgeon  of  the  New 
York  Central,  and  Albany  and  Hudson  railroads,  and 
also  consulting  physician  of  the  Girls'  Training  School. 

He  held  many  local  offices  beside  those  immediately 
connected  with  his  practice,  including  a  directorship  in 
the  Hudson  River  Bank,  the  Vice  Presidency  of  a 
Knitting  Company  and  Surgeon  of  Company  F.,  Tenth 

Doctor  Fritts  was  especially  interested  in  the  Hudson 
City  Hospital,  and  was  not  only  an  active  factor  in  its 
establishment,  but  was  enthusiastic  in  its  support.  He 
donated  to  the  institution  the  best  obtainable  operating 
outfit,  and  personally  directed  the  proper  preparation  of 
the  surgery  for  its  use. 

A  summer  which  the  Doctor  spent  in  Europe,  might 
have  given  him  the  sorely  needed  rest  and  change,  had 
he  not  combined  with  it,  a  course  of  study  with  an  eye 
specialist,  which  while  it  greatly  increased  his  efficiency 
in  that  branch  of  his  profession,  prevented  his  obtaining 
the  recuperation  which  ought  to  have  been  his  first  and 
only   consideration. 

Dr.  Fritts  had  an  extended  acquaintance  throughout 
this  and  adjoining  counties,  who  with  a  large  circle  of 
more  intimate  friends  united  to  grieve  over  his  untimely 
death,  which  occurred  on  April  6,  1904.  Tireless  energy 
and  unresting  toil,  undermined  his  naturally  strong  consti- 
tution and  left  him  powerless  to  resist  the  encroachments 
of  disease.  A  fund  of  between  five  and  six  thousand 
dollars  was  collected  from  the  citizens  of  Hudson  in 
1906,  which  was  used  for  the  purchase  of  the  Crawford 
E.  Fritts  Memorial  Home  for  Nurses,  No.  888  Columbia 

Certain  improvements  were  made  which  added  greatly 
to  its  value,  and  in  July,  1908,  the  property  was  conveyed 


to  the  Trustees  of  the  Hudson  City  Hospital,  for  their 
permanent  use. 

The  house  has  accommodations  for  from  fifteen  to 
twenty  nurses  and  furnishes  them  the  comforts  their  ardu- 
ous vocation  requires. 

The  consideration  of  the  Charitable  institutions  of  Hud- 
son, follows  quite  accidentally  but  with  great  appropriate- 
ness upon  that  of  the  medical  profession. 

No  one  who  has  not  been  engaged  in  the  work  of 
these  institutions,  can  imagine  the  continual  call  made 
by  them  upon  the  time  and  strength  of  the  physicians  of 
our  city,  nor  the  willing  cheerfulness  of  their  response. 

The  Hudson  Orphan  and  Relief  Association  is  the  old- 
est and  one  of  the  most  beneficent  of  our  charities. 

It  was  founded  by  Mrs.  Robert  McKinstry,  who 
sheltered  little  waifs  at  first  in  her  own  home.  In  1841, 
she  rented  a  few  rooms  at  a  cost  of  100  dollars  per  year, 
but  soon  after  her  father,  Mr.  Abner  Hammond,  become- 
ing  interested  gave  her  a  suitable  site  on  which  by  per- 
sistent effort  an  asylum  was  built,  at  a  cost  of  6,000 
dollars.  Small,  timely  bequests  and  constant  solicitation 
supported  the  venture,  until  a  larger  legacy  in  1879  en- 
abled the  Trustees  to  purchase  their  present  fine  building 
with  its  ample  grounds,  which  was  fitted  expressly  for 
their  requirements,  and  forms  an  ideal  home  for  the 
little  unfortunates. 

Mrs.  McKinstry  was  President  of  the  institution  until 
her  death,  which  occurred  quite  suddenly  on  June  22, 
1862,  and  its  prosperity,  if  not  its  very  existence,  was  the 
direct  result  of  her  unselfish  devotion  to  its  interests.  The 
asylum  has  accommodations  for  fifty  children,  and  in 
1904,  a  well  furnished  Kindergarten  was  installed,  for  the 
use  of  the  younger  ones.  It  is  liberally  endowed,  and 
bears  the  name  of  "The  Lucius  Moore  Memorial  Kinder- 

The  Home  for  the  Aged  was  the  next  Charitable  insti- 

200  *  HISTORY   OF    HUDSON 

tution  established  in  Hudson.  It  was  incorporated  on 
May  5,  1883,  and  was  opened  on  October  23rd,  of  the 
same  year,  in  a  rented  building  on  the  southeast  corner 
of  Fifth  and  Union  streets. 

In  1895,  a  suitable  place  with  grounds  on  the  corner 
of  South  Seventh  and  Union  streets  was  purchased.  This 
with  judicious  alterations  and  improvements,  was  con- 
verted into  a  convenient  and  capacious  "Home,"  which 
was  ready  for  occupancy  in  April,   1896. 

Being  enabled  by  the  generous  remembrance  of  its 
friends  to  assume  the  support  of  a  larger  number,  and 
desiring  to  extend  its  benefits  to  as  many  as  possible,  a 
wing  containing  twelve  additional  rooms  was  erected  in 

Although  the  accommodations  are  by  this  means  en- 
larged to  twenty-eight  it  has  retained  the  same  attractive 
features  of  a  private  home  which  differentiates  it  from 
the  ordinary  institution  of  the  kind. 

The  Hudson  City  Hospital  was  incorporated  on  Decem- 
ber 17,  1887,  as  the  result  of  an  earnest  effort  on  the 
part  of  a  few  of  our  citizens,  and  at  the  urgent  request 
of  Mr.  Alfred  Van  Deusen,  who  wished  to  leave  to  such 
an  institution,  preferably  located  in  this  city,  a  legacy 
of  5,000  dollars.  Further  action  was  deferred  until  June 
1,  1893,  when  a  building  on  the  northeast  comer  of 
Washington  and  Fifth  streets  was  rented,  properly  pre- 
pared, and  used  for  hospital  purposes  until  July,  1897. 

A  legacy  of  upwards  of  30,000  dollars  which  was  left 
to  them  by  Miss  Sarah  Bayley,  then  became  available, 
and  a  desirable  site  on  Prospect  avenue  and  Columbia 
street,  was  purchased.  On  this  was  erected  the  present 
hospital  building,  which  was  ready  for  occupancy  in  1900, 
the  first  patient  having  been  received  on  June  6,  of  that 
year.     It  has  thirty  beds  and  all  the  appliances  and  fur- 

HISTORY    OF    HUDSON  '  201 

Tiishings  that  are  to  be  found  in  well  appointed  institu- 
tions of  the  kind. 

The  surgery  has  been  mentioned  as  being  particularly 
■complete  in  its  special  requirements,  and  a  diet  kitchen  has 
been  presented  to  the  hospital  by  a  friend,  who  knew 
the  importance  of  that  department,  in  caring  for  the  sick. 

A  Nurses'  Training  School  is  conducted  in  connection 
with  the  Hospital,  and  the  "Crawford  E.  Fritts  Memorial 
Home"  provides  for  the  wants  of  the  whole  body  of 
nurses  required.  An  ambulance  was  the  very  essential 
contribution  of  the  ladies  of  the  city,  at  an  early  date. 
A  Hospital  Auxiliary  composed  of  the  gentler  sex,  adds 
not  a  little  to  the  funds  and  fittings  of  the  work,  by  the 
various  means  employed. 

Patients  are  received  at  the  usual  rates,  but  a  large 
proportion  of  its  service  is  charity,  pure  and  simple,  it 
having  been  an  especial  boon  to  the  poorer  classes. 

The  New  York  State  Training  School  for  Girls  is  lo- 
cated in  one  of  the  suburbs  of  Hudson. 

This  institution  was  opened  on  April  15,  1887,  as  a 
"House  of  Refuge  for  Women,"  but  was  not  successful. 
Notwithstanding  the  most  faithful  effort,  extending  over 
a  period  of  fifteen  years,  only  five  per  cent  gave  satis- 
factory  proof  of  reformation. 

It  was  thought  that  more  encouraging  results  might  be 
obtained  from  girls  of  an  impressionable  age,  conse- 
quently the  institution  was  re-organized,  and  re-opened 
as  a  "Training  School   for  Girls,"  on  June   1,   1904. 

The  age  limit  is  from  ten  to  sixteen  years,  and  they 
are  taught  all  branches  of  housework  and  the  nursery, 
together  with  nursing,   and   other  industries. 

All  the  girls  have  regular  instruction  in  gymnastics  and 
chorus  singing.     The   Institution   is  most  admirably  man-' 
aged  and  the  reports  show  that  it  is  meeting  with  abun- 
dant success.     The  total  number  of  inmates  in  May,  1908, 


was  two  hundred  and  twenty-eight,  and  sixty-five  em- 
ployees, thirteen  of  whom  were  teachers. 

The  Volunteer  Firemen's  Home  located  just  north 
of  the  city  proper,  completes  our  list  of  public  charities. 
The  corner  stone  of  the  main  building  was  laid  on  June 
28,  1892,  and  the  Institution  was  formally  opened  on 
June  5,   1895. 

The  last  addition  costing  35,000  dollars  has  just  been 
completed,  making  about  50,000  dollars  spent  for  improve- 
ments during  the  past  two  years.  Number  of  inmates  at 
present  is  sixty-eight,  and  the  Home  has  accommodations 
for  at  least  fifty  more  worthy  guests. 

This  most  excellent  charitable  institution   is  supported 

by  a  tax  on  foreign  insurance  companies  doing  business 

in  this  state.     The  tax  is  two   per  cent,   and   the  State 

Firemen's  Association  receives  ten  per  cent  of  the  money. 


Distinguished  Men. 

Among  the  men  whose  names  and  fame  adorn  the 
annals  of  Hudson,  the  Hon.  John  Stanton  Gould  stands 
prominently  forth. 

John  Stanton  Gould  was  born  in  Newport,  Rhode  Is- 
land, on  March  14,  1812.  He  was  of  Quaker  parentage 
and  his  most  cherished  heritage  was  the  memory  of  the 
brave  steadfastness  of  his  ancestors,  under  their  cruel 
and  wicked  persecution. 

After  finishing  his  course  at  the  Friends'  School  in 
Providence,  he  was  given  his  choice  of  a  profession,  and 
deliberately  decided  to  enter  the  print  works  of  his  rela- 
tive, Benjamin  Marshall  of  Stockport,  Columbia  county, 
as  a  chemist. 

Mr.  Gould  was  elected  a  Member  of  the  Assembly  in 
1846,  but  he  was  never  in  any  sense  a  politician,  and 
early  became  interested  in  matters  of  a  humanitarian 
order.  He  was  instrumental  in  forming  the  State  Prison 
Association,  of  which  he  was  subsequently  made  Vice- 

Here  Mr.  Gould's  broad  philanthropic  views  found  full 
scope  in  devising  means  for  the  amelioration  of  the  con- 
dition of  the  prisoners,  and  many  measures  for  the  ref- 
ormation of  the  dangerous  classes  emanated  from  his 
fertile  brain. 

The  science  of  Agriculture  greatly  appealed  to  Mr. 
Gould  and  his  writings  on  this  and  kindred  subjects  are 
among  the  most  valuable  contributions  to  this  topic,  lead- 
ing to  his  appointment  as  President  of  the  New  York 
State  Agricultural  Society.  Mr.  Gould's  lecture  on 
"Grasses"  before  that  body,  illustrated  by  the  exhaustive 


collection  of  these  products  of  the  soil,  which  is  still  pre- 
served in  the  State  Museum  at  Albany,  was  one  of  the 
most  masterly  ever  presented  before  that  society. 

But  perhaps  the  crowning  work  of  his  studious  life 
was  that  in  connection  with  founding  the  chair  of  Agri- 
culture in  Cornell  University,  on  the  opening  of  which 
iVlr.  Gould  was  chosen  to  lecture  on  Agriculture  and  the 
Mechanical  Arts.  This  position  he  filled  for  twelve  years, 
and  v/as  one  of  the  most  popular  professors  at  Cornell 
until  his  death,  on  the  8th  of  August,   1874. 

Mr.  Gould  removed  to  Hudson  in  the  year  1852,  hav- 
ing purchased  the  fine  old  colonial  dwelling  No.  115 
Warren  street.  Here  he  passed  the  remainder  of  his  life, 
drawing  around  him  a  few  choice  friends,  amid  an 
atmosphere  of  genial  hospitality,  which  under  the  benig- 
nant sway  of  his  excellent  wife  has  been  well  preserved 
to  the  present  day.  May  it  be  long  ere  her  cordial  wel- 
come shall  be  missed  by  her  large  circle  of  loving  friends. 

Mr.  Gould  had  a  happy  gift  of  imparting  knowledge 
which,  with  his  command  of  language  made  him  a  valu- 
able acquisition  both  to  the  public  platform  and  to  so- 
ciety. Without  a  trace  of  ostentation  or  self-consciousness 
he  would  devote  his  encyclopedic  learning  to  the  enlight- 
enment of  a  school  girl,  as  willingly  as  he  would  converse 
with  a  more  congenial  pedant. 

Another  whose  distinguished  attainments  reflect  credit 
upon  this  city  is  Doctor  Frederick  Belding  Power,  Ph.  D., 
LL.  D.,  F.  C.  S.,  who  ranks  as  one  of  the  four  great 
chemists,  of  the  world.  Doctor  Power,  whose  ancestors 
were  among  the  earliest  settlers  of  Hudson,  his 
great  grandfather  having  been  prominent  in  its  affairs 
before  1787,  was  born  in  this  city  on  March  4, 
1853.  Under  the  tuition  of  William  P.  Snyder  he 
pursued  his  studies  at  the  Hudson  Academy,  at  the 
conclusion  of  which  he  entered  the  College  of  Phar- 
macy in  Philadelphia.     He  was  graduated  in  the  spring 


of  1874,  with  the  highest  honors,  receiving  the  prize  in 

After  thus  demonstrating  his  talents  in  this  direction 
Doctor  Power  was  strongly  urged  by  professional  friends 
to  devote  himself  to  the  science  of  Chemistry,  and  in 
pursuance  of  this  purpose,  he  took  his  departure  for  Ger- 
many in   1876. 

Here  he  became  matriculated  as  a  student  in  the  Kaiser 
Wilhelm  University  of  Strasburg,  and  spent  four  years 
in  the  study  of  Chemistry  and  Natural  science.  During 
the  last  three  of  these.  Doctor  Power  served  as  Assistant 
to  Professor  Phickiger,  one  of  the  faculty,  which  was  in 
those  days  a  rare  distinction  for  an  American,  it  being  a 
salaried  position  and  a  Government  appointment.  In 
1880,  Doctor  Power  received  his  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Philosophy  and  soon  after  returned  to  America,  where  he 
was  at  once  tendered  a  position  in  the  Chemical  Labora- 
tory, of  the  Philadelphia  College  of  Pharmacy,  his  old 
alma  mater. 

This  he  accepted  and  retained  for  about  three  years, 
during  which  he  published  in  connection  with  his  late 
lamented  friend.  Doctor  Frederick  Hoffman,  of  New  York, 
"A  Manual  of  Chemical  Analysis,"  a  large  work  which 
then  appeared  in  three  editions.  As  a  means  of  relaxa- 
tion from  other  duties  and  for  further  culture,  Doctor 
Power  attended  evening  classes  at  the  National  School 
of  Elocution  and  Oratory,  receiving  the  diploma  of  the 

In  1883,  Doctor  Power  received  a  call  from  the  State 
University  of  Wisconsin  at  Madison,  which  he  gladly  ac- 
cepted, as  in  the  work  of  organizing  and  conducting  a 
Department  of  Pharmacy  in  that  institution,  a  wide  field 
of  usefulness  was  opened  to  him  amid  most  congenial 
surroundings.  During  the  nine  years  Doctor  Power  occu- 
pied this  position,  he  not  only  formed  many  cherished 
friendships,   but  in   addition   to  his  regular  duties,   found 


time  for  research,  and  for  the  translation  of  German 
scientific  works,  and  also  served  on  the  Committee  of 
Revision  of  the  United  States  Pharmacopoeia. 

In  the  meantime  an  invitation  was  extended  to  him  to 
assume  the  directorship  of  some  newly  established  chem- 
ical laboratories  in  the  East,  and  after  spending  four 
years  in  Passaic,  New  Jersey,  Doctor  Power  acceded  to 
the  urgent  request  of  a  former  classmate  at  Philadelphia, 
Mr.  Henry  F.  Wellcome,  and  joined  him  in  London.  Spec- 
ial laboratories  were  established  in  the  central  part  of 
the  city  in  1896,  to  be  known  as  the  "Wellcome  Chem- 
ical Research  Laboratories,"  and  of  these  Doctor  Power 
is  the  scientific  director.  With  the  assistance  of  a  staff 
of  highly  trained  chemists,  a  large  amount  of  scientific 
research  has  been  accomplished,  which  is  embodied  in 
nearly  one  hundred  publications.  Products  representing 
the  results  of  their  labors  have  been  shown  at  numerous 
exhibitions,  both  in  this  country  and  in  Europe,  receiving 
the  highest  awards — and  gold  medals,  a  "grand  orize," 
and  diploma  of  honor,  are  a  few  of  the  distinctions  be- 
stowed upon  Doctor  Power  and  his  collaborators. 

Limited  space  forbids  the  enumeration  of  the  honors 
that  have  been  showered  upon  Doctor  Power  both  at 
home  and  abroad,  only  a  few  of  which  appear  in  the 
alphabetical  adornments  of  his  name. 

We  rejoice  to  be  able  to  add  that  although  he  has  be- 
come a  resident  of  London  for  a  time,  England  can  claim 
no  more.  Doctor  Power  values  too  highly  the  honor  of 
American  citizenship  ever  to  surrender  it,  and  Hudsonians 
may  still  continue  to  follow  his  career  with  unabated 
pride  and  pleasure. 

Of  equal,  although  quite  different  distinction,  are  the 
two  well-known  bankers  who  by  righ*^  of  birth,  come  with- 
in the  purview  of  these  little  sketches. 

William  A.  Nash,  who  is  one  of  the  accredited  author- 
ities on  finance,  was  bom  in  this  city  in  1840 


When  he  was  seven  years  of  age,  his  family  removed 
to  Brooklyn  where  Mr.  Nash  spent  all  his  boyhood  years, 
attending  the  public  schools,  and  graduating  at  No.  13 
De  Graw  street,  at  the  early  age  of  fourteen. 

He  immediately  entered  the  Corn  Exchange  Bank  as 
a  messenger  boy,  remaining  five  years  and  rising  to  a 

Mr.  Nash  then  entered  the  Oriental  Bank  where  he 
spent  three  years,  returning  to  the  Corn  Exchange  Bank 
at  the  expiration  of  that  time  as  receiving  teller;  he  was 
soon  promoted  to  be  paying  teller,  and  in  1872  was  made 

Eleven  years  later,  in  1883,  Mr.  Nash  was  elected 
President  of  the  Corn  Exchange  Bank,  and  on  the  25th 
anniversary  of  his  occupancy  of  that  position,  a  handsome 
loving  cup  was  presented  to  him,  as  a  mark  of  apprecia- 
tion and  esteem. 

Mr.  Nash  is  a  tireless  worker  and  possesses  a  genius 
for  figures,  and  a  penchant  for  books. 

Since  1893,  he  has  been  one  of  the  controlling  spirits 
of  the  New  York  Clearing  House,  and  its  President  in 
1895-6.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the  committee  who 
bought  the  land  and  directed  the  construction  of  the  new 
Clearing  House. 

During  the  panic  of  1893,  Mr.  Nash  was  one  of  the 
five  men  who,  as  the  executive  committee  of  the  Clearing 
House,  had  that  financial  disturbance  in  charge.  At  that 
time  he  showed  a  breadth  of  view,  backed  by  a  fear- 
lessness combined  with  conservatism,  that  placed  him  in 
the  front  rank  of  the  able  bankers  of  the  country. 

Mr.  Nash  has  ever  retained  his  interest  in  the  city  of 
his  birth,  and  although  his  visits  are  infrequent  he  will 
respond  to  occasional  inducements. 

Valentine  Perry  Snyder,  the  distinguished  banker,  was 
born  in  Hudson  on  March  10,  1850.  He  is  the  son  of 
the   Rev.   William    P.   Snyder,   who   was   for   many   years 


Principal  of  the  Hudson  Academy  and  Superintendent 
of  the  Public  Schools.  His  mother  was  descended  from 
Francis  Cook  of  the  "Mayflower." 

Mr.  Snyder  was  educated  at  the  Hudson  Academy,  and 
declining  to  enter  college,  much  to  his  father's  chagrin, 
he  began  his  wonderfully  successful  business  career  at 
the  age  of  fifteen,  as  an  accountant  in  the  Hudson  River 
Bank.  From  there  he  went  to  the  Chatham  National 
Bank  of  New  York,  subsequently  forming  connections 
with  the  First  National  Bank  of  Fishkill,  and  Third  Na- 
tional Bank  of  New  York. 

Upon  the  appointment  of  Hon.  Daniel  Manning  as 
Secretary  of  the  Treasury,  under  the  first  Cleveland  ad- 
ministration, Mr.  Snyder  was  selected  for  his  private 
secretary,  and  later  he  held  various  positions  in  the 
Treasury  Department,  the  last  being  that  of  Deputy  Con- 
troller of  the  Currency,  which  office  he  filled  until  1887, 
when  he  was  appointed  National  Bank  Examiner  for  the 
City  of  New  York. 

On  January  1st,  1889,  Mr.  Snyder  became  Assistant 
Cashier  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  New  York,  and 
soon  after  was  elected  Vice  President,  and  later  President 
of  the  Western  National  Bank  of  that  city.  On  its  con- 
solidation with  the  Bank  of  Commerce  of  New  York,  Mr. 
Snyder  was  elected  President  of  the  combined  institutions, 
a  position  which  he  fills  with  great  credit,  together  with 
directorships  in  many  of  the  most  important  corporations 
in  the  country. 

At  the  close  of  the  Russo-Japanese  war,  Mr.  Snyder 
was  decorated  by  the  Emperor  of  Japan  with  the  Order 
of  the  "Rising  Sun,"  for  his  assistance  to  the  Japanese 
government,  in  placing  its  war  loans  in  this  country  and 
Europe,   and   for  other  valuable   services   rendered. 

The  Order  is  one  of  truly  Asiatic  gorgeousness,  con- 
sisting of  a  magnificent  ruby,  set  in  a  star,  surrounded 
by  golden  rays. 


The  fact  that  Mr.  Snyder  has  near  relatives  in  Hudson, 
will  insure  his  continued  interest  in  her  welfare,  an  in- 
terest that  is  most  cordially  reciprocated  by  her  citizens. 

Henry  A.  Smith,  who  is  one  of  the  Vice  Presidents  of 
the  National  Bank  of  Commerce  in  New  York,  was  a 
resident  of  Hudson  for  a  number  of  years. 

His  education  was  conducted  by  the  Rev.  William  P. 
Snyder  at  the  Hudson  Academy,  after  which  he  entered 
the  Farmers'  Bank  in  this  city,  where  he  received  his 
training  in  the  banking  business. 

In  the  meantime  his  father's  occupation  led  to  the 
removal  of  the  family  to  New  York  whither  Mr.  Smith 
followed,  and  in  the  course  of  time  became  a  member  of 
the  official  board  of  the  Bank  of  Commerce  with  his 
congenial  friend,  Mr.  Valentine  P.  Snyder. 

The  portraits  of  our  forefathers  were  painted,  appar- 
ently to  a  great  extent,  by  Mr.  Prime,  whose  handiwork 
appears  in  the  ancestral  halls  of  many  of  our  citizens. 
These  are  said  to  have  been  good  likenesses,  but  in  pose 
and  expression  they  seem  somewhat  stiff  and  wooden, 
to  us  of  a  later  generation. 

Mr.  Henry  Ary,  an  artist  of  unquestioned  merit,  next 
occupied  the  field,  the  most  important  of  his  portraits  being 
that  of  Washington,  which  is  owned  by  the  city,  and 
adorns  the  chamber  of  the  Common  Council. 

He  also  painted  landscapes  which  exhibit  real  artistic 
feeling,  some  of  which  may  yet  be  seen  in  the  homes  of 
his  admirers. 

Mr.  Ary  is  recalled  as  possessing  a  rare  artistic  sense, 
and  an  intense  love  of  nature.  He  was  also  a  charming 
personality,  and  greatly  respected. 

The  picturesque  scenery  of  Hudson  proved  an  inspira- 
tion to  the  talented  Parton  brothers,  Arthur  and  Ernest, 
both  of  whom  are  natives  of  this  city.  Soon  after  reach- 
ing his  majoriy,  Mr.  Arthur  Parton  entered  the  studio  of 


William  T.  Richards  of  Philadelphia,  where  he  obtained  a 
thorough,  and  conscientious  training  in  the  technicalities 
of  his  art,  after  which  he  opened  a  studio  in  New  York, 
which  has  since  been  his  place  of  work.  His  residence 
being  at  Yonkers  and  his  summer  home  in  the  Catskills. 

In  1869,  Mr.  Parton  went  to  Europe,  and  during  a 
year  spent  in  study  and  travel,  obtained  a  knowledge  of 
the  works  of  the  Barbizon  school,  which  has  been  of  in- 
estimable advantage  to  him  in  later  years. 

He  was  elected  an  Associate  of  the  National  Academy 
in  1872,  and  twelve  years  later  was  made  an  Acade- 
mician, and  is  also  a  member  of  the  American  Water 
Color  Society. 

Mr.  Parton  has  been  a  most  industrious  painter,  and 
his  works  have  received  the  highest  awards  of  merit 
both  in  Europe  and  in  his  native  land,  some  portion  at 
least  of  which  we  would  desire  to  enumerate,  did  space 

Mr.  Parton  has  a  daughter  who  has  inherited  much  of 
his  artistic  talent,  and  Miss  Hilda  Parton's  portraits  al- 
ready attract  most  favorable  attention. 

Mr.  Arthur  Parton  is  essentially  an  American  artist, 
finding  his  subjects  in  American  scenery,  and  is  to  be 
highly  esteemed  as  such — his  brother  Ernest  early  became 
a  resident  of  London,  England,  a  fact  of  which  we  cannot 
think  otherwise  than  regretfully. 

Mr.  Ernest  Parton  went  direct  to  nature  for  his  teacher 
and  she  repaid  his  devotion,  by  kindly  unfolding  to  him 
her  choicest  secrets. 

Not  long  after  locating  in  London,  Mr.  Parton  sent 
to  The  Royal  Academy  Exhibition  of  1879,  a  picture  called 
"The  Waning  of  the  Year,"  a  November  scene.  The  Presi- 
dent and  Council  of  the  Academy  hung  the  picture  in  the 
place  of  honor,  in  one  of  the  Galleries  and  purchased  it 
under  the  terms  of  the  Chantrey  bequest.  It  hangs  in  the 
collection  of  "The  Tate  Gallery,"  with  the  other  Chantrey 

HISTORY   OF    HUDSON  2 1  1 

pictures.  Needless  to  say  that  Mr.  Parton  is  well  estab- 
lished in  London.  He  is  a  member  of  every  Art  Society 
and  has  received  several  medals  abroad. 

Mention  of  Miss  Sara  Freeborn,  artist  and  sculptor, 
should  not  be  omitted  from  these  pages. 

Miss  Freeborn's  family  came  to  Hudson  when  she  was 
a  little  girl,  and  lived  for  a  number  of  years  in  the 
dwelling  that  is  now  the  Chapter  House. 

Here  Miss  Sara's  talent  was  exhibited  at  the  early  age 
of  nine  years,  by  a  profile  bas-relief  of  herself,  modeled 
for  her  mother's  birthday.  The  likeness,  caught  from  a 
mirror,  was  excellent.  Miss  Freeborn  was  also  a  painter 
of  portraits  for  a  time,  but  she  preferred  the  chisel  to  the 
brush,  which  in  middle  life  led  to  her  removal  to  Florence, 
Italy,  in  order  to  be  convenient  to  the  quarries  of  Carrara 
marble.  In  her  pleasant  home  she  ever  welcomed  with 
gladness  her  American  friends,  and  especially  those  from 

Miss  Freeborn  passed  away  quite  suddenly  during  a 
visit  to  this  country  not  long  since,  and  was  laid  to  rest 
among  her  kindred  in  our  lovely  cemetery. 

The  altar  in  Christ  Church  in  this  city,  which  was  exe- 
cuted by  Miss  Freeborn,  commemorates  her  beautiful  and 
wondrously  spirituelle  sister,  the  wife  of  Doctor  John  P. 
Wheeler,  who  placed  the  memorial  in  the  church  she 
loved  so  well. 

We  bring  these  imperfect  sketches  to  a  close  with  the 
name  of  one  whom  the  younger  artists  revere  and  whose 
place  in  the  realni  of  art  has  never  been  quite  filled. 

Sanford  Robinson  Gifford  was  born  in  Greenfield,  New 
York,  in  1822.    /f  ?-5 

His  father  soon  after  removed  to  Hudson,  where  he 
became  engaged  in  the  iron  business,  and  all  Mr.  Gifford's 
impressionable  boyhood's  years  were  passed  amid  the 
beautiful  scenery  of  this  city. 

It  is  not  surprising  that  his  artistic  nature  expanded,  and 
asserted  itself,  with  such   influences  as  these  thus  early 


exerted  upon  him.  So  dear  did  these  views  become  to 
him  that  on  many  occasions  when  arriving  on  a  visit 
to  his  relatives,  Mr.  Gifford  went  first  to  the  heights  be- 
yond to  drink  in  the  inspiration  they  afforded. 

In  1842,  Mr.  Gifford  entered  Brown  University,  where 
he  remained  two  years,  and  then  proceeded  to  New  York, 
to  avail  himself  of  the  few  advantages  there  offered  for 
the  study  of  art. 

For  one  year  he  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  draw- 
ing, perspective  and  anatomy,  with  a  view  to  portrait 
painting,  but  in  1845,  he  determined  to  become  a  land- 
scape painter,  which  was  the  true  bent  of  his  talent. 

After  exhibiting  in  the  Academy  for  five  years,  Mr. 
Gifford  was  in  1851,  elected  an  Associate,  and  in  1854,  an 

Then  followed  successive  seasons  spent  in  sketching, 
in  every  part  of  the  old  world,  with  intervals  only  in  his 
native  land.  In  September,  1857,  Mr.  Gifford  returned 
to  New  York,  and  occupied  the  studio  No.  19  in  the  Studio 
Building,  No.  51  West  Tenth  street,  which  he  retained 
until  his  death. 

Mr.  Gifford  joined  the  famous  Seventh  Regiment  of 
New  York  City  at  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War,  and 
accompanied  it  to  Washington  in  1861.  He  was  also  out 
with  the  regiment  in  1862  and  in  '63.  In  1868,  he  again 
went  abroad  remaining  two  years,  after  which  he  occupied 
himself  sketching  in  this  country  for  four  years,  leaving 
scarcely  any  accessible  portions  unvisited. 

In  July,  1880,  not  feeling  well  he  went  again  under 
medical  advice,  to  the  region  of  Lake  Superior,  but  be- 
came so  ill  that  he  was  compelled  to  hasten  home.  After 
lingering  a  few  weeks,  Mr.  Gifford  passed  away  in  the 
City  of  New  York,  on  the  29th  of  August,  1880,  in  the 
fifty-eighth  year  of  his  age. 

"Mr.  Gifford  possessed  an  imperishable  spark  of  genius. 


which  he  fanned  assiduously  throughout  his  whole  life  and 
has  left  an  ever-burning  impress  of  his  character  on  his 
works."  Certain  it  is  that  Mr.  Gifford's  pictures  remain 
upon  the  walls  of  memory,  as  though  painted  on  the  inner- 
most recesses  of  the  mind. 

Beside  these  whom  Hudson  can  claim  by  right  of  birth 
or  residence,  artists  like  the  distinguished  Frederick  E. 
Church,  who  was  the  intimate  friend  of  Sanford  R.  Gifford, 
and  the  great  painter  of  marines,  M.  F.  H.  de  Haas,  have 
given  our  views  the  stamp  of  the  highest  artistic  appre- 
ciation. The  latter  during  his  frequent  visits  pronouncing 
the  combination  of  mountain  and  river  to  be  unsurpassed 
in  beauty,  and  the  former  by  placing  his  home  within 
the  radius  of  six  miles,  which  in  his  mature  judgment 
contained  the  finest  scenery  in  the  world. 

Our  glimpses  of  authors  on  their  flying  visits  to  Hudson, 
like  those  of  the  other  personages  of  distinction  we  have 
mentioned,  have  closely  resembled  those  of  the  fabled 
angelic  visitants,  in  being  "few  and  far  between." 

Miss  Alice  B.  Neal  published  in  1850  a  book  entitled 
"The  Gossips  of  Rivertown,"  meaning  Hudson,  thereby 
giving  offense  to  many  of  the  good  people  of  this  city. 
Though  how  any  one  could  be  offended  at  such  emascu- 
lated caricatures  of  human  nature  is  past  finding  out. 

Miss  Neal  mentions  "the  excitement  occasioned  by 
Charles  Dickens  passing  through  Main  street,"  and  says, 
"every  traveler  who  arrived  at  the  'Rivertown  House' 
(Hudson  House)  for  months  afterward,  that  was  so  un- 
fortunate as  to  wear  a  linen  blouse,  and  have  an  uncom- 
mon quantity  of  long  light  hair  was  surely  'Dickens  him- 
self again.'  " 

That  was  Mr.  Charles  Dickens'  first  visit  to  this  country, 
which  was  followed  by  "American  Notes"  after  his  return 
to  England. 

That  book  by  "Boz".  doubtless  delighted  the  Britisher, 


but  was  less  pleasing  to  the  people  of  this  country  who 
had  so  hospitably  entertained  the  author.  However  un- 
palatable it  may  have  been,  much  of  it  was  true,  and  it 
probably  did  us  good 

"To   see   oursel's   as   others   see  us!" 

Mr.  Henry  James  visited  Hudson  in  September,  1905, 
and  curiously  enough  he  was  also  gathering  material  for 
his  "American  Notes,"  published  serially  in  "The  Atlantic 
Monthly"  and  "North  American  Review,"  and  later  col- 
lected in  book  form. 

Mr.  James  arrived  with  two  ladies  and  a  French  poodle 
in  an  automobile,  which  required  some  repairs.  The  party 
went  to  "The  Worth"  for  dinner,  requesting  to  bring  the 
poodle  to  the  dining  room  with  them. 

On  being  informed  that  dogs  were  not  allowed  in  that 
room,  but  would  be  well  cared  for  elsewhere,  they  departed 
and  as  Mr.  James  relates,  "found  dinner  at  a  cook  shop, 
after  encountering  coldness  at  the  door  of  the  main  hotel 
by  reason  of  our  French  poodle."  "This  personage  had 
made  our  group  admirably  composed  as  it  was,  only  more 
illustrious;  but  minds  indifferent  to  an  opportunity  of  in- 
tercourse, but  the  intercourse  of  mere  vision  with  fine 
French  poodles,  may  be  taken  as  suffering,  where  they 
have  sinned."  "The  hospitality  of  the  cook  shop  was 
meanwhile  touchingly,  winningly  unconditional,  yet  full 
of  character,  of  local,  of  natural  truth,  as  we  liked  to  think, 
documentary  in  a  high  degree — we  talked  it  over — for 
American  Life." 

How  very  Jamesian  that  is!  But  there  was  better  stuff 
than  that  in  the  "Notes,"  or  the  book  would  not  have  been 
worth  the  binding. 

The  incident  was  the  occasion  of  much  mirthful  com- 
ment in  Hudson,  but  it  only  exhibits  the  smallness  of  the 
really  great  Analyst,  in  his  analytical  extremes. 

Among  others  of  the  craft  of  authors  who  have  been 
entertained  in  this  city   (but  not  at  a  "cook  shop"),  we 


recall  the  charming  George  William  Curtiss — the  delight- 
ful raconteurs,  Bayard  Taylor  and  George  Kennan,  and 
also  W.  Elliot  Griffis,  our  American  historian  who  out- 
Hollands  the  Hollanders,  in  admiration  of  the  Dutch. 

Hudson  is  frequently,  though  erroneously  mentioned 
as  being  the  birthplace  of  Francis  Brett  Harte,  and  a  recent 
post  card  purports  to  exhibit  the  house  in  which  he  was 
born.     The  facts  in  the  case  are  these: 

Mr.  Hart's  father  v/as  for  a  time  the  Principal  of  the 
Hudson  Academy,  and  lived  on  the  corner  of  North 
Seventh  and  State  street.  Here  a  daughter  was  bom  and 
named  Margaret,  soon  after  which  the  family  removed  to 
Albany,  where  Mr.  Harte  was  employed  as  a  teacher  of 
the  classics  in  the  Albany  Female  Academy,  and  where 
Francis  Brett  Harte  was  born.    • 

Mr.  Harte  has  near  relatives  living  in  this  city,  whom 
he  used  occasionally  to  visit  in  his  early  years,  but  he 
never  resided  here. 


Clubs — Notable  Residents. 

The  Hudson  Social  Reading  Club  composed  of  fifty- 
members  was  organized  on  January  22,  1879,  "for  the  pro- 
motion of  social  intercourse  based  upon  intellectual  cul- 
ture." It  being  then  late  in  the  season,  further  action 
was  deferred  until  the  following  autumn,  and  the  first 
meeting  was  held  on  the  evening  of  November  10,  1879. 

The  Rev.  William  D.  Perry  was  elected  President  of 
the  club — a  position  which  he  filled  with  much  ability. 
The  literary  menu  was  prepared  by  an  executive  com- 
mittee who  after  due  consultation,  announced  the  fort- 
nightly "feast  of  reason  and  flow  of  soul." 

Mention  of  these  executive  sessions  brings  to  our  re- 
membrance, with  a  sigh  of  regret,  the  thoughtful  face  of 
Miss  Mary  Gifford,  at  whose  suggestion  the  club  was 
formed,  and  who  evinced  a  great  interest  in  its  welfare, 
while  she  continued  to  reside  in  Hudson. 

The  genial  mien  of  a  certain  reverend  gentleman  (not 
then  a  D.  D.)  who  still  dispenses  undiluted  spiritual 
pabulum  to  his  receptive  congregation  in  this  city,  recurs 
to  mind,  and  also  the  form  of  our  gifted  secretary,  to 
whom  Hudson  owes  a  debt  of  gratitude  for  the  preserva- 
tion of  her  early  history. 

The  writer  offers  no  apology  for  a  digression,  in  order 
to  pay  a  tribute  to  the  memory  of  Mr.  Stephen  B.  Miller, 
author  of  "Historical  Sketches  of  Hudson." 

Mr.  Miller  was  a  descendant  of  one  of  the  oldest  fami- 
lies of  Claverack,  a  branch  of  which  removed  to  this 
city,  where  he  was  born,  on  October  7,  1823.  He  was  a 
man  of  high  character,  upright,  generous,  unselfish,  and 
the  soul  of  honor. 


His  affection  for  Hudson  was  as  discriminating  as  it 
was  deep  and  abiding,  and  it  is  almost  pathetic  to  note 
in  his  "Sketches,"  how  sensitive  it  made  him  to  any  un- 
just criticism  applied  to  her. 

Almost  his  closing  words  in  that  work  are  an  appeal 
to  her  citizens  to  speak  well  of  their  own  city,  which  ought 
not  to  have  been  necessary,  one  would  think,  but  which 
unfortunately  is  still  too  much  required.  His  clear  eye 
saw  how  injurious  had  been  the  strange  habit  of  depre- 
ciation so  often  indulged. 

Mr.  Miller  passed  away  on  June  11,  1905,  leaving  a 
large  circle  of  friends  to  mourn  his  loss. 

Returning  to  the  "Reading  Club"  to  which  Mr.  Miller 
and  others  contributed  most  interesting  papers,  we  have 
delightful  memories  of  the  charming  entertainments  fur- 
nished to  its  members,  and  occasional  guests. 

Variety  was  secured  by  setting  apart  one  evening  in 
each  season,  to  be  devoted  to  music,  and  another  to  the 
drama.     These  were   exceptionally  enjoyable. 

On  November  5,  1888,  the  "Hudson  Social  Reading 
Club"  was  reorganized,  and  renamed  "The  Fortnightly," 
which  club  has  been  successfully  conducted  on  similar 
lines  for  the  past  twenty  years.  Its  twentieth  anniver- 
sary will  be  appropriately  celebrated  during  the  coming 
season.  A  few  changes  were  made,  the  most  important 
of  which  was  the  omission  of  gentlemen,  and  the  decision 
to  hold  the  meetings  in  the  afternoon  instead  of  evening. 

There  can  be  no  question  that  the  "Social  Reading 
Club"  and  its  successor  "The  Fortnightly,"  have  pro- 
moted social  intercourse,  and  have  widened  the  horizon 
of  their  members.  It  is  very  desirable  that  such  an 
organization   should   be   maintained. 

The  social  life  of  Hudson  has  always  been  of  an  ex- 
ceedingly pleasant  character,  but  in  recent  years  enter- 
tainments have  become  so  elaborate,  and  the  expenditure 
so  lavish  that  they  are  less  frequent  than   formerly. 


Possibly  a  return  to  something  of  the  simplicity  of 
our  mothers  might  be  of  advantage. 

A  uniformly  successful  hostess  of  several  generations 
ago,  on  being  congratulated  upon  her  delightful  "parties" 
(they  were  so  called  then),  she  replied,  "Oh!  I  have  really 
nothing  to  do  but  get  agreeable  people  together  and  they 
do  the  rest."  So  easy — like  pushing  a  button,  and  presto! 
a  charming  party  emerged! 

It  is  a  far  cry  from  those  simple  but  enjoyable  affairs, 
which  always  included  plenty  of  music  and  dancing,  to 
the  functions  of  the  present  day.  As  an  instance,  one 
has  only  to  recall  a  single  season  of  a  few  years  since, 
when  "The  Ben  Greet  Company  of  Players"  in  "As  You 
Like  It,"  "The  Kneisel  Quartet,"  a  mammoth  theatre 
party,  and  several  vaudeville  troupes,  were  provided  for 
the  delectation  of  Hudson  society.  It  is  hardly  neces- 
sary to  say  that,  with  the  exception  of  one  or  two  notable 
"Readings,"  there  has  been  nothing  of  importance  since. 

The  lovers  of  cards  (and  their  name  is  Legion)  are 
enabled  to  "bridge"  these  intervals  successfully — clubs 
for  the  purpose  bemg  both  numerous  and  prosperous. 

A  smaller  club  named  "Deltoton"  has  been  a  source 
of  profit  and  pleasure  to  some  of  the  younger  ladies  of 
Hudson  for  a  number  of  seasons. 

Its  object  is  "mutual  improvement  along  literary  lines," 
to  which  has  been  added  some  useful  outside  work  in 
the  form  of  "Mothers'  Meetings,"  which  v/ere  intended 
for  the  betterment  of  the  homes,  and  the  infusion  of  a 
more  hopeful  spirit  among  the  weary  workers,  in  the 
lower  section  of  the  city. 

Under  the  auspices  of  "Deltoton"  and  "The  Fort- 
nightly" such  men  as  John  Fiske,  Jacob  Riis,  Doctor  Luther 
Gulick,  John  Graham  Brooks  and  others  have  been  heard 
and  enjoyed  by  Hudsonians. 

The  Country  Club,  as  its  name  implies,  is  an  associa- 


tion  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  who  are  devoted  to  golf  and 
outdoor  games. 

They  have  a  convenient  little  club  house  at  the  links 
just  outside  the  city,  where  athletics  and  afternoon  tea 
combine  to  while  away  the  hours. 

The  Hudson  Club  which  is  composed  only  of  gentle- 
men, was  formed  in  1873,  for  "mutual  enjoyment  of  ra- 
tional pleasure."  The  Club  occupy  the  residence  of  the 
late  Doctor  Abijah  P.  Cook,  on  Warren  street,  which 
affords  ample  room  and  is  conveniently  located. 

Hudson  has  never  been  considered  a  musical  city  "par 
excellence,"  but  it  possesses  much  musical  talent,  which 
is  exhibited  not  alone  in  a  perfected  technique,  but  also 
in  a  finely  cultivated  taste.  This  appreciation  of  the  best 
artists  renders  Hudson  a  most  attractive  field  for  concert 
troupes,  as  Miss  Thursby  and  others  have  borne  abundant 
testimony.  In  former  years  the  noted  musicians  like  the 
celebrated  lecturers,  were  within  our  financial  reach,  but 
the  enormous  salaries  demanded  now  rerder  it  impos- 
sible to  meet  their  requirements  in  a  city,  v/here  only  a 
limited  number  would  be  willing  to  pay  city  prices,  for 
the  privilege  of  listening  to  them. 

It  seems  almost  incredible  that  Thomas's  Orchestra  was 
brought  to  Hudson  some  years  ago  by  subscription,  and 
the  citizens  felt  well  repaid  by  just  one  gala  performance. 

Of  the  number  of  notables  who  have  visited  or  re- 
sided in  Hudson,  only  a  few  can  be  mentioned. 

In  the  year  1854,  William  L.  Ashmead  Bartlett,  with 
his  mother  and  elder  brother  Ellis,  came  to  this  city,  oc- 
cupying at  first  the  house  of  Prof.  Blanchard,  No.  117 
Warren  street,  and  afterward  No.  118,  on  the  opposite 
side.  Hudson  had  been  especially  commended  to  Mrs. 
Bartlett  as  an    ideal   home   for  herself  and  children,   by 


Mr.  Cyrus  Curtis  of  New  York,  who  had  been  himself 
a  resident  here  for  some  years,  at  an  earlier  period. 

Many  persons  will  remember  Mrs.  Bartlett  and  the  two 
little  boys,  all  attired  in  deepest  mourning,  for  the  hus- 
band and  father,  then  recently  deceased.  Mr.  Morrill, 
assistant  rector  of  the  Episcopal  church,  was  employed  as 
tutor,  until  at  the  proper  time  the  education  of  the  Bart- 
lett brothers  was  continued  at  the  Episcopal  College  at 
Annandale.  Quite  suddenly  the  family  were  called  to 
England  by  the  serious  illness  of  one  of  Mrs.  Bartlett's 
sisters,  Mrs.  Brooker,  and  they  never  returned.  Mrs. 
Bartlett  passed  away  about  seven  years  ago.  Her  letters 
breathe  the  deepest  affection  for  "dear  old  Hudson,"  and 
the  friends  whom  she  always  hoped  to  see  again. 

The  education  of  the  Bartlett  boys  at  Eton  and  Oxford 
was  assumed  by  Mr.  Brooker,  their  uncle,  and  the  mar- 
riage of  the  younger  to  the  Baroness  Burdett-Coutts  is 
familiar  to  all.  Notwithstanding  the  disparity  in  age — 
nearly  forty  years — the  union  was  a  happy  one.  Lady 
Burdett-Coutts  was  a  vigorous  horsewoman  and  pedestrian 
at  the  age  of  sixty-six,  and  for  many  years  afterward, 
and  possessed  in  a  marked  degree  that  elusive  quality 
called  "charm." 

She  was  annoyed  by  the  persistence  of  suitors — de- 
clining the  offers  of  such  men  as  Napoleon  III  and 
Disraeli,  she  found  in  the  young  Philadelphian  the  friend- 
ship, that  grew  into  an  affection  which  never  failed  her. 

Mr.  Burdett-Coutts  devoted  himself  to  the  adminis- 
tration of  his  wife's  charities  most  unselfishly,  and  proved 
an  invaluable  aid  to  her  in  every  possible  way. 

Lady  Burdett-Coutts  and  her  husband  greatly  desired 
to  visit  their  American  relatives,  whom  she  always  wel- 
comed so  cordially  and  entertained  so  delightfully,  but 
her  innate  dread  of  the  ocean  prevented.  On  more  than 
one  occasion  their  steamer  accommodations  were  engaged, 


but  at  the  crucial  moment  of  sailing  the  courage  of  the 
Baroness  failed. 

Another  notable  recalled  was  the  guest  of  our  Presi- 
dent one  evening,  at  the  Social  Reading  Club. 

A  pleasant,  unassuming  gentleman,  who  was  introduced 
as  Mr.  Ion  Perdicaris,  quite  unwillingly  furnished  sev- 
eral paragraphs  to  the  press  not  very  long  ago 

While  sitting  quietly  in  his  home  in  the  suburbs  of 
Algiers,  he  was  taken  captive  by  that  boldest  of  bandit- 
chiefs,  Rais  Uli. 

Mr.  Perdicaris  rather  objected  to  giving  aid  and  com- 
fort to  the  enemy  to  the  extent  of  $75,000,  but  after  an 
imprisonment  of  a  few  weeks,  his  health  was  becoming 
impaired,  so  he  yielded  and  was  set  at  liberty. 

Mr.  Cyrus  Curtiss,  to  whom  allusion  has  been  made, 
was  a  most  highly  esteemed  citizen  of  Hudson  for  many 
years.  He  was  Mayor  of  the  city  during  the  Anti-rent 
war,  also  one  of  the  three  Superintendents  of  Public 
Schools  first  appointed  by  the  Council.  Later  he  removed 
with  his  family  to  New  York,  but  always  retained  the 
friendships  formed  while  a  resident   here. 

The  pure  bracing  air,  fine  drives,  and  charming  scenery 
of  Hudson  have  always  possessed  a  peculiar  attraction  for 
the  weary  retired  business  man,  seeking  a  quiet,  restful 
place  "far  from  the  madding  crowd,"  in  which  to  set 
up  his  Lares  and  Penates. 

The  first  instance  recorded  was  that  of  Mr.  Richard 
L  Wells,  who  came  here  with  his  family  from  New  York, 
on  a  sloop  in  1808,  with  all  his  household  goods.  The 
spacious  mansion  No.  10  Partition  street,  had  just  been 
completed  by  Mr.  Alexander  Mitchell,  who  built  several 
fine  houses  in  this  city.  It  was  much  admired  by  Mrs. 
Wells,  who  chanced  to  be  paying  one  of  her  frequent 
visits   to   her    father,    Mr.   Josiah    Olcott,    who    has    been 


mentioned  in  a  former  portion  of  this  work,  as  the  partner 
of  Thomas  Jenkins  in  the  rope-walk  and  also  in  other 
business  enterprises.  His  residence  was  the  well  known 
"Olcott  House"  on  the  corner  of  State  and  Third  streets. 
In  this  large,  comfortable  dwelling,  Mr.  Olcott  lived  and 
died.  His  sons  and  later  descendants  are  prominently 
known  in  law  and  finance,  while  his  daughters,  Mrs. 
Richard  I.  Wells,  Mrs.  William  Folger  and  the  Misses 
Olcott,  all  now  deceased,  are  most  pleasantly  remembered 
by  all  who  knew  them. 

Mr.  Wells  purchased  the  house  referred  to  on  Parti- 
tion street,  and  it  became  one  of  the  most  hospitable  and 
delightful  homes  in  this  city. 

Somewhat  later,  the  property  of  Samuel  Plumb,  now 
known  as  the  Mclntyre  place,  became  the  residence  of 
Doctor  Oliver  Bronson,  also  of  the  leisure  class.  He 
was  active  and  useful  in  civic  affairs — was  one  of  the 
Superintendents  of  Public  Schools,  and  with  Cvrus  Cur- 
tiss  and  Josiah  W.  Fairfield,  served  faithfully  in  the  work 
of  fostering  and  improving  them. 

Doctor  Bronson  removed  from  Hudson  and  Mr.  Fred- 
erick Fitch  Folger  next  occupied  the  estate,  beautifying 
it,  and  spending  many  happy  years  there. 

Mr.  Folger  had  retired  from  active  business  in  New 
Orleans,  and  became  an  invaluable  acquisition  to  this 
city.  Public-spirited,  able,  and  willing,  he  served  on  vari- 
ous commissions,  and  devoted  much  of  his  well-earned 
leisure  to  the  best  interests  of  our  citizens. 

Mr.  Joel  T.  Simpson  who,  during  a  long  period,  dis- 
pensed both  a  cordial  hospitality  and  beneficent  charity, 
from  his  lovely  home,  had  also  retired  from  business  in 
the  South. 

To  these  might  be  added  the  names  of  many  others 
who  have  found  amid  our  beautiful  surroundings  the 
health  and  comfort  they  desired,  and  who  have  contributed 


immeasurably  to  the  civic  betterment  and  social  life  of 

But  in  this  utilitarian  age  there  is  no  longer  room  for 
such  a  city  of  refuge;  where  the  worn  toiler  may  find 
rest,  and  where  churches,  schools  and  market  are  easily 
accessible,  together  with  the  joys  of  friendly  intercourse. 
People  who  are  flying  from  the  noise  and  smoke  of  the 
metropolis  are  compelled  to  go  farther  afield,  and  are 
happily  finding,  on  landed  estates  throughout  the  country, 
all  needed  requirements. 

It  is  quite  possible  that  a  new  era  is  about  to  dawn 
upon  the  city  of  Hudson. 

Its  admirable  facilities  for  transportation  by  rail  or 
river,  and  its  abundant  water  supply  furnish  the  advan- 
tages for  manufacturing  that  are  so  eagerly  desired  for 
our  young  men;  although  unfortunately  it  has  been  the 
universal  experience  of  places  of  this  size,  that  the  younger 
element  would  still  seek  the  greater  possibilities  of  the 
larger  cities. 

However,  the  experiment  could  be  tried,  and  if  it 
should  make  for  the  fuller  development  of  the  city  on  the 
best  lines,   everyone   will  most  heartily   rejoice. 

But  the  bells  that  ring  in  the  new,  ring  out  the  old! 
May  they  also, 

"Ring  out  false  pride  in  place  and  blood, 
The   civic   slander   and   the   spite; 
Ring  in  the  love  of  truth  and  right, 

Ring  in  the  common  love  of  good. 

Ring    in    the   valiant   man    and    free. 
The    larger   heart,    the    kindlier   hand; 
Ring  out  the  darkness  of  the  land. 

Ring  in  the  Christ  that  is  to  be." 

The  End. 

-J  y-^